spermatogonia

Summary

Summary: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.

Top Publications

  1. Waheeb R, Hofmann M. Human spermatogonial stem cells: a possible origin for spermatocytic seminoma. Int J Androl. 2011;34:e296-305; discussion e305 pubmed publisher
    In mammals, spermatogenesis is maintained throughout life by a small subpopulation of type A spermatogonia called spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). In rodents, SSCs, or Asingle spermatogonia, form the self-renewing population...
  2. Savitt J, Singh D, Zhang C, Chen L, Folmer J, Shokat K, et al. The in vivo response of stem and other undifferentiated spermatogonia to the reversible inhibition of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling in the adult. Stem Cells. 2012;30:732-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These decreases were associated with depletion of functional stem spermatogonia; some were lost when GDNF signaling was inhibited for only 2 days while others survived for up to 11 days...
  3. Ozaki Y, Saito K, Shinya M, Kawasaki T, Sakai N. Evaluation of Sycp3, Plzf and Cyclin B3 expression and suitability as spermatogonia and spermatocyte markers in zebrafish. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We wished to confirm whether these molecules were potential markers for spermatocytes and spermatogonia. Immunohistochemical observations revealed that Sycp3 is specifically localized in spermatocytes in typical ..
  4. Poels J, van Langendonckt A, Dehoux J, Donnez J, Wyns C. Vitrification of non-human primate immature testicular tissue allows maintenance of proliferating spermatogonial cells after xenografting to recipient mice. Theriogenology. 2012;77:1008-13 pubmed publisher
    This study demonstrates preservation of tissue integrity, maintenance of proliferating spermatogonia and Leydig cell functionality after vitrification and transplantation of non-human primate immature testicular tissue...
  5. Wu J, Hu T, Guo B, Yue Z, Yang Z, Zhang X. Cryopreservation of adult bovine testicular tissue for spermatogonia enrichment. Cryo Letters. 2011;32:402-9 pubmed
    ..4 ± 1.0 percent) at 10 percent concentration respectively. Using 10 percent DMSO gave significantly higher spermatogonia percentage (61.1 ± 1.2 percent, P < 0.001) than processing with 10 percent PG (54.3 ± 0...
  6. Gillis A, Stoop H, Biermann K, van Gurp R, Swartzman E, Cribbes S, et al. Expression and interdependencies of pluripotency factors LIN28, OCT3/4, NANOG and SOX2 in human testicular germ cells and tumours of the testis. Int J Androl. 2011;34:e160-74 pubmed publisher
    ..LIN28 was found in primordial germ cells, gonocytes and pre-spermatogonia, in contrast to OCT3/4 and NANOG, which were found only in the first two stages...
  7. Niu Z, Goodyear S, Rao S, Wu X, Tobias J, Avarbock M, et al. MicroRNA-21 regulates the self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12740-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that in SSC-enriched germ cell cultures, miR-21 is regulated by the transcription factor ETV5, known to be critical for SSC self-renewal. ..
  8. Wong C, Jones D. Efficiency of spermatogonial dedifferentiation during aging. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33635 pubmed publisher
  9. Sato T, Katagiri K, Gohbara A, Inoue K, Ogonuki N, Ogura A, et al. In vitro production of functional sperm in cultured neonatal mouse testes. Nature. 2011;471:504-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that neonatal mouse testes which contain only gonocytes or primitive spermatogonia as germ cells can produce spermatids and sperm in vitro with serum-free culture media...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Michalska K. Daily production of spermatophores, sperm number and spermatophore size in two eriophyoid mite species. Exp Appl Acarol. 2011;55:349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Among other factors, the effects of male size, male reproductive strategy and female genitalia size on spermatophore output and size of spermatophores are discussed. ..
  2. Gallagher S, Kofman A, Huszar J, Dannenberg J, Depinho R, Braun R, et al. Distinct requirements for Sin3a in perinatal male gonocytes and differentiating spermatogonia. Dev Biol. 2013;373:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..targeting in mice to ablate Sin3a from perinatal quiescent male gonocytes and from postnatal differentiating spermatogonia. Mitotic germ cells expressing stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) that lacked Sin3a exhibited ..
  3. Goertz M, Wu Z, Gallardo T, Hamra F, Castrillon D. Foxo1 is required in mouse spermatogonial stem cells for their maintenance and the initiation of spermatogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3456-66 pubmed publisher
    ..factors in mouse spermatogenesis and found that Foxo1 specifically marks mouse gonocytes and a subset of spermatogonia with stem cell potential...
  4. Yeh J, Zhang X, Nagano M. Indirect effects of Wnt3a/?-catenin signalling support mouse spermatogonial stem cells in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40002 pubmed publisher
    ..promotes SSC self-renewal through the ?-catenin-dependent pathway, as it can stimulate the proliferation of a spermatogonia cell line...
  5. Eguizabal C, Montserrat N, Vassena R, Barragan M, Garreta E, Garcia Quevedo L, et al. Complete meiosis from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells. 2011;29:1186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work brings us closer to the production of personalized human gametes in vitro. ..
  6. Shakeri M, Kohram H, Shahverdi A, Shahneh A, Tavakolifar F, Pirouz M, et al. Behavior of mouse spermatogonial stem-like cells on an electrospun nanofibrillar matrix. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2013;30:325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have suggested that electrospun nanofibrillar surfaces could provide a more favorable microenvironment for in vitro short term culture of spermatogonial stem-like cell colonies. ..
  7. Golestaneh N, Beauchamp E, Fallen S, Kokkinaki M, Uren A, Dym M. Wnt signaling promotes proliferation and stemness regulation of spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells. Reproduction. 2009;138:151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..but no information is available related to growth factors that affect fate determination of human spermatogonia. Wnts form a large family of secreted glycoproteins, the members of which are involved in cell proliferation, ..
  8. Garner J, Niles K, McGraw S, Yeh J, Cushnie D, Hermo L, et al. Stability of DNA methylation patterns in mouse spermatogonia under conditions of MTHFR deficiency and methionine supplementation. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:125 pubmed publisher
    ..male germ cells and evaluated DNA methylation patterns and effects of a range of methionine concentrations in spermatogonia from Mthfr(+/-) as compared to wild-type, Mthfr(+/+) mice...
  9. Beer R, Draper B. nanos3 maintains germline stem cells and expression of the conserved germline stem cell gene nanos2 in the zebrafish ovary. Dev Biol. 2013;374:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Although mammalian homologs of nanos3 are expressed in early spermatogonia, no study has defined the role of nanos3 in the regulation of vertebrate GSCs...
  10. Chikhovskaya J, Jonker M, Meissner A, Breit T, Repping S, van Pelt A. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:210-21 pubmed publisher
    Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue...
  11. Eildermann K, Gromoll J, Behr R. Misleading and reliable markers to differentiate between primate testis-derived multipotent stromal cells and spermatogonia in culture. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:1754-67 pubmed publisher
    Several studies have reported the generation of spermatogonia-derived pluripotent stem cells from human testes...
  12. Shinohara T, Ishii K, Kanatsu Shinohara M. Unstable side population phenotype of mouse spermatogonial stem cells in vitro. J Reprod Dev. 2011;57:288-95 pubmed
    ..These results show that SSCs have an unstable SP phenotype and provide evidence that SSCs change their phenotype characteristics in response to their microenvironment...
  13. Lu N, Sargent K, Clopton D, Pohlmeier W, Brauer V, McFee R, et al. Loss of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoforms in the testes of male mice causes subfertility, reduces sperm numbers, and alters expression of genes that regulate undifferentiated spermatogonia. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4790-802 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and fewer ZBTB16-stained undifferentiated spermatogonia (P < .003) in the testes of KO males. Testicular mRNA abundance for Bcl2 (P < .02), Bcl2:Bax (P < ...
  14. Poels J, Van Langendonckt A, Many M, Wese F, Wyns C. Vitrification preserves proliferation capacity in human spermatogonia. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:578-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Does vitrification of human immature testicular tissue (ITT) have potential benefits for future fertility preservation? Does vitrification of human ITT have potential benefits in an in vivo murine xenotransplantation model?..
  15. Raverdeau M, Gely Pernot A, Féret B, Dennefeld C, Benoit G, Davidson I, et al. Retinoic acid induces Sertoli cell paracrine signals for spermatogonia differentiation but cell autonomously drives spermatocyte meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16582-7 pubmed publisher
    ..retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A in the initial differentiation and meiotic entry of spermatogonia, and thus in the initiation of spermatogenesis is still lacking...
  16. Hermann B, Sukhwani M, Winkler F, Pascarella J, Peters K, Sheng Y, et al. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation into rhesus testes regenerates spermatogenesis producing functional sperm. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:715-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstration of functional donor spermatogenesis following SSC transplantation in primates is an important milestone for informed clinical translation...
  17. Higuchi M, Celino F, Shimizu Yamaguchi S, Miura C, Miura T. Taurine plays an important role in the protection of spermatogonia from oxidative stress. Amino Acids. 2012;43:2359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In the eel testis, taurine is found mainly in spermatogonia and is weakly expressed also in the Sertoli cells...
  18. Koruji M, Shahverdi A, Janan A, Piryaei A, Lakpour M, Gilani Sedighi M. Proliferation of small number of human spermatogonial stem cells obtained from azoospermic patients. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012;29:957-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to proliferate spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and compare the in-vitro effects of laminin and growth factors on the proliferation of adult human SSC...
  19. Kanatsu Shinohara M, Inoue K, Takashima S, Takehashi M, Ogonuki N, Morimoto H, et al. Reconstitution of mouse spermatogonial stem cell niches in culture. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, GDNF upregulated CXCL12 receptor expression, and CXCL12 transfection in Sertoli cells increased homing efficiency. Overall, our findings identify GDNF and CXCL12 as SSC chemotactic factors in vitro and in vivo...
  20. Lim J, Maher G, Turner G, Dudka Ruszkowska W, Taylor S, Rajpert De Meyts E, et al. Selfish spermatogonial selection: evidence from an immunohistochemical screen in testes of elderly men. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42382 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the concept that populations of spermatogonia in individual seminiferous tubules in the testes of older men are clonal mosaics with regard to their ..
  21. Ning L, Meng J, Goossens E, Lahoutte T, Marichal M, Tournaye H. In search of an efficient injection technique for future clinical application of spermatogonial stem cell transplantation: infusion of contrast dyes in isolated cadaveric human testes. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:1443-8.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop an efficient infusion technique for human spermatogonial stem cell transplantation...
  22. Lim J, Goriely A, Turner G, Ewen K, Jacobsen G, Graem N, et al. OCT2, SSX and SAGE1 reveal the phenotypic heterogeneity of spermatocytic seminoma reflecting distinct subpopulations of spermatogonia. J Pathol. 2011;224:473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..investigating the developmental expression of protein markers that identify distinct subpopulations of human spermatogonia in the normal adult testis...
  23. Fujihara M, Kim S, Minami N, Yamada M, Imai H. Characterization and in vitro culture of male germ cells from developing bovine testis. J Reprod Dev. 2011;57:355-64 pubmed
    The transition from male primitive germ cells (gonocytes) to type A spermatogonia in the neonatal testis is the initial process and a crucial process in spermatogenesis...
  24. Heim C, Minniear K, Dann C. Imatinib has deleterious effects on differentiating spermatogonia while sparing spermatogonial stem cell self renewal. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31:454-63 pubmed publisher
    ..beta (PDGFRB), were shown here to be expressed in "germline stem" (GS) cell cultures that contain spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs)...
  25. Gouk S, Loh Y, Kumar S, Watson P, Kuleshova L. Cryopreservation of mouse testicular tissue: prospect for harvesting spermatogonial stem cells for fertility preservation. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2399-403 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the efficacy of vitrification, rapid freezing, and slow freezing in preserving testicular tissue for subsequent isolation of spermatogonial stem cells...
  26. Lee J, Shinohara T. Epigenetic modifications and self-renewal regulation of mouse germline stem cells. Cell Res. 2011;21:1164-71 pubmed publisher
    Germline stem (GS) cells were established from gonocytes and spermatogonia of postnatal mouse testes...
  27. Eildermann K, Aeckerle N, Debowski K, Godmann M, Christiansen H, Heistermann M, et al. Developmental expression of the pluripotency factor sal-like protein 4 in the monkey, human and mouse testis: restriction to premeiotic germ cells. Cells Tissues Organs. 2012;196:206-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In the pubertal and adult testis SALL4 was present in undifferentiated spermatogonia. In the developing and adult human and mouse testis SALL4 expression mimicked the pattern in the marmoset...
  28. Zhu Y, Hu H, Li P, Yang S, Zhang W, Ding H, et al. Generation of male germ cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells): an in vitro and in vivo study. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, iPS cell-derived SSCs were able to differentiate into male germ cells ranging from spermatogonia to round spermatids, as shown by VASA and SCP3 expression...
  29. Ishii K, Kanatsu Shinohara M, Toyokuni S, Shinohara T. FGF2 mediates mouse spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal via upregulation of Etv5 and Bcl6b through MAP2K1 activation. Development. 2012;139:1734-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that FGF2 depends on MAP2K1 signaling to drive SSC self-renewal via upregulation of the Etv5 and Bcl6b genes...
  30. Mirzapour T, Movahedin M, Tengku Ibrahim T, Haron A, Nowroozi M. Evaluation of the effects of cryopreservation on viability, proliferation and colony formation of human spermatogonial stem cells in vitro culture. Andrologia. 2013;45:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..7±52.1, 204.34±24.1 and 112.52±23.5 ?m, respectively). Cryopreservation technique will raise the possibility of banking SSCs for men who have a cancer-related illness and waiting for radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...
  31. Monk A, Abud H, Hime G. Dmp53 is sequestered to nuclear bodies in spermatogonia of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;350:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..affect germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance or differentiation, GSCs are sensitive to overexpression of Dmp53 but maturing spermatogonia are not. Dmp53 thus has differential effects depending upon the stage of male germline maturation.
  32. Kubota H, Wu X, Goodyear S, Avarbock M, Brinster R. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and endothelial cells promote self-renewal of rabbit germ cells with spermatogonial stem cell properties. FASEB J. 2011;25:2604-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a foundation to study the mechanisms governing SSC self-renewal in nonrodent species...
  33. Ventelä S, Mäkelä J, Kulmala J, Westermarck J, Toppari J. Identification and regulation of a stage-specific stem cell niche enriched by Nanog-positive spermatogonial stem cells in the mouse testis. Stem Cells. 2012;30:1008-20 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of Nanog and Oct4, demonstrating the previously unknown stage-specific regulation of undifferentiated spermatogonia (SPG)...
  34. Sato T, Aiyama Y, Ishii Inagaki M, Hara K, Tsunekawa N, Harikae K, et al. Cyclical and patch-like GDNF distribution along the basal surface of Sertoli cells in mouse and hamster testes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28367 pubmed publisher
    ..GDNF) is one of the major Sertoli cell-derived factors which regulates the maintenance of undifferentiated spermatogonia including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) through GDNF family receptor ?1 (GFR?1)...
  35. Skaar K, Nóbrega R, Magaraki A, Olsen L, Schulz R, Male R. Proteolytically activated, recombinant anti-mullerian hormone inhibits androgen secretion, proliferation, and differentiation of spermatogonia in adult zebrafish testis organ cultures. Endocrinology. 2011;152:3527-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, plasmin-cleaved Amh inhibited androgen-stimulated proliferation as well as differentiation of type A spermatogonia. In conclusion, zebrafish Amh is processed to become bioactive and has independent functions in inhibiting ..
  36. Chen S, Li D, Xu C. Downregulation of Col1a1 induces differentiation in mouse spermatogonia. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we explored effects of downregulation of Col1a1 on differentiation and proliferation of mouse spermatogonia. Loss-of-function study revealed that Oct4 and Plzf, markers of SSC self-renewal, were significantly decreased,..
  37. Ebata K, Yeh J, Zhang X, Nagano M. Soluble growth factors stimulate spermatogonial stem cell divisions that maintain a stem cell pool and produce progenitors in vitro. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:1319-29 pubmed publisher
    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) support life-long spermatogenesis by self-renewing and producing spermatogonia committed to differentiation...
  38. Celino F, Yamaguchi S, Miura C, Ohta T, Tozawa Y, Iwai T, et al. Tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress is due to high levels of Zn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16938 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermatogonia are highly tolerant to reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack while advanced-stage germ cells such as spermatozoa are much more susceptible, but the precise reason for this variation in ROS tolerance remains unknown.
  39. Mohamadi S, Movahedin M, Koruji S, Jafarabadi M, Makoolati Z. Comparison of colony formation in adult mouse spermatogonial stem cells developed in Sertoli and STO coculture systems. Andrologia. 2012;44 Suppl 1:431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Based the on the optimal effect of Seroli cells on the colony formation of SSCs, it is suggested to use these cells for better colonisation of SSCs...
  40. Izadyar F, Wong J, Maki C, Pacchiarotti J, Ramos T, Howerton K, et al. Identification and characterization of repopulating spermatogonial stem cells from the adult human testis. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:1296-306 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to identify and characterize repopulating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in the adult human testes...
  41. Hermann B, Sukhwani M, Salati J, Sheng Y, Chu T, Orwig K. Separating spermatogonia from cancer cells in contaminated prepubertal primate testis cell suspensions. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:3222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this approach carries an inherent risk of reintroducing cancer...
  42. Du Y, Du Z, Zheng H, Wang D, Li S, Yan Y, et al. GABA exists as a negative regulator of cell proliferation in spermatogonial stem cells. [corrected]. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2013;18:149-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GABA acts as a negative regulator of SSC proliferation to maintain the homeostasis of spermatogenesis in the testes...
  43. Snyder E, Davis J, Zhou Q, Evanoff R, Griswold M. Exposure to retinoic acid in the neonatal but not adult mouse results in synchronous spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:886-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A-sufficient adults did not result in synchronous spermatogenesis but rather induced apoptosis in a subset of spermatogonia. Shortly after (24 h) neonates were exposed, altered expression of known germ cell differentiation and the (..
  44. Kanatsu Shinohara M, Kato Itoh M, Ikawa M, Takehashi M, Sanbo M, Morioka Y, et al. Homologous recombination in rat germline stem cells. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..e., cultured spermatogonia with SSC activity...
  45. Sadri Ardekani H, Akhondi M, van der Veen F, Repping S, van Pelt A. In vitro propagation of human prepubertal spermatogonial stem cells. JAMA. 2011;305:2416-8 pubmed publisher
  46. Yeh J, Zhang X, Nagano M. Wnt5a is a cell-extrinsic factor that supports self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..for ?-catenin-dependent signaling, we found that this signaling was not active in SSCs in vitro and in most spermatogonia in vivo...
  47. Shirakawa T, Yaman Deveci R, Tomizawa S, Kamizato Y, Nakajima K, Sone H, et al. An epigenetic switch is crucial for spermatogonia to exit the undifferentiated state toward a Kit-positive identity. Development. 2013;140:3565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we define a new epigenetic shift that is crucial for differentiation of murine spermatogonia toward meiosis...
  48. Kolasa A, Misiakiewicz K, Marchlewicz M, Wiszniewska B. The generation of spermatogonial stem cells and spermatogonia in mammals. Reprod Biol. 2012;12:5-23 pubmed
    ..when SSC is triggered to undergo mitosis that gives rise to progenitors, which further differentiate into spermatogonia. In this review, we describe the origin of SSCs and other spermatogonia populations and summarize the ..
  49. Goel S, Reddy N, Mahla R, Suman S, Pawar R. Spermatogonial stem cells in the testis of an endangered bovid: Indian black buck (Antilope cervicapra L.). Anim Reprod Sci. 2011;126:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis of testes tissues of black buck revealed the presence of spermatogonia that were specifically stained by lectin-Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA)...
  50. Churchman M, Roig I, Jasin M, Keeney S, Sherr C. Expression of arf tumor suppressor in spermatogonia facilitates meiotic progression in male germ cells. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002157 pubmed publisher
    ..in tissues of young adult mice, a notable exception occurs in the male germ line, where Arf is expressed in spermatogonia, but not in meiotic spermatocytes arising from them...
  51. Klisch K, Contreras D, Sun X, Brehm R, Bergmann M, Alberio R. The Sda/GM2-glycan is a carbohydrate marker of porcine primordial germ cells and of a subpopulation of spermatogonia in cattle, pigs, horses and llama. Reproduction. 2011;142:667-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Spermatogonia are a potential source of adult pluripotent stem cells and can be used for testis germ cell transplantation. Markers for the isolation of these cells are of great importance for biomedical applications...
  52. Kawasaki T, Saito K, Sakai C, Shinya M, Sakai N. Production of zebrafish offspring from cultured spermatogonial stem cells. Genes Cells. 2012;17:316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The spermatogonia actively proliferated and retained the expression of exogenous green fluorescent protein under the control of ..
  53. Kamisawa H, Kojima Y, Mizuno K, Imura M, Hayashi Y, Kohri K. Attenuation of spermatogonial stem cell activity in cryptorchid testes. J Urol. 2012;187:1047-52 pubmed publisher
    To elucidate the mechanism of infertility caused by cryptorchidism we focused on early stage spermatogenesis and spermatogonial stem cell activity in undifferentiated spermatogonia in cryptorchid testes.
  54. Mirzapour T, Movahedin M, Tengku Ibrahim T, Koruji M, Haron A, Nowroozi M, et al. Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor and leukaemia inhibitory factor on proliferation and short-term culture of human spermatogonial stem cells. Andrologia. 2012;44 Suppl 1:41-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Transplantation technique indicated that hSSCs have good efficiency for colonisation of mouse seminiferous tubules after proliferation in culture system...
  55. Grasso M, Fuso A, Dovere L, de Rooij D, Stefanini M, Boitani C, et al. Distribution of GFRA1-expressing spermatogonia in adult mouse testis. Reproduction. 2012;143:325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..is maintained by spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), a cell population belonging to undifferentiated type A spermatogonia. In the accepted model of SSC self-renewal, Asingle (As) spermatogonia are the stem cells, whereas paired (..
  56. Wu X, Goodyear S, Tobias J, Avarbock M, Brinster R. Spermatogonial stem cell self-renewal requires ETV5-mediated downstream activation of Brachyury in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:1114-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest Brachyury is of biological importance and functions as part of GDNF/ETV5 signaling to promote self-renewal of mouse SSCs cultured in vitro...
  57. Ryser S, Glauser D, Vigier M, Zhang Y, Tachini P, Schlegel W, et al. Gene expression profiling of rat spermatogonia and Sertoli cells reveals signaling pathways from stem cells to niche and testicular cancer cells to surrounding stroma. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:29 pubmed publisher
    ..In rat testis, spermatogonia and undifferentiated Sertoli cells proliferate before puberty, but at puberty most spermatogonia enter ..
  58. Kossack N, Terwort N, Wistuba J, Ehmcke J, Schlatt S, Scholer H, et al. A combined approach facilitates the reliable detection of human spermatogonia in vitro. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:3012-25 pubmed publisher
    Does a combined approach allow for the unequivocal detection of human germ cells and particularly of spermatogonia in vitro?
  59. Yoon S, Choi S, Eboreime J, Gelb B, Calabrese P, Arnheim N. Age-dependent germline mosaicism of the most common noonan syndrome mutation shows the signature of germline selection. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;92:917-26 pubmed publisher
    ..by cyclin D1 might also play a previously unrecognized role in providing a germline-selective advantage to spermatogonia for the recurrent mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinases that cause Apert syndrome and MEN2B...
  60. Liu S, Tang Z, Xiong T, Tang W. Isolation and characterization of human spermatogonial stem cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2011;9:141 pubmed publisher
    ..To isolate and characterization of human spermatogonial stem cells from stem spermatogonium...
  61. Wu X, Goodyear S, Abramowitz L, Bartolomei M, Tobias J, Avarbock M, et al. Fertile offspring derived from mouse spermatogonial stem cells cryopreserved for more than 14 years. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:1249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it will be necessary to increase the number of these cryopreserved SSCs to remove any contaminating malignant cells and assure regeneration of spermatogenesis...
  62. Oatley M, Kaucher A, Racicot K, Oatley J. Inhibitor of DNA binding 4 is expressed selectively by single spermatogonia in the male germline and regulates the self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, type A(single) spermatogonia form the SSC population, but molecular markers distinguishing these from differentiating progenitors are ..
  63. Ding L, Yan G, Ge Q, Yu F, Zhao X, Diao Z, et al. FSH acts on the proliferation of type A spermatogonia via Nur77 that increases GDNF expression in the Sertoli cells. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:2437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, FSH increased the number of A spermatogonia co-cultured with Sertoli cells...
  64. Nagai R, Shinomura M, Kishi K, Aiyama Y, Harikae K, Sato T, et al. Dynamics of GFR?1-positive spermatogonia at the early stages of colonization in the recipient testes of W/W? male mice. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1374-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the proliferative patterns and kinetics of donor-derived GFR?1-positive spermatogonia containing potential SSCs were examined during early colonization following spermatogonial transplantation.
  65. Romero Y, Vuandaba M, Suarez P, Grey C, Calvel P, Conne B, et al. The Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) Is essential for spermatogonial survival and spermatogenesis. Sex Dev. 2012;6:169-77 pubmed publisher
    Spermatogenesis relies on the precise regulation of the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonia to provide a continuous supply of differentiating germ cells...
  66. Van Saen D, Tournaye H, Goossens E. Presence of spermatogonia in 47,XXY men with no spermatozoa recovered after testicular sperm extraction. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:319-23 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the presence of spermatogonia in men diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), in whom no testicular spermatozoa were recovered by testicular sperm extraction.
  67. Sada A, Hasegawa K, Pin P, Saga Y. NANOS2 acts downstream of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling to suppress differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells. Stem Cells. 2012;30:280-91 pubmed publisher
    ..upon the conditional knockout (cKO) of Gfra1, while ectopic expression of Nanos2 in GFRA1-negative spermatogonia does not induce de novo GFRA1 expression...
  68. Manku G, Wing S, Culty M. Expression of the ubiquitin proteasome system in neonatal rat gonocytes and spermatogonia: role in gonocyte differentiation. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:44 pubmed publisher
    ..remodeling and functional changes occurring during the differentiation of neonatal testicular gonocytes to spermatogonia, a step critical for the establishment of the spermatogonial stem cell population...
  69. Choi S, Yoon S, Calabrese P, Arnheim N. Positive selection for new disease mutations in the human germline: evidence from the heritable cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002420 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach is useful for studying other disease mutations with similar characteristics and could uncover additional germline selection pathways or identify true mutation hot spots...
  70. Goossens E, Bilgec T, Van Saen D, Tournaye H. Mouse germ cells go through typical epigenetic modifications after intratesticular tissue grafting. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:3388-400 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to characterize epigenetic modifications in prepubertal and adult mouse germ cells and to study these epigenetic mechanisms after SSCT and TTG...
  71. Lee K, Lee W, Yoon M, Kim N, Kim J, Uhm S, et al. Characterization of GFR?-1-positive and GFR?-1-negative spermatogonia in neonatal pig testis. Reprod Domest Anim. 2013;48:954-60 pubmed publisher
    Type A spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells, are primary cells that maintain spermatogenesis and produce spermatozoa. Many spermatogonial markers have been reported in rodents...
  72. Yoshida S. Elucidating the identity and behavior of spermatogenic stem cells in the mouse testis. Reproduction. 2012;144:293-302 pubmed publisher
    ..so-called A(single) (A(s)) model, which was originally established in 1971, proposes that singly isolated A(s) spermatogonia are in fact the stem cells...