Summary: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.

Top Publications

  1. Zhao W, Zhou F, Zhou X, Hou Y, He Y, Cheng H, et al. Mago, a vertebrate homolog of Drosophila Mago nashi protein, is a component of the chromatoid body in the cytoplasm of the postmeiotic spermatid. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2010;314:232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of Mago to the component list of the CB undoubtedly provides new clue as to the functions of the CB during spermatogenesis in the vertebrates. ..
  2. Desai B, Shirolikar S, Ray K. F-actin-based extensions of the head cyst cell adhere to the maturing spermatids to maintain them in a tight bundle and prevent their premature release in Drosophila testis. BMC Biol. 2009;7:19 pubmed publisher
    ..They elongate to form slender spermatids, which are individualized and then released into the seminal vesicle...
  3. Yim S, Kim Y, Oh S, Fujii J, Zhang Y, Gladyshev V, et al. Identification and characterization of alternatively transcribed form of peroxiredoxin IV gene that is specifically expressed in spermatids of postpubertal mouse testis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39002-12 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis was suggested to represent the unprocessed, 31-kDa form, but this larger form was detected only in spermatids of the postpubertal testis...
  4. Gosney R, Liau W, LaMunyon C. A novel function for the presenilin family member spe-4: inhibition of spermatid activation in Caenorhabditis elegans. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:44 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation for C. elegans sperm occurs as spermatids undergo spermiogenesis, a profound cellular reorganization that produces a pseudopod...
  5. Frohnert C, Schweizer S, Hoyer Fender S. SPAG4L/SPAG4L-2 are testis-specific SUN domain proteins restricted to the apical nuclear envelope of round spermatids facing the acrosome. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..amounts, and show elevated transcription during ongoing spermiogenesis coincident with the appearance of round spermatids. Molecular dissection of the protein followed by cytological and biochemical investigations revealed that SPAG4L-..
  6. Sironen A, Kotaja N, Mulhern H, Wyatt T, Sisson J, Pavlik J, et al. Loss of SPEF2 function in mice results in spermatogenesis defects and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:690-701 pubmed publisher
    ..infertility results from shortened flagella and disorganized axonemal and accessory structures in elongating spermatids and mature sperm...
  7. Jamsai D, Bianco D, Smith S, Merriner D, Ly Huynh J, Herlihy A, et al. Characterization of gametogenetin 1 (GGN1) and its potential role in male fertility through the interaction with the ion channel regulator, cysteine-rich secretory protein 2 (CRISP2) in the sperm tail. Reproduction. 2008;135:751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA and the protein first appeared in late pachytene spermatocytes and was up-regulated in round spermatids before being incorporated into the principal piece of the sperm tail where it co-localized with CRISP2...
  8. Cai L, Kato T, Nakayama M, Susa T, Murakami S, Izumi S, et al. HSV type 1 thymidine kinase protein accumulation in round spermatids induces male infertility by spermatogenesis disruption and apoptotic loss of germ cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Two truncated HSV1-TK proteins, 37 and 39kDa, were produced and accumulated in the round spermatids, and their transcription initiation site was identified for the first time at the 65 base downstream of the ..
  9. Hermo L, Pelletier R, Cyr D, Smith C. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 1: background to spermatogenesis, spermatogonia, and spermatocytes. Microsc Res Tech. 2010;73:241-78 pubmed publisher
    ..phases: proliferation, meiosis, and differentiation, and it involves spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. Germ cells at steps of development form various cellular associations or stages, with 6, 12, and 14 specific ..

More Information


  1. Vigodner M. Roles of small ubiquitin-related modifiers in male reproductive function. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2011;288:227-59 pubmed publisher
    ..consists of the mitotic division of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes, and postmeiotic differentiation of spermatids, processes tightly controlled by hormones and growth factors secreted by testicular somatic cells...
  2. Ohta H, Sakaide Y, Wakayama T. Functional analysis of male mouse haploid germ cells of various differentiation stages: early and late round spermatids are functionally equivalent in producing progeny. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:511-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mice, we succeeded in selecting four types of haploid male germ cells for microinsemination: early round spermatids (steps 2-3), late round spermatids (steps 7-8), elongating spermatids (steps 9-10), and elongated spermatids (..
  3. Blachon S, Cai X, Roberts K, Yang K, Polyanovsky A, Church A, et al. A proximal centriole-like structure is present in Drosophila spermatids and can serve as a model to study centriole duplication. Genetics. 2009;182:133-44 pubmed publisher
    Most animals have two centrioles in spermatids (the distal and proximal centrioles), but insect spermatids seem to contain only one centriole (Fuller 1993), which functionally resembles the distal centriole...
  4. Berruti G, Ripolone M, Ceriani M. USP8, a regulator of endosomal sorting, is involved in mouse acrosome biogenesis through interaction with the spermatid ESCRT-0 complex and microtubules. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:930-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Kleene K, Cullinane D. Maybe repressed mRNAs are not stored in the chromatoid body in mammalian spermatids. Reproduction. 2011;142:383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..that is thought to coordinate the cytoplasmic regulation of mRNA translation and degradation in mammalian spermatids. The chromatoid body is also postulated to function in repression of mRNA translation by sequestering dormant ..
  6. Mosevitsky M, Snigirevskaya E, Komissarchik Y. Immunoelectron microscopic study of BASP1 and MARCKS location in the early and late rat spermatids. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:237-43 pubmed publisher
    Immunoelectron microscopy was used to locate the proteins BASP1 and MARCKS in the post-meiotic spermatids of male rat testis...
  7. Kini H, Vishnu M, Liebhaber S. Too much PABP, too little translation. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3090-3 pubmed publisher
  8. Meikar O, Da Ros M, Korhonen H, Kotaja N. Chromatoid body and small RNAs in male germ cells. Reproduction. 2011;142:195-209 pubmed publisher
    The chromatoid body (CB) is a germ granule in the cytoplasm of postmeiotic haploid round spermatids that is loaded with RNA and RNA-binding proteins...
  9. O Shaughnessy P, Hu L, Baker P. Effect of germ cell depletion on levels of specific mRNA transcripts in mouse Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. Reproduction. 2008;135:839-50 pubmed publisher
    ..lost from the testis between 5 and 10 days after treatment, while spermatocytes were depleted after 10 days and spermatids after 20 days. By 30 days after treatment, most tubules were devoid of germ cells...
  10. Bikond Nkoma G, Leduc F, Jaouad L, Boissonneault G. Electron microscopy analysis of histone acetylation and DNA strand breaks in mouse elongating spermatids using a dual labelling approach. Andrologia. 2010;42:322-5 pubmed publisher
    Chromatin remodelling steps in mammalian spermatids include posttranslational modifications of histones and DNA fragmentation. Histone H4 hyperacetylation (AcH4) establishes a chromatin state that facilitates DNA repair in somatic cells...
  11. Sin H, Barski A, Zhang F, Kartashov A, Nussenzweig A, Chen J, et al. RNF8 regulates active epigenetic modifications and escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2737-48 pubmed publisher
    ..are uniquely subject to chromosome-wide silencing during male meiosis, and silencing persists into post-meiotic spermatids. Against this background, a select set of sex chromosome-linked genes escapes silencing and is activated in post-..
  12. Zheng J, Xia X, Ding H, Yan A, Hu S, Gong X, et al. Erasure of the paternal transcription program during spermiogenesis: the first step in the reprogramming of sperm chromatin for zygotic development. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1463-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal order of these events suggests that transcription silence does not have to be coupled to meiosis or chromatin condensation...
  13. Fabian L, Wei H, Rollins J, Noguchi T, Blankenship J, Bellamkonda K, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate directs spermatid cell polarity and exocyst localization in Drosophila. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1546-55 pubmed publisher
    During spermiogenesis, Drosophila melanogaster spermatids coordinate their elongation in interconnected cysts that become highly polarized, with nuclei localizing to one end and sperm tail growth occurring at the other...
  14. Cocquet J, Ellis P, Yamauchi Y, Riel J, Karacs T, Rattigan A, et al. Deficiency in the multicopy Sycp3-like X-linked genes Slx and Slxl1 causes major defects in spermatid differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..and mouse sex chromosomes are enriched in multicopy genes required for postmeiotic differentiation of round spermatids into sperm...
  15. Quenet D, Mark M, Govin J, Van Dorsselear A, Schreiber V, Khochbin S, et al. Parp2 is required for the differentiation of post-meiotic germ cells: identification of a spermatid-specific complex containing Parp1, Parp2, TP2 and HSPA2. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..in Parp2-deficient mice, combining immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic approaches, reveals a loss of spermatids expressing TP2, a defect in chromatin condensation and abnormal formation of the manchette microtubules that, ..
  16. Rose K, Li A, Zalenskaya I, Zhang Y, Unni E, Hodgson K, et al. C-terminal phosphorylation of murine testis-specific histone H1t in elongating spermatids. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:4070-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that histones extracted from germ cell populations enriched with spermatids at different stages of development in rat testes reveal an electrophoretic shift in the position of H1t to ..
  17. Ellis P, Bacon J, Affara N. Association of Sly with sex-linked gene amplification during mouse evolution: a side effect of genomic conflict in spermatids?. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3010-21 pubmed publisher
    ..a Yq-linked regulator of post-meiotic sex chromatin (PMSC) which acts to repress sex chromosome transcription in spermatids. Despite the gene amplification, there was comparatively little effect on transcript abundance, suggesting that ..
  18. Korhonen H, Meikar O, Yadav R, Papaioannou M, Romero Y, Da Ros M, et al. Dicer is required for haploid male germ cell differentiation in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24821 pubmed publisher
  19. Bao J, Wu Q, Song R, Jie Z, Zheng H, Xu C, et al. RANBP17 is localized to the XY body of spermatocytes and interacts with SPEM1 on the manchette of elongating spermatids. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;333:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In the subsequent spermiogenesis, RANBP17 was first observed in the nuclei of round spermatids (steps 1-7) and then confined to the manchette of elongating spermatids (steps 8-14) together with its ..
  20. Xiao X, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. c-Yes regulates cell adhesion at the blood-testis barrier and the apical ectoplasmic specialization in the seminiferous epithelium of rat testes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:651-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, c-Yes regulates BTB and apical ES integrity by maintaining proper distribution of integral membrane proteins and actin filament organization at these sites...
  21. Ho H. Redistribution of nuclear pores during formation of the redundant nuclear envelope in mouse spermatids. J Anat. 2010;216:525-32 pubmed publisher
    Extensive morphological modification occurs during mammalian spermiogenesis when spermatids change their spherical shape into cells with a compact head and a long tail...
  22. Haueter S, Kawasumi M, Asner I, Brykczynska U, Cinelli P, Moisyadi S, et al. Genetic vasectomy-overexpression of Prm1-EGFP fusion protein in elongating spermatids causes dominant male sterility in mice. Genesis. 2010;48:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This double transgenic approach represents a reliable and cost-effective "genetic vasectomy" procedure making the conventional surgical vasectomy methodology obsolete. ..
  23. Borghol N, Blachère T, Lefevre A. Transcriptional and epigenetic status of protamine 1 and 2 genes following round spermatids injection into mouse oocytes. Genomics. 2008;91:415-22 pubmed publisher
    The use of round spermatids that are fully active at the transcriptional level to create zygotes (i.e...
  24. Gan H, Lin X, Zhang Z, Zhang W, Liao S, Wang L, et al. piRNA profiling during specific stages of mouse spermatogenesis. RNA. 2011;17:1191-203 pubmed publisher
    ..we first profiled the expression of small RNAs in type A spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids by deep sequencing...
  25. Lie P, Mruk D, Lee W, Cheng C. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8) is a novel regulator of cell adhesion and the blood-testis barrier integrity in the seminiferous epithelium. FASEB J. 2009;23:2555-67 pubmed publisher
  26. Xu B, Hao Z, Jha K, Zhang Z, Urekar C, Digilio L, et al. TSKS concentrates in spermatid centrioles during flagellogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;319:201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..study, the substrate of TSSK1 and 2, TSKS, was localized during spermiogenesis to the centrioles of post-meiotic spermatids, where it reached its greatest concentration during the period of flagellogenesis...
  27. Tachibana M, Terada Y, Ogonuki N, Ugajin T, Ogura A, Murakami T, et al. Functional assessment of centrosomes of spermatozoa and spermatids microinjected into rabbit oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:270-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ICSI) is a widely used assisted reproductive technique, the fertilization rates and pregnancy rates of immature spermatids especially in round spermatid injection (ROSI) remain very low...
  28. Ahmed E, de Boer P, Philippens M, Kal H, de Rooij D. Parp1-XRCC1 and the repair of DNA double strand breaks in mouse round spermatids. Mutat Res. 2010;683:84-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Round spermatids show DSB repair and are radioresistant to apoptosis induction...
  29. Mahadevaiah S, Bourc his D, de Rooij D, Bestor T, Turner J, Burgoyne P. Extensive meiotic asynapsis in mice antagonises meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and consequently disrupts meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoptosis does not occur in mice with a single additional asynapsed chromosome with unrepaired meiotic DSBs and no disturbance of MSCI...
  30. Yeung C, Cooper T. Aquaporin AQP11 in the testis: molecular identity and association with the processing of residual cytoplasm of elongated spermatids. Reproduction. 2010;139:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry of rat adult testis localised AQP11 to the elongated spermatids (ES) and no other cell types except residual bodies inside Sertoli cells...
  31. Kierszenbaum A, Rivkin E, Tres L. Expression of Fer testis (FerT) tyrosine kinase transcript variants and distribution sites of FerT during the development of the acrosome-acroplaxome-manchette complex in rat spermatids. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3882-91 pubmed publisher
    ..FerT transcript variants are seen in spermatocytes and spermatids. FerS transcripts are not detected in round spermatids but are moderately transcribed in spermatocytes...
  32. Noguchi T, Frank D, Isaji M, Miller K. Coiled-coil-mediated dimerization is not required for myosin VI to stabilize actin during spermatid individualization in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:358-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that myosin VI does not need to dimerize via the predicted coiled coil to stabilize actin in vivo. ..
  33. Behnen M, Murk K, Kursula P, Cappallo Obermann H, Rothkegel M, Kierszenbaum A, et al. Testis-expressed profilins 3 and 4 show distinct functional characteristics and localize in the acroplaxome-manchette complex in spermatids. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:34 pubmed publisher
  34. Chi M, Auriol J, Jégou B, Kontoyiannis D, Turner J, de Rooij D, et al. The RNA-binding protein ELAVL1/HuR is essential for mouse spermatogenesis, acting both at meiotic and postmeiotic stages. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..HuR specifically binds hspa2 mRNA and controls its expression at the translational level in germ cells. Our study provides the first genetic evidence of HuR involvement during spermatogenesis and reveals Hspa2 as a target for HuR...
  35. Nguyen Chi M, Chalmel F, Agius E, Vanzo N, Khabar K, Jégou B, et al. Temporally regulated traffic of HuR and its associated ARE-containing mRNAs from the chromatoid body to polysomes during mouse spermatogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4900 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis relies on the appropriate storage of translationally inactive mRNAs in transcriptionally silent spermatids. The factors and cellular compartments regulating mRNA storage and the timing of their translation are still ..
  36. Yabuta Y, Ohta H, Abe T, Kurimoto K, Chuma S, Saitou M. TDRD5 is required for retrotransposon silencing, chromatoid body assembly, and spermiogenesis in mice. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:781-95 pubmed publisher
    ..modulator (CREM) and TRF2, key transcription factors for spermiogenesis, are expressed in Tdrd5-deficient round spermatids, but their targets, including Prm1/Prm2/Tnp1, are severely down-regulated, which indicates the importance of IMC/..
  37. Hirabayashi M, Kato M, Kitada K, Ohnami N, Hirao M, Hochi S. Activation regimens for full-term development of rabbit oocytes injected with round spermatids. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:573-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These activation regimens, however, were not valid for the ROSI using cryopreserved round spermatids. In conclusion, rabbit ROSI oocytes were capable of developing into full-term when the oocytes were activated ..
  38. Catena R, Escoffier E, Caron C, Khochbin S, Martianov I, Davidson I. HMGB4, a novel member of the HMGB family, is preferentially expressed in the mouse testis and localizes to the basal pole of elongating spermatids. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:358-66 pubmed publisher
    ..During spermatogenesis, HMGB4 is present in the euchromatin of late pachytene spermatocytes and haploid round spermatids, whereas stronger expression is observed during the elongation phase, where it localizes to the basal pole of ..
  39. Roqueta Rivera M, Abbott T, Sivaguru M, Hess R, Nakamura M. Deficiency in the omega-3 fatty acid pathway results in failure of acrosome biogenesis in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:721-32 pubmed publisher
    ..acid-Schiff staining and acrosin immunohistochemistry revealed the absence of acrosomes in Fads2-/- round spermatids. Acrosin, an acrosomal marker, was scattered throughout the cytoplasm of the Fads2-/- spermatids, and electron ..
  40. Noguchi T, Lenartowska M, Rogat A, Frank D, Miller K. Proper cellular reorganization during Drosophila spermatid individualization depends on actin structures composed of two domains, bundles and meshwork, that are differentially regulated and have different functions. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..in Drosophila, actin structures (cones) mediate cellular remodeling that separates the syncytial spermatids into individual cells...
  41. Yogo K, Tojima H, Ohno J, Ogawa T, Nakamura N, Hirose S, et al. Identification of SAMT family proteins as substrates of MARCH11 in mouse spermatids. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;137:53-65 pubmed publisher
    MARCH11, a RING-finger transmembrane ubiquitin ligase, is predominantly expressed in spermatids and localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and multivesicular bodies (MVBs)...
  42. Noda T, Shidara O, Harayama H. Detection of the activator cAMP responsive element modulator (CREM) isoform ortholog proteins in porcine spermatids and sperm. Theriogenology. 2012;77:1360-8 pubmed publisher
    It is necessary to obtain basic information on transcription factors expressed in the spermatids of livestock to determine mechanisms of defective spermiogenesis...
  43. Berkovits B, Wang L, Guarnieri P, Wolgemuth D. The testis-specific double bromodomain-containing protein BRDT forms a complex with multiple spliceosome components and is required for mRNA splicing and 3'-UTR truncation in round spermatids. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7162-75 pubmed publisher
    ..protein results in altered transcription, we analyzed the transcriptomes of control versus Brdt(?BD1/?BD1) round spermatids. Over 400 genes showed statistically significant differential expression, and among the up-regulated genes, ..
  44. Bagarova J, Chowdhury T, Kimura M, Kleene K. Identification of elements in the Smcp 5' and 3' UTR that repress translation and promote the formation of heavy inactive mRNPs in spermatids by analysis of mutations in transgenic mice. Reproduction. 2010;140:853-64 pubmed publisher
    The sperm mitochondria-associated cysteine-rich protein (Smcp) mRNA is transcribed in step 3 spermatids, and is stored in free mRNPs until translation begins ?6 days later in step 11...
  45. Geyer C, Inselman A, Sunman J, Bornstein S, Handel M, Eddy E. A missense mutation in the Capza3 gene and disruption of F-actin organization in spermatids of repro32 infertile male mice. Dev Biol. 2009;330:142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..CAPZA3 protein localization was altered in spermatids concurrent with altered localization of a unique CAPZB variant isoform and disruption of the filamentous actin (..
  46. Yanagiya A, Delbes G, Svitkin Y, Robaire B, Sonenberg N. The poly(A)-binding protein partner Paip2a controls translation during late spermiogenesis in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3389-400 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of mRNAs encoding proteins required for late spermiogenesis are expressed in early spermatids but are stored as translationally inactive messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs)...
  47. Gaucher J, Reynoird N, Montellier E, Boussouar F, Rousseaux S, Khochbin S. From meiosis to postmeiotic events: the secrets of histone disappearance. FEBS J. 2010;277:599-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the literature to show that, during spermatogenic differentiation, three major molecular mechanisms come together to 'prepare' the nucleosomes for facilitated disassembly and histone removal...
  48. Mulugeta Achame E, Wassenaar E, Hoogerbrugge J, Sleddens Linkels E, Ooms M, Sun Z, et al. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme HR6B is required for maintenance of X chromosome silencing in mouse spermatocytes and spermatids. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:367 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the relationship between these chromatin modifications and their effects on global gene expression patterns, in spermatocytes and spermatids.
  49. Lu L, Wu J, Ye L, Gavrilina G, Saunders T, Yu X. RNF8-dependent histone modifications regulate nucleosome removal during spermatogenesis. Dev Cell. 2010;18:371-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results show that RNF8 plays an important role during spermatogenesis through histone ubiquitination, resulting in trans-histone acetylation and global nucleosome removal...
  50. Gallegos Avila G, Ancer Rodriguez J, Niderhauser García A, Ortega Martinez M, Jaramillo Rangel G. Multinucleation of spermatozoa and spermatids in infertile men chronically exposed to carbofuran. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;29:458-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the findings encountered in semen samples coming from two infertile men chronically exposed to carbofuran...
  51. Véron N, Bauer H, Weisse A, Lüder G, Werber M, Herrmann B. Retention of gene products in syncytial spermatids promotes non-Mendelian inheritance as revealed by the t complex responder. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The wild-type allele of Tcr, sperm motility kinase-1 (Smok1), behaves in the same manner, suggesting that Tcr/Smok reveal a common mechanism prone to evolve non-Mendelian inheritance in mammals...
  52. Pierre V, Martinez G, Coutton C, Delaroche J, Yassine S, Novella C, et al. Absence of Dpy19l2, a new inner nuclear membrane protein, causes globozoospermia in mice by preventing the anchoring of the acrosome to the nucleus. Development. 2012;139:2955-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the protein is expressed predominantly in spermatids with a very specific localization restricted to the inner nuclear membrane facing the acrosomal vesicle...
  53. Salzberg Y, Eldar T, Karminsky O, Itach S, Pietrokovski S, Don J. Meig1 deficiency causes a severe defect in mouse spermatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;338:158-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Seminiferous tubules in Meig1-null males contained all early stages of spermatogenesis, up to elongating spermatids, but mature elongated spermatids were absent...
  54. Lambrot R, Jones S, Saint Phar S, Kimmins S. Specialized distribution of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 in the nuclear apical region of round spermatids and its interaction with the histone variant H1t2. J Androl. 2012;33:1058-66 pubmed
    ..The distribution of Ezh2 was highly regulated with its localization predominantly restricted to round spermatids in the perinuclear acrosome region...
  55. Shang P, Baarends W, Hoogerbrugge J, Ooms M, van Cappellen W, de Jong A, et al. Functional transformation of the chromatoid body in mouse spermatids requires testis-specific serine/threonine kinases. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA metabolism and small regulatory RNA pathways, in relation to haploid gene expression, in mammalian round spermatids. However, little is known about functions and fate of the CB at later steps of spermatogenesis, when elongating ..
  56. Hermo L, Pelletier R, Cyr D, Smith C. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 2: changes in spermatid organelles associated with development of spermatozoa. Microsc Res Tech. 2010;73:279-319 pubmed publisher
    Spermiogenesis is a long process whereby haploid spermatids derived from the meiotic divisions of spermatocytes undergo metamorphosis into spermatozoa...
  57. Upadhyay R, D Souza R, Sonawane S, Gaonkar R, Pathak S, Jhadav A, et al. Altered phosphorylation and distribution status of vimentin in rat seminiferous epithelium following 17?-estradiol treatment. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;136:543-55 pubmed publisher
    ..localization with small extensions in control stages VII-IX, long extensions radiating apically to the spermatids in deep recess were observed in the treated group...
  58. Lin Y, Lin Y, Kuo Y, Wang Y, Kuo P. Identification and characterization of a novel Rab GTPase-activating protein in spermatids. Int J Androl. 2011;34:e358-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The MgcRabGAP protein is expressed in the elongating and elongated spermatids. Immunofluorescence assay of mouse germ cells showed that the protein expression is enriched at the edge of the ..
  59. Zhang Z, Shen X, Gude D, Wilkinson B, Justice M, Flickinger C, et al. MEIG1 is essential for spermiogenesis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..During spermiogenesis, spermatids undergo dramatic morphological changes including formation of a flagellum and chromosomal packaging and ..
  60. Chimento A, Sirianni R, Zolea F, Bois C, Delalande C, Ando S, et al. Gper and ESRs are expressed in rat round spermatids and mediate oestrogen-dependent rapid pathways modulating expression of cyclin B1 and Bax. Int J Androl. 2011;34:420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..divisions of spermatogonia, meiotic divisions of spermatocytes, maturation and differentiation of haploid spermatids giving rise to spermatozoa...
  61. Zhou D, Xia Y, Li Y, Song L, Hu F, Lu C, et al. Higher proportion of haploid round spermatids and spermatogenic disomy rate in relation to idiopathic male infertility. Urology. 2011;77:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Male infertility can be considered as a syndrome that results from many congenital or acquired illness. Currently, there is an increasing awareness of the potential role of chromosomal factors in the idiopathic forms of male infertility...
  62. Ferguson L, Ellis P, Affara N. Two novel mouse genes mapped to chromosome Yp are expressed specifically in spermatids. Mamm Genome. 2009;20:193-206 pubmed publisher
    ..b ) deletion interval, both are present in at least two copies on the Y, and both are expressed specifically in spermatids. Given the testicular phenotype of mice with deletions on the Y chromosome, both genes are therefore likely to ..
  63. Cocquet J, Ellis P, Yamauchi Y, Mahadevaiah S, Affara N, Ward M, et al. The multicopy gene Sly represses the sex chromosomes in the male mouse germline after meiosis. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000244 pubmed publisher
    ..these Sly-deficient males and on MSYq-deficient males show a remarkable up-regulation of sex chromosome genes in spermatids. SLY protein colocalizes with the X and Y chromatin in spermatids of normal males, and Sly deficiency leads to ..
  64. Young J, Guttman J, Vaid K, Vogl A. Tubulobulbar complexes are intercellular podosome-like structures that internalize intact intercellular junctions during epithelial remodeling events in the rat testis. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:162-74 pubmed publisher
    ..reported to be present at apical sites of attachment (ectoplasmic specializations) between Sertoli cells and spermatids. The adhesion molecules nectin 2 (PVRL2), nectin 3 (PVRL3) and alpha 6 integrin (ITGA6) are present in the ..
  65. D Souza R, Pathak S, Upadhyay R, Gaonkar R, D Souza S, Sonawane S, et al. Disruption of tubulobulbar complex by high intratesticular estrogens leading to failed spermiation. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1861-9 pubmed publisher
    Spermiation is the final phase of spermatogenesis leading to release of mature spermatids into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules...
  66. Zhao B, Ito K, Iyengar P, Hirose S, Nakamura N. MARCH7 E3 ubiquitin ligase is highly expressed in developing spermatids of rats and its possible involvement in head and tail formation. Histochem Cell Biol. 2013;139:447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis detected MARCH7 protein expression in spermiogenic cells from late round spermatids to elongated spermatids and in epididymal spermatozoa...