bulbourethral glands

Summary

Summary: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.

Top Publications

  1. Clark S, Althouse G. B-mode ultrasonographic examination of the accessory sex glands of boars. Theriogenology. 2002;57:2003-13 pubmed
    ..The paired bulbourethral glands are best described as a long oval gland with a uniformly echogenic appearance with a large anechoic space ..
  2. Chughtai B, Sawas A, O Malley R, Naik R, Ali Khan S, Pentyala S. A neglected gland: a review of Cowper's gland. Int J Androl. 2005;28:74-7 pubmed
    ..This review provides a comprehensive report on the development, function and various lesions associated with Cowper's gland...
  3. Kumar J, Kumar A, Babu N, Gautam G, Seth A. Cowper's syringocele in an adult. Abdom Imaging. 2007;32:428-30 pubmed
    ..There are only ten previous case reports of late presentation in adulthood to the best of our knowledge. We present the imaging findings of such a case manifesting at 30 years of age...
  4. Sanders M. William Cowper and his decorated copperplate initials. Anat Rec B New Anat. 2005;282:5-12 pubmed
    ..He achieved lasting fame for describing the bulbourethral glands and lasting infamy for pirating plates for his anatomical atlas, the Anatomy of Humane Bodies...
  5. Dünker N, Aumüller G. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 heterozygous mutant mice exhibit Cowper's gland hyperplasia and cystic dilations of the gland ducts (Cowper's syringoceles). J Anat. 2002;201:173-83 pubmed
  6. Klimczuk M, Kaleczyc J. Distribution and nerve pathways of neurons supplying the bulbourethral gland in the pig. Cells Tissues Organs. 2010;191:500-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity of sources of the nerve supply to the porcine BG corresponds well with the variety (as previously distinguished with immunohistochemistry) of its intrinsic nerve fibre populations. ..
  7. Hogan L, Phillips C, Horsup A, Keeley T, Nicolson V, Janssen T, et al. Monitoring male southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) reproductive function and seasonality in a captive population. Anim Reprod Sci. 2010;118:377-87 pubmed publisher
  8. Zukerman Z, Weiss D, Orvieto R. Does preejaculatory penile secretion originating from Cowper's gland contain sperm?. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2003;20:157-9 pubmed
    ..To determine if spermatozoa are present in the preejaculatory penile secretion, originating from Cowper's gland...
  9. Akbari G, Babaei M, Kianifard D, Mohebi D. The gross anatomy of the male reproductive system of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus Europaeus). Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2018;77:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The prostate is an oval gland with right and left lobes. The paired bulbourethral glands are laid on the ischiocavernosus muscle...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Badia E, Pinart E, Briz M, Pastor L, Sancho S, Garcia Gil N, et al. Lectin histochemistry of the boar bulbourethral glands. Eur J Histochem. 2005;49:131-8 pubmed
    The present study describes, for the first time, the glycosidic content of boar bulbourethral glands using lectin histochemistry...
  2. Larkin R, Palmieri C, Oishi M, Hulse L, Johnston S. Ultrasonographic assessment of the male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) reproductive tract. Res Vet Sci. 2018;117:219-223 pubmed publisher
    ..To image the bulbourethral glands (BGs), the hockey stick transducer was placed lateral to the cloaca...
  3. Shaw M, Cole O, Terry T. Cowper's syringocele causing painful haematuria in an adult. ScientificWorldJournal. 2004;4 Suppl 1:308-10 pubmed
    ..The authors report a case of painful haematuria due to the presence of a Cowper's syringocele in an adult. The classification of lesions of the Cowper's gland is discussed together with common symptoms and differential diagnosis. ..
  4. Melquist J, Sharma V, Sciullo D, McCaffrey H, Khan S. Current diagnosis and management of syringocele: a review. Int Braz J Urol. 2010;36:3-9 pubmed
    ..Upon reviewing the literature, this paper addresses the clinical anatomy, classification, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of syringoceles in further detail. ..
  5. Boronikhina T, Iatskovskiĭ A. [Age-related changes in glycoprotein composition in human bulbourethral glands]. Morfologiia. 2007;131:63-7 pubmed
    ..Functional significance of different types of GP in the secretion of bulbourethral glands is discussed as well as the possible hormonal machanisms of their synthesis.
  6. Klimczuk M. Immunohistochemical characteristics of neurons supplying the porcine bulbourethral gland. Pol J Vet Sci. 2004;7:129-42 pubmed
    ..The possible functional significance of the substances found within the neurons is discussed. ..
  7. Pinos Paul M, Lozano Uruñuela F, de Pablo Cárdenas A, Jiménez Aristu J, Jiménez Calvo J, Sarmiento Gómez C, et al. [Syringocele of the Cowper's gland]. Arch Esp Urol. 2001;54:381-3 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis is made by voiding cystourethrography and confirmed by endoscopy. Transperineal ultrasound was also utilized for the diagnosis. Treatment is by endoscopic incision. ..
  8. Giersing M, Lundstrom K, Andersson A. Social effects and boar taint: significance for production of slaughter boars (Sus scrofa). J Anim Sci. 2000;78:296-305 pubmed
    ..skatole and testosterone in boars; feces sampling for determination of skatole content; and collection of bulbourethral glands in boars, and uteri plus ovaries in gilts at slaughter, for the assessment of sexual maturity...
  9. Watson R, Lassoff M, Sawczuk I, Thame C. Syringocele of Cowper's gland duct: an increasingly common rarity. J Urol. 2007;178:285 pubmed
  10. Boronikhina T. [Bulbourethral glands]. Morfologiia. 2005;127:84-9 pubmed
  11. Sharp V, Thurston L, Fowkes R, Michael A. 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in the testis and male reproductive tract of the boar (Sus scrofa domestica) indicate local roles for glucocorticoids in male reproductive physiology. Reproduction. 2007;134:473-82 pubmed
  12. Zamaratskaia G, Rydhmer L, Andersson H, Chen G, Lowagie S, Andersson K, et al. Long-term effect of vaccination against gonadotropin-releasing hormone, using Improvac, on hormonal profile and behaviour of male pigs. Anim Reprod Sci. 2008;108:37-48 pubmed
    ..It shows that Improvac may have an extended effect compared with that currently implied by the directions for use. ..
  13. Aumüller G, Doll A, Wennemuth G, Dizeyi N, Abrahamsson P, Wilhelm B. Regional distribution of neuroendocrine cells in the urogenital duct system of the male rat. Prostate. 2012;72:326-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This distribution pattern points to a strictly localized function and differentiation potency of NE precursor cells. ..
  14. Puga C, Beguelini M, Morielle Versute E, Vilamaior P, Taboga S. Structural, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence of testosterone effects and its ablation on the bulbourethal gland of the Artibeus planirostris bat (Chiroptera, Mammalia). Tissue Cell. 2017;49:470-482 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the effects of testosterone in the bulbourethral glands (BG) of the bat, Artibeus planirostris, by performing castration and posterior hormonal supplementation of the animals...
  15. Comperat E, Varinot J, Srigley J. [Benign mimickers of the prostate cancer. Diagnostic challenges]. Ann Pathol. 2013;33:237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The above entities can in some instances simulate low-grade and less commonly high grade PCa. Knowledge of these patterns and application of appropriate immunohistochemistry will lead the pathologist to a correct diagnosis. ..
  16. Santos R, Pires L, Albernaz E, Andrade C, Santiago C, Morielle Versute E, et al. Morphological analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bat Artibeus lituratus (Phyllostomidae: Chiroptera). J Morphol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..prostate with two prostatic regions (ventral and dorsal), plus Littre glands and a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands. The ventral region of the prostate has an epithelium with variable morphology, due to its holocrine type ..
  17. Gutzwiller A, Gafner J, Stoll P. Effects of a diet containing fusarium toxins on the fertility of gilts and on bulbourethral gland weight in barrows. Arch Anim Nutr. 2009;63:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis that the bulbourethral gland weight of barrows can be used for the bioassay of low dietary ZON levels was rejected since feeding Diet M from 80-103 kg BW did not increase the weight of that accessory sex gland (p = 0.51). ..
  18. Lueders I, Niemuller C, Pootoolal J, Rich P, Gray C, Streich W, et al. Sonomorphology of the reproductive tract in male and pregnant and non-pregnant female Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rotschildi). Theriogenology. 2009;72:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Follicular development remained ongoing during early pregnancy. In the males, as in other ruminants, the bulbourethral glands and the seminal vesicles were prominent, whereas the prostate gland was indistinct...
  19. Rönkkö S. Immunohistochemical localization of phospholipase A2 in human and bovine male reproductive organs. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1995;110:503-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, human seminal plasma, spermatozoa and prostate PLA2s were immunohistochemically related to those from bovine Cowper's gland, seminal vesicles and seminal fluid. ..
  20. Camela E, Nociti R, Santos V, Macente B, Maciel G, Feliciano M, et al. Ultrasonographic characteristics of accessory sex glands and spectral Doppler indices of the internal iliac arteries in peri- and post-pubertal Dorper rams raised in a subtropical climate. Anim Reprod Sci. 2017;184:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The dimensions of the prostate gland (12.9±1.2 compared with 14.2±2.7mm; mean±standard deviation) and bulbourethral glands (13.7±1.3 compared with 14.7±1.8mm) were greater (P=0...
  21. Groot M, Ossenkoppele J, Bakker R, Pfaffl M, Meyer H, Nielen M. Reference histology of veal calf genital and endocrine tissues - an update for screening on hormonal growth promoters. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2007;54:238-46 pubmed
    ..This experiment showed that it is possible to raise veal calves according to the practice without getting positive histology in the prostate or Bartholin's gland. ..
  22. Silveri M, Bassani F, Adorisio O. Endoscopic management of a type IV syringocele causing massive perirenal urinoma in an infant. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:2254-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical and radiologic findings are discussed and minimally invasive therapeutic strategies emphasized. ..
  23. Hill L, Coghlan L, Baze W. Perineal swellings in two strains of mice. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 2002;41:51-3 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of the cysts led us to a diagnosis of cystic bulbourethral (or Cowper s) glands. Possible causes and the incidence of this condition in other species are discussed. ..
  24. Masuda N, Mishina M, Kitamura Y, Manabe Y, Sakura Y, Itoh H, et al. [A case report of Cowper's syringocele in an adult treated with transurethral unroofing]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2012;58:355-9 pubmed
    ..Proper awareness of this entity and careful evaluation are important if patients present with persistent adult-onset voiding dysfunction. ..
  25. Barranco I, Perez Patiño C, Tvarijonaviciute A, Parrilla I, Vicente Carrillo A, Alvarez Rodriguez M, et al. Active paraoxonase 1 is synthesised throughout the internal boar genital organs. Reproduction. 2017;154:237-243 pubmed publisher
    ..the accessory sexual glands (cytoplasmic location in the prostate and membranous in the seminal vesicle and bulbourethral glands)...
  26. Bhatia Gaur R, Donjacour A, Sciavolino P, Kim M, Desai N, Young P, et al. Roles for Nkx3.1 in prostate development and cancer. Genes Dev. 1999;13:966-77 pubmed
    ..The Nkx3.1 mutant mice provide a unique animal model for examining the relationship between normal prostate differentiation and early stages of prostate carcinogenesis. ..
  27. Piedrahita Y, Palmer J. Case report: Cowper's syringocele treated with Holmium:YAG laser. J Endourol. 2006;20:677-8 pubmed
    ..The classification, pathophysiology, and management options of Cowper's syringocele are briefly reviewed. ..
  28. Villeda Sandoval C, Romero Vélez G, Lisker Cervantes A, Zavaleta M, Trolle Silva A, Oca D, et al. Giant multicystic cystadenoma of Cowper's gland: a case report. Int Braz J Urol. 2013;39:741-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Histological evaluation showed that the tumor arised from the bulbourethral glands; immunohistochemistry proved positive staining for high molecular weight cytokeratin...
  29. De Maria R, Divari S, Spada F, Oggero C, Mulasso C, Maniscalco L, et al. Progesterone receptor gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves. Vet Rec. 2010;167:291-6 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated progesterone receptor (PR) cDNA expression in the testes, prostate and bulbourethral glands of prepubertal calves treated experimentally with high and low doses of 17beta-oestradiol and with testosterone...
  30. Wisard M, Praz V, Aymon D, Meuwly J, Jichlinski P. [Syringocele: a case report]. Prog Urol. 2007;17:1003-4 pubmed
    ..The authors report a clinical case of syringocele and review its aetiology, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment...
  31. Kajiwara M, Inoue K, Kato M, Usui A, Matsubara A, Usui T. Anterior urethral valves in children: a possible association between anterior urethral valves and Cowper's duct cyst. Int J Urol. 2007;14:156-60 pubmed
    ..These congenital anomalies of the anterior urethra should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive lesions of the urinary tract...
  32. Divari S, Mulasso C, Uslenghi F, Cannizzo F, Spada F, De Maria R, et al. Progesterone receptor up-regulation: a diagnostic tool for the illicit use of oestrogens in adult beef cattle. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2011;28:1677-86 pubmed publisher
    ..A previous study revealed that progesterone receptor (PR) gene expression levels were increased in the bulbourethral glands and prostates of 17?-oestradiol-treated prepubertal calves, suggesting that the PR can be used as a ..
  33. Beluffi G, Fiori P, Pietrobono L, Romano P. Cowper's glands and ducts: radiological findings in children. Radiol Med. 2006;111:855-62 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to describe the radiological features of simple or dilated (syringocele) Cowper's ducts in a large paediatric population...
  34. Keeley T, McGreevy P, O Brien J. The effects of season and devil facial tumour disease on the reproductive physiology of the male Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Reprod Fertil Dev. 2012;24:999-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..05), nor influenced by disease stage (P>0.1). Seasonal and DFTD-related changes in serum cortisol concentrations were not evident (P>0.1). Male devil reproduction does not appear to be restricted by season nor inhibited by DFTD...
  35. Kickuth R, Laufer U, Pannek J, Kirchner T, Herbe E, Kirchner J. Cowper's syringocele: diagnosis based on MRI findings. Pediatr Radiol. 2002;32:56-8 pubmed
    ..a definitive diagnosis, while MRI clearly demonstrated a homogeneous, oval cystic lesion extending from the bulbourethral glands and slightly impressing the bulbous urethra...
  36. Boronikhina T, Starosvetskaia N, Boltovskaia M, Iatskovskiĭ A. [Fertility alpha-2-microglobulin expression in the human bulbourethral glands]. Morfologiia. 2004;125:76-7 pubmed
    Fertility alpha-2-microglobulin (FAMG) was demonstrated in the human bulbourethral glands by the method of indirect immunoperoxidase staining using monoclonal antibodies against FAMG...
  37. Yagci C, Kupeli S, Tok C, Fitoz S, Baltaci S, Gogus O. Efficacy of transrectal ultrasonography in the evaluation of hematospermia. Clin Imaging. 2004;28:286-90 pubmed
    ..To assess the efficacy of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in the evaluation of hematospermia...
  38. McLellan D, Gaston M, Diamond D, Lebowitz R, Mandell J, Atala A, et al. Anterior urethral valves and diverticula in children: a result of ruptured Cowper's duct cyst?. BJU Int. 2004;94:375-8 pubmed
    ..To review a series of children with anterior urethral valves and diverticula, to elucidate the pathophysiology and optimal management of this entity...
  39. Piludu M, Hand A, Cossu M, Piras M. Immunocytochemical localization of MG1 mucin in human bulbourethral glands. J Anat. 2009;214:179-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine their expression in human bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands. Normal bulbourethral glands were obtained at surgery and fixed in a mixture of 1% paraformaldehyde-1.25% glutaraldehyde in 0...
  40. Mollineau W, Adogwa A, Garcia G. The gross and micro anatomy of the accessory sex glands of the male agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). Anat Histol Embryol. 2009;38:204-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9 +/- 7.10 microm and a mean width of 63.5 +/- 3.97 microm. The BG of the agouti are ventro-lateral to the rectum and dorsally positioned to the pubic symphysis, and connected to the urethra by short ducts...
  41. Singh I, Neogi S. Male anterior urethral diverticula with Cobb's collar and a giant stone. J Postgrad Med. 2006;52:73-4 pubmed
  42. Badia E, Briz M, Pinart E, Sancho S, Garcia N, Bassols J, et al. Structural and ultrastructural features of boar bulbourethral glands. Tissue Cell. 2006;38:7-18 pubmed
    The morphological features of boar bulbourethral glands were examined by light and transmission microscopy...
  43. Kershaw Young C, Evans G, Maxwell W. Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2012;24:362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland...
  44. Wadie B. A novel technique of bulbourethral sling for post-prostatectomy incontinence. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2007;41:398-402 pubmed
    ..Herein, a technique for the correction of PPI is described which involves minimal incursion of exogenous material and has excellent cost-effectiveness...
  45. Derar D, Hussein H, Ali A. Reference values for the genitalia of male dromedary before and after puberty using caliper and ultrasonography in subtropics. Theriogenology. 2012;77:459-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained data could provide a reference values for predicting camel puberty and future fertility...
  46. Pinheiro P, Almeida C, Segatelli T, Martinez M, Padovani C, Martinez F. Structure of the pelvic and penile urethra--relationship with the ducts of the sex accessory glands of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). J Anat. 2003;202:431-44 pubmed
    ..The ducts of the prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands drain their contents independently into the urethra.
  47. Marte A, Prezioso M, Sabatino M, Borrelli M, Romano M, Del Balzo B, et al. [Syringocele in children: an unusual presentation as scrotal mass]. Minerva Pediatr. 2009;61:123-7 pubmed
    ..Syringocele is a rare entity in pediatrics. To this authors' knowledge there are no reports in the literature describing cases presenting with scrotal mass...
  48. Arena S, Scuderi M, Arena F, Di Benedetto V. Management of "open" syringocele based on urodynamic findings. Pediatr Med Chir. 2008;30:35-40 pubmed
    ..We report our experience in 10 "open" consecutive cases of syringocele, propose a clinical classification and discuss the management...
  49. Martins F, Beguelini M, Puga C, Morielle Versute E, Vilamaior P, Taboga S. Morphophysiology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands of the bats Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina and Phyllostomus discolor (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Acta Histochem. 2016;118:640-651 pubmed publisher
    ..The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG)...
  50. Fabrega E, Gispert M, Tibau J, Hortos M, Oliver M, Furnols M. Effect of housing system, slaughter weight and slaughter strategy on carcass and meat quality, sex organ development and androstenone and skatole levels in Duroc finished entire male pigs. Meat Sci. 2011;89:434-9 pubmed publisher
    ..MF presented significantly longer testicles and heavier bulbourethral glands compared to MM...
  51. Cakir M, Karatas A. Histo-anatomical studies on the accessory reproductive glands of the Anatolian souslik (Spermophilus xanthoprymnus) (Mammalia: Sciuridae). Anat Histol Embryol. 2004;33:146-50 pubmed
    ..The bulbourethral gland (Cowper's gland) was a tubulo-alveolar gland with a large and serrated lumen and septa between the alveoles consisted of dense fibro-muscular fibres...
  52. Fall B, Sow Y, Mansouri I, Sarr A, Thiam A, Diao B, et al. Etiology and current clinical characteristics of male urethral stricture disease: experience from a public teaching hospital in Senegal. Int Urol Nephrol. 2011;43:969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify the etiology and current clinical characteristics of male urethral stricture disease (USD) in Senegal...
  53. Lo A, Upadhyay V, Teele R. Syringocoele of the bulbourethral duct with additional lower genito-urinary anomalies. Pediatr Radiol. 2011;41:1201-4 pubmed publisher
    ..An infant boy, 5 weeks of age, who presented with E. coli infection of the urinary tract also had bilateral hydroureteronephrosis, small bilateral simple ureterocoeles, and posterior urethral valve leaflets...
  54. Mollineau W, Adogwa A, Jasper N, Young K, Garcia G. The gross anatomy of the male reproductive system of a neotropical rodent: the agouti (Dasyprota leporina). Anat Histol Embryol. 2006;35:47-52 pubmed
    ..leporina) include the vesicular glands, the coagulating glands, the prostate glands and the bulbourethral glands. The penis of the agouti is U-shaped with a mean length of 9.90 +/- 0.43 cm...
  55. Einarsson S, Brunius C, Wallgren M, Lundstrom K, Andersson K, Zamaratskaia G, et al. Effects of early vaccination with Improvac(®) on the development and function of reproductive organs of male pigs. Anim Reprod Sci. 2011;127:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Early vaccination caused a more severe disruption of testicular structure and function than standard vaccination, thus providing an alternative for immunocastration of male pigs...
  56. Uslenghi F, Divari S, Cannizzo F, De Maria R, Spada F, Mulasso C, et al. Application of absolute qPCR as a screening method to detect illicit 17?-oestradiol administration in male cattle. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30:253-63 pubmed publisher
  57. Zugor V, Schrott K, Schott G. Cowper's syringocele--a rare malformation of the male urethra. Erlangen experience in two example cases. Urol Int. 2006;76:182-5 pubmed
    ..Both patients were treated using the transurethral surgical technique. The results are discussed with reference to the relevant literature...
  58. Boronikhina T, Demura S, Iatskovskiĭ A. [Endocrinocytes of the human bulbourethral glands]. Morfologiia. 2005;127:52-4 pubmed
    Structure, topography and numbers of endocrinocytes in bulbourethral glands of mature men were studied using immunohistochemical demonstration of chromogranin A...
  59. Cerqueira M, Xambre L, Silva V, Prisco R, Santo R, Lages R, et al. [Imperforate syringocele of the Cowper's glands laparoscopic treatment]. Actas Urol Esp. 2004;28:535-8 pubmed
    ..The authors present a clinical report of an imperforate syringocele diagnosed on a male patient and treated by laparoscopic surgery...
  60. Cannizzo F, Zancanaro G, Spada F, Mulasso C, Biolatti B. Pathology of the testicle and sex accessory glands following the administration of boldenone and boldione as growth promoters in veal calves. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:1109-16 pubmed
  61. Puga C, Beguelini M, Negrin A, Christante C, Morielle Versute E, Vilamaior P, et al. Structure, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands in the neotropical flat-faced fruit-eating bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Reprod Fertil Dev. 2013;25:558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The RAGs were composed of a prostatic complex with two regions (ventral and dorsal) and paraurethral and bulbourethral glands, but no seminal vesicles...
  62. Server Pastor G, Rigabert Montiel M, Nicolás Torralba J, Bañón Pérez V, Valdelvira Nadal P, Perez Albacete M. [Simple syringocele of Cowper's glands]. Arch Esp Urol. 2001;54:163-5 pubmed
    ..To describe an additional case of simple syringocele of Cowper's glands and review the literature...
  63. Imbimbo P, Castigliego L, Armani A, Biolatti B, Cannizzo F, Gianfaldoni D, et al. A histologic study on growth promoter target organs of slaughtered beef in Molise Region (Italy). J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:1253-9 pubmed
    ..3% were classified as "negative." The most frequent lesion was a severe thymus atrophy with fat infiltration (15.4% of males and 14.3% of females), strongly suggesting the illegal use of corticosteroids...
  64. Moe M, Lien S, Aasmundstad T, Meuwissen T, Hansen M, Bendixen C, et al. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction. BMC Genet. 2009;10:32 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to detect SNPs in boar taint candidate genes and to perform association studies for both single SNPs and haplotypes with levels of boar taint compounds and phenotypes related to reproduction...
  65. Shelekhova K, Hejda V, Kazakov D, Michal M. Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary with male accessory sexual glands including seminal vesicles, prostatic tissue, and bulbo-urethral glands: a case report. Virchows Arch. 2008;452:109-11 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature describing seminal vesicles associated with prostatic tissue and bulbo-urethral glands in a mature ovarian teratoma...
  66. Chaves E, Aguilera Merlo C, Filippa V, Mohamed F, Dominguez S, Scardapane L. Anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical study of the reproductive system accessory glands in male viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus). Anat Histol Embryol. 2011;40:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The SV are a paired gland, tubular, of tortuous aspect and formed by radial layers. The bulbourethral glands were paired, formed by tubuloalveolar acini and surrounded by a thick layer of skeletal muscle...
  67. Hilbe M, Jaros P, Ehrensperger F, Zlinszky K, Janett F, Hassig M, et al. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings in testes, bulbourethral glands and brain of immunologically castrated male piglets. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2006;148:599-608 pubmed
    ..None or only few spermatozoa were detected in the epididymis. The bulbourethral glands of immunocastrated pigs were smaller than in control pigs and showed histological evidence of atrophy...
  68. Davidová N, Jonáková V, Maňásková Postlerová P. Expression and localization of acrosin inhibitor in boar reproductive tract. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;338:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of acrosin inhibitor on the sperm surface as a protective molecule for receptors mediating the sperm-zona pellucida binding suggests that it is crucial for the reproductive process...
  69. Ljungvall K, Veeramachaneni D, Hou M, Hultén F, Magnusson U. Morphology and morphometry of the reproductive organs in prepubertal and postpubertal male pigs exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate before puberty: Precocious development of bulbourethral glands. Theriogenology. 2008;70:984-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of the seven DEHP-treated animals in seven-week-old group had bulbourethral glands at a stage of maturation far more advanced than that of controls...
  70. Barbagli G, De Stefani S, Sighinolfi M, Annino F, Micali S, Bianchi G. Bulbar urethroplasty with dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft and fibrin glue. Eur Urol. 2006;50:467-74 pubmed
    ..We describe a new surgical technique with the use of fibrin glue for bulbar urethra reconstruction using a dorsal buccal mucosal onlay graft...
  71. Omori A, Harada M, Ohta S, Villacorte M, Sugimura Y, Shiraishi T, et al. Epithelial Bmp (Bone morphogenetic protein) signaling for bulbourethral gland development: a mouse model for congenital cystic dilation. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2011;51:102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This would be the first report showing that the mutation of the Bmpr1a gene in the BUG epithelia phenocopied some abnormalities of human congenital syndromes affecting the BUG duct...
  72. Coloma M, Toledano Díaz A, Castano C, Velazquez R, Gomez Brunet A, Lopez Sebastian A, et al. Seasonal variation in reproductive physiological status in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) and its relationship with sperm freezability. Theriogenology. 2011;76:1695-705 pubmed publisher
    ..The size of the bulbourethral glands and seminal vesicles showed pronounced monthly variation (P < 0...
  73. Dunshea F, Colantoni C, Howard K, McCauley I, Jackson P, Long K, et al. Vaccination of boars with a GnRH vaccine (Improvac) eliminates boar taint and increases growth performance. J Anim Sci. 2001;79:2524-35 pubmed
    ..Vaccination of boars with Improvac allows production of heavy boars with improved meat quality through prevention and control of boar taint...
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    ..The lipase activity level measured in goat seminal plasma, which could reach 1000 U/ml during the breeding season, was one of the highest lipase activity measured in natural sources, including gastric and pancreatic juices...
  75. Baumber J, Ball B. Determination of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase-like activities in equine spermatozoa, seminal plasma, and reproductive tissues. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:1415-9 pubmed
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    ..Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions played an important role in development, as has been described in experimental animals. AR expression could play a part in the growth of the genital organs...
  77. Awakura Y, Nonomura M, Fukuyama T. Cowper's syringocele causing voiding disturbance in an adult. Int J Urol. 2000;7:340-2 pubmed
    ..A 21-year-old man presented with a sudden onset of miction pain and post-void dribbling. The diagnosis was Cowper's syringocele due to the findings of retrograde urethrography and urethroscopy...
  78. Arciszewski M, Wasowlcz K. Noradrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the accessory sexual glands in male sheep. Acta Vet Hung. 2006;54:71-83 pubmed
    ..peptide (VIP) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) in the prostate, seminal vesicle (SV) and bulbourethral glands (BU) of male sheep...
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    ..To this aim knowing the precise location of tissue sampling as well as ancillary immunohistochemical investigations are often useful or necessary. ..
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    ..Urethral distension without significant penile afferent activation recruits urethral primary afferent fibers carried in either the pelvic or pudendal nerve that are necessary for the single-burst UBS reflex...
  82. Santin B, Pewitt E. Cowper's duct ligation for treatment of dysuria associated with Cowper's syringocele treated previously with transurethral unroofing. Urology. 2009;73:681.e11-3 pubmed publisher
    ..For patients who present with persistent symptoms associated with a Cowper's syringocele status post-transurethral unroofing, transperineal ligation of the Cowper's duct may be of value in alleviating the symptoms...
  83. Chudnovsky A, Niederberger C. Copious pre-ejaculation: small glands--major headaches. J Androl. 2007;28:374-5 pubmed
  84. Boronikhina T, Iatskovskiĭ A. [Dynamics of proliferation and apoptosis in the human bulbourethral glands in the process of aging]. Morfologiia. 2006;129:72-6 pubmed
    The dynamics of the processes of proliferation and apoptosis in the epithelium of the bulbourethral glands in men aged 17-90 years was studied using monoclonal antibodies against PCNA and p53...
  85. Kim S, Lee R, Lim K, Kwack S, Rhee G, Seok J, et al. Potential estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects of permethrin in rats. J Reprod Dev. 2005;51:201-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that permethrin might have estrogen-like effects on female rats, but antiandrogen-like effects on males...
  86. Türker Köksal I, Erdogru T, Usta M, Ates M, Baykara M. Unexpected presentation of syringocele. Acontractile bladder. Urol Int. 2003;71:222-3 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge there are no data on acontractile bladder due to Cowper's syringocele. We describe a patient who had acontractile bladder and a Cowper's syringocele...
  87. Hodgson D, Peters J, Shah P. Perineal necrotizing fasciitis with dilatation of Cowper's gland. J R Soc Med. 2002;95:136-7 pubmed
  88. Sonea I, Iqbal J, Prins G, Jacobson C. Ontogeny of androgen receptor-like immunoreactivity in the reproductive tract of male Monodelphis domestica. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:852-60 pubmed
    ..The presence of androgen receptor-like immunoreactivity during development correlated well with the known androgen dependence of the differentiation of most reproductive organs...
  89. Iatskovskiĭ A, Boronikhina T. [Histochemical analysis of glycoproteins in human bulbourethral glands]. Morfologiia. 2006;130:73-7 pubmed
    Neutral and acid glycoproteins were detected histochemically in the acinar and ductal cells of the bulbourethral glands. Most of acid glycoproteins in all the glandular cells could be identified as sialomucins...