acrosome

Summary

Summary: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.

Top Publications

  1. Rivkin E, Kierszenbaum A, Gil M, Tres L. Rnf19a, a ubiquitin protein ligase, and Psmc3, a component of the 26S proteasome, tether to the acrosome membranes and the head-tail coupling apparatus during rat spermatid development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1851-61 pubmed publisher
    ..seen along the cytosolic side of the acrosomal membranes and the acroplaxome, a cytoskeletal plate linking the acrosome to the spermatid nuclear envelope...
  2. Li S, Qiao Y, Di Q, Le X, Zhang L, Zhang X, et al. Interaction of SH3P13 and DYDC1 protein: a germ cell component that regulates acrosome biogenesis during spermiogenesis. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..a BAR domain-containing protein, assists in regulating clathrin-coated vesicle traffic that is crucial for acrosome biogenesis during spermatogenesis...
  3. Bi Y, Xu W, Wong H, Zhu H, Zhou Z, Chan H, et al. NYD-SP27, a novel intrinsic decapacitation factor in sperm. Asian J Androl. 2009;11:229-39 pubmed publisher
    Prior to fertilization sperm has to undergo an activation process known as capaciation, leading to the acrosome reaction...
  4. Lessig J, Reibetanz U, Arnhold J, Glander H. Destabilization of acrosome and elastase influence mediate the release of secretory phospholipase A2 from human spermatozoa. Asian J Androl. 2008;10:829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the cellular distribution of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) in dependence on the acrosomal state and under the action of elastase released under inflammatory processes from leukocytes...
  5. Oko R, Donald A, Xu W, van der Spoel A. Fusion failure of dense-cored proacrosomal vesicles in an inducible mouse model of male infertility. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;346:119-34 pubmed publisher
    The acrosome is a specialized secretory vesicle located in the head of spermatozoa and has an essential role during fertilization...
  6. Chianese R, Scarpa D, Berruti G, Cobellis G, Pierantoni R, Fasano S, et al. Expression and localization of the deubiquitinating enzyme mUBPy in wobbler mouse testis during spermiogenesis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;166:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..with the DnaJ protein, MSJ-1; both mUBPy and MSJ-1 are located on the cytoplasmic surface of the developing acrosome and in the centrosomal region during spemiogenesis...
  7. Hasuwa H, Muro Y, Ikawa M, Kato N, Tsujimoto Y, Okabe M. Transgenic mouse sperm that have green acrosome and red mitochondria allow visualization of sperm and their acrosome reaction in vivo. Exp Anim. 2010;59:105-7 pubmed
    ..present paper, we introduce a transgenic mouse line whose sperm express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in their acrosome and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in their mitochondria [B6D2F1- Tg(CAG/su9-DsRed2, Acr3-EGFP)RBGS002Osb]...
  8. Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszczynski D, Franken D. The effect of pulsed 900-MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa. Int J Androl. 2011;34:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..0 W/kg and examined at various times after exposure. The acrosome reaction was evaluated using flow cytometry...
  9. Gianesello L, Ferlin A, Menegazzo M, Pepe A, Foresta C. RXFP1 is expressed on the sperm acrosome, and relaxin stimulates the acrosomal reaction of human spermatozoa. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1160:192-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show the expression of the relaxin receptor RXFP1 on the acrosome of human spermatozoa...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Zhou J, Du Y, Qin W, Hu Y, Huang Y, Bao L, et al. RIM-BP3 is a manchette-associated protein essential for spermiogenesis. Development. 2009;136:373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..in male infertility owing to abnormal sperm heads, which are characterized by a deformed nucleus and a detached acrosome. Consistent with its role in morphogenesis, the RIM-BP3 protein physically associates with Hook1, a known ..
  2. Ackermann F, Zitranski N, Borth H, Buech T, Gudermann T, Boekhoff I. CaMKIIalpha interacts with multi-PDZ domain protein MUPP1 in spermatozoa and prevents spontaneous acrosomal exocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:4547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the acrosome reaction resembles Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis in neurons, we investigated whether cognate neuronal binding ..
  3. Fujihara Y, Satouh Y, Inoue N, Isotani A, Ikawa M, Okabe M. SPACA1-deficient male mice are infertile with abnormally shaped sperm heads reminiscent of globozoospermia. Development. 2012;139:3583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coincided with the failure of acrosomal expansion during spermiogenesis and resulted in the degeneration and disappearance of the acrosome in mature spermatozoa. Thus, these findings clarify part of the cascade leading to globozoospermia.
  4. Pierre V, Martinez G, Coutton C, Delaroche J, Yassine S, Novella C, et al. Absence of Dpy19l2, a new inner nuclear membrane protein, causes globozoospermia in mice by preventing the anchoring of the acrosome to the nucleus. Development. 2012;139:2955-65 pubmed publisher
    Sperm-head elongation and acrosome formation, which take place during the last stages of spermatogenesis, are essential to produce competent spermatozoa that are able to cross the oocyte zona pellucida and to achieve fertilization...
  5. Kierszenbaum A, Rivkin E, Tres L, Yoder B, Haycraft C, Bornens M, et al. GMAP210 and IFT88 are present in the spermatid golgi apparatus and participate in the development of the acrosome-acroplaxome complex, head-tail coupling apparatus and tail. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:723-36 pubmed publisher
    ..protein IFT88 in the Golgi of spermatids and the participation of these two proteins in the development of the acrosome-acroplaxome complex, the head-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA) and the spermatid tail...
  6. Balti rrez Hoyos R, Roa Espitia A, Hern ndez Gonz lez E. The association between CDC42 and caveolin-1 is involved in the regulation of capacitation and acrosome reaction of guinea pig and mouse sperm. Reproduction. 2012;144:123-34 pubmed publisher
    In the mammalian sperm, the acrosome reaction (AR) is considered to be a regulated secretion that is an essential requirement for physiological fertilization...
  7. Sironen A, Uimari P, Nagy S, Paku S, Andersson M, Vilkki J. Knobbed acrosome defect is associated with a region containing the genes STK17b and HECW2 on porcine chromosome 15. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:699 pubmed publisher
    ..Correct condensation of the sperm head and development of the acrosome are required for fertile sperm...
  8. Yano R, Matsuyama T, Kaneko T, Kurio H, Murayama E, Toshimori K, et al. Bactericidal/Permeability-increasing protein is associated with the acrosome region of rodent epididymal spermatozoa. J Androl. 2010;31:201-14 pubmed publisher
    ..structures in the lumen of both caput and cauda epididymal ducts, as well as at the sperm surface covering the acrosome region in spermatozoa freshly isolated from epididymis...
  9. Ito C, Yamatoya K, Yoshida K, Fujimura L, Hatano M, Miyado K, et al. Integration of the mouse sperm fertilization-related protein equatorin into the acrosome during spermatogenesis as revealed by super-resolution and immunoelectron microscopy. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;352:739-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Once established, the architecture of the acrosome contributes to the acrosome reaction, which occurs prior to gamete interaction in mammals...
  10. Kierszenbaum A, Rivkin E, Talmor Cohen A, Shalgi R, Tres L. Expression of full-length and truncated Fyn tyrosine kinase transcripts and encoded proteins during spermatogenesis and localization during acrosome biogenesis and fertilization. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:832-43 pubmed publisher
    ..protein is visualized at the cytosolic side of Golgi membranes, derived proacrosomal vesicles, along the outer acrosome membrane and the inner acrosome membrane-acroplaxome complex anchoring the acrosome to the spermatid nuclear ..
  11. Kohn M, Sztein J, Yagi R, DePamphilis M, Kaneko K. The acrosomal protein Dickkopf-like 1 (DKKL1) facilitates sperm penetration of the zona pellucida. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1533-7 pubmed publisher
    ..a gene unique to mammals that is expressed primarily in developing spermatocytes and its product localized in the acrosome of mature sperm. Here we show that Dkkl1 also is expressed in the trophectoderm/placental lineage...
  12. Xiao N, Kam C, Shen C, Jin W, Wang J, Lee K, et al. PICK1 deficiency causes male infertility in mice by disrupting acrosome formation. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:802-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that PICK1 is involved in vesicle trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the acrosome and cooperates with other proteins such as GOPC and CK2alpha' in acrosome biogenesis.
  13. Yu Y, Vanhorne J, Oko R. The origin and assembly of a zona pellucida binding protein, IAM38, during spermiogenesis. Microsc Res Tech. 2009;72:558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..It is retained by the inner acrosomal membrane after the acrosome reaction and is implicated in secondary sperm-zona binding (Yu et al., Dev Biol2006;290:32-43)...
  14. Wang Y, Mao H, Hou C, Sun X, Wang D, Zhou H, et al. Characterization and expression pattern of KIFC1-like kinesin gene in the testis of the Macrobrachium nipponense with discussion of its relationship with structure lamellar complex (LCx) and acroframosome (AFS). Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:7591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..KIFC1 is a C-terminal kinesin motor found to boast essential roles in acrosome biogenesis and nuclear reshaping during spermiogenesis in rat...
  15. Selvaraj V, Asano A, Buttke D, Sengupta P, Weiss R, Travis A. Mechanisms underlying the micron-scale segregation of sterols and GM1 in live mammalian sperm. J Cell Physiol. 2009;218:522-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These enrichments of sterols represent microheterogeneities within this membrane domain overlying the acrosome. Previously, we showed that cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), which binds the glycosphingolipid, G(M1), localizes to ..
  16. Roqueta Rivera M, Abbott T, Sivaguru M, Hess R, Nakamura M. Deficiency in the omega-3 fatty acid pathway results in failure of acrosome biogenesis in mice. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:721-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of proacrosomal vesicles but lack of a developed acrosome in Fads2-/- spermatids suggested failed vesicle fusion...
  17. Forgione N, Vogl A, Varmuza S. Loss of protein phosphatase 1c{gamma} (PPP1CC) leads to impaired spermatogenesis associated with defects in chromatin condensation and acrosome development: an ultrastructural analysis. Reproduction. 2010;139:1021-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron microscopy revealed major acrosomal and chromatin condensation defects in Ppp1cc mutants. Our observations are discussed in the context of known molecular changes in Ppp1cc mutant testes...
  18. Ganguly A, Bukovsky A, Sharma R, Bansal P, Bhandari B, Gupta S. In humans, zona pellucida glycoprotein-1 binds to spermatozoa and induces acrosomal exocytosis. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:1643-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In human the ZP is composed of four glycoproteins: ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4. In the present study, the expression profile of ZP1 in human oocytes and ovaries, and its role during fertilization, is presented...
  19. Endo Y, Fujii Y, Shintani K, Seo M, Motoyama H, Funahashi H. Simple vitrification for small numbers of human spermatozoa. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;24:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the Cell Sleeper is a highly effective tool for the cryopreservation of small numbers of spermatozoa and limited cells can be vitrified quickly and simply without significant loss...
  20. McPartlin L, Visconti P, Bedford Guaus S. Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (RAPGEF3/RAPGEF4) induce sperm membrane depolarization and acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated stallion sperm. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Indirect immunofluorescence localized RAPGEF3 to the acrosome and subacrosomal ring and RAPGEF4 to the midpiece in equine sperm...
  21. Dorus S, Wasbrough E, Busby J, Wilkin E, Karr T. Sperm proteomics reveals intensified selection on mouse sperm membrane and acrosome genes. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..during sperm development, maturation, and transit through the female reproductive tract where the sperm cell membrane and eventually the acrosome are exposed to the extracellular milieu and available for direct cell-cell interactions.
  22. Taylor S, Yoon S, Morshedi M, Lacey D, Jellerette T, Fissore R, et al. Complete globozoospermia associated with PLC? deficiency treated with calcium ionophore and ICSI results in pregnancy. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;20:559-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Aneuploidy rates were within normal ranges. ICSI followed by oocyte activation with calcium ionophore resulted in high rates of fertilization, and an ongoing pregnancy was established after transfer of cryopreserved-thawed embryos...
  23. Funaki T, Kon S, Tanabe K, Natsume W, Sato S, Shimizu T, et al. The Arf GAP SMAP2 is necessary for organized vesicle budding from the trans-Golgi network and subsequent acrosome formation in spermiogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:2633-44 pubmed publisher
    ..spermatids, the diameter of proacrosomal vesicles budding from TGN increases, TGN structures are distorted, acrosome formation is severely impaired, and reorganization of the nucleus does not proceed properly...
  24. Vasudevan S, Lewis A, Chan J, Machin C, Sinha D, Galione A, et al. The calcium-mobilizing messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate participates in sperm activation by mediating the acrosome reaction. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18262-9 pubmed publisher
    Before a sperm can fertilize an egg it must undergo a final activation step induced by the egg termed the acrosome reaction...
  25. Castillo Bennett J, Roggero C, Mancifesta F, Mayorga L. Calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of synaptotagmin VI is necessary for acrosomal exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:26269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that synaptotagmin must be dephosphorylated at a specific window of time and suggest that phosphorylated synaptotagmin has an active role at early stages of the acrosomal exocytosis...
  26. Perdrix A, Travers A, Chelli M, Escalier D, Do Rego J, Milazzo J, et al. Assessment of acrosome and nuclear abnormalities in human spermatozoa with large vacuoles. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:47-58 pubmed publisher
    Spermatozoa with large vacuoles (SLV) may have a negative impact on embryo development. The origin of these vacuoles is unknown. We evaluated acrosome and nucleus alterations in isolated SLV, versus unselected spermatozoa.
  27. Zanetti N, Mayorga L. Acrosomal swelling and membrane docking are required for hybrid vesicle formation during the human sperm acrosome reaction. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:396-405 pubmed publisher
    ..We have reported previously in human sperm that by preventing the release of calcium from the acrosome, the exocytic process can be arrested at a stage where SNARE proteins are assembled in loose trans complexes...
  28. Yu K, Hou L, Zhu J, Ying X, Yang W. KIFC1 participates in acrosomal biogenesis, with discussion of its importance for the perforatorium in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Cell Tissue Res. 2009;337:113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Many molecular motors are involved in this process. KIFC1, a C-terminal kinesin motor, participates in acrosome biogenesis and nuclear shaping...
  29. Frohnert C, Schweizer S, Hoyer Fender S. SPAG4L/SPAG4L-2 are testis-specific SUN domain proteins restricted to the apical nuclear envelope of round spermatids facing the acrosome. Mol Hum Reprod. 2011;17:207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..for example, by the reshaping of the nucleus during spermiogenesis, and the biogenesis of its tightly associated acrosome, SUN domain proteins might be engaged in these processes...
  30. Sagare Patil V, Vernekar M, Galvankar M, Modi D. Progesterone utilizes the PI3K-AKT pathway in human spermatozoa to regulate motility and hyperactivation but not acrosome reaction. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;374:82-91 pubmed publisher
    Progesterone is a physiologic regulator of sperm hyperactivation and acrosome reaction and it does so by activating a range of kinases present in the spermatozoa...
  31. Kaspersen M, Larsen P, Kofod Olsen E, Fedder J, Bonde J, Höllsberg P. Human herpesvirus-6A/B binds to spermatozoa acrosome and is the most prevalent herpesvirus in semen from sperm donors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48810 pubmed publisher
    ..Confocal microscopy demonstrated that HHV-6B associated with the sperm head, but only to sperm with an intact acrosome. Taken together, our data suggest that HHV-6A/B could be transported to the uterus via binding to the sperm ..
  32. Lopez C, Pelletán L, Suhaiman L, De Blas G, Vitale N, Mayorga L, et al. Diacylglycerol stimulates acrosomal exocytosis by feeding into a PKC- and PLD1-dependent positive loop that continuously supplies phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:1186-99 pubmed publisher
  33. Bello O, Zanetti M, Mayorga L, Michaut M. RIM, Munc13, and Rab3A interplay in acrosomal exocytosis. Exp Cell Res. 2012;318:478-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The acrosome reaction of spermatozoa is a complex, calcium-dependent regulated exocytosis...
  34. Rodríguez F, Bustos M, Zanetti M, Ruete M, Mayorga L, Tomes C. ?-SNAP prevents docking of the acrosome during sperm exocytosis because it sequesters monomeric syntaxin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21925 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequestration of free syntaxin impedes docking of the acrosome to the plasma membrane assessed by transmission electron microscopy...
  35. Harbuz R, Zouari R, Pierre V, Ben Khelifa M, Kharouf M, Coutton C, et al. A recurrent deletion of DPY19L2 causes infertility in man by blocking sperm head elongation and acrosome formation. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..a homozygous deletion of DPY19L2, thus indicating that DPY19L2 is necessary in men for sperm head elongation and acrosome formation...
  36. Mirshokraei P, Hassanpour H, Mehdizadeh A, Akhavan Taheri M. Pentoxifylline induces capacitation and acrosome reaction and improves quality of motility in canine ejaculated spermatozoa. Res Vet Sci. 2011;91:281-4 pubmed publisher
    ..concentrations of pentoxifylline, as phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on quality of motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction, Ejaculated spermatozoa were collected from crossbred dogs...
  37. Suhaiman L, De Blas G, Obeid L, Darszon A, Mayorga L, Belmonte S. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and sphingosine kinase are involved in a novel signaling pathway leading to acrosomal exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16302-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations point to a new role of sphingosine 1-phosphate in a signaling cascade that facilitates acrosome reaction providing some clues about novel lipid molecules involved in exocytosis.
  38. Hu X, Ji S, Li Y, Fan C, Cai H, Yang J, et al. Acrosome formation-associated factor is involved in fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1482-92 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of a novel acrosome formation-associated factor (Afaf) on fertilization by its regulation of acrosomal exocytosis and endosomal trafficking.
  39. Berruti G, Ripolone M, Ceriani M. USP8, a regulator of endosomal sorting, is involved in mouse acrosome biogenesis through interaction with the spermatid ESCRT-0 complex and microtubules. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:930-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells develop a peculiar acidic vesicle that is indispensable for fertilization, the acrosome; USP8 might be involved in vivo in acrosomogenesis...
  40. Serres C, Peoc h K, Courtot A, Lesaffre C, Jouannet P, Laplanche J. Spatio-developmental distribution of the prion-like protein doppel in Mammalian testis: a comparative analysis focusing on its presence in the acrosome of spermatids. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:816-23 pubmed
    ..Its expression in testicular germ cells was primarily detected in spermatids, with a transient presence in the acrosome. These data suggest that Doppel may play a physiological role in acrosome biogenesis and may be of use in studies ..
  41. Wu A, Sutovsky P, Xu W, van der Spoel A, Platt F, Oko R. The postacrosomal assembly of sperm head protein, PAWP, is independent of acrosome formation and dependent on microtubular manchette transport. Dev Biol. 2007;312:471-83 pubmed
    ..PT development, PAWP immunolocalization was performed on the testes of NB-DNJ-treated mice which fail to form an acrosome and subacrosomal layer during spermiogenesis [van der Spoel, A.C., Jeyakumar, M., Butters, T.D., Charlton, H.M...
  42. Willer T, Amselgruber W, Deutzmann R, Strahl S. Characterization of POMT2, a novel member of the PMT protein O-mannosyltransferase family specifically localized to the acrosome of mammalian spermatids. Glycobiology. 2002;12:771-83 pubmed
    ..we demonstrate that in testis tissue mPOMT2 localizes to maturing spermatids and is abundant within the acrosome, a sperm-specific organelle essential for fertilization...
  43. Kierszenbaum A, Tres L. The acrosome-acroplaxome-manchette complex and the shaping of the spermatid head. Arch Histol Cytol. 2004;67:271-84 pubmed
    ..of the elongating spermatid nucleus and an endogenous modulating mechanism dependent on the spermatid-containing acrosome-acroplaxome-manchette complex may play a cooperative role in the shaping of the spermatid head...
  44. Mehmood A, Anwar M, Naqvi S. Motility, acrosome integrity, membrane integrity and oocyte cleavage rate of sperm separated by swim-up or Percoll gradient method from frozen-thawed buffalo semen. Anim Reprod Sci. 2009;111:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recovery of motile sperm (%), increase in membrane integrity (%) and acrosome integrity (%) were compared after two sperm separation methods in experiment I, and in vitro fertilization rate (..
  45. Gil S, Yosef D, Golan N, Don J. The enigma of ATCE1, an acrosome-associated transcription factor. Dev Biol. 2006;298:201-11 pubmed
    ..ATCE1 accumulation is acrosome-specific and persists up to mature epididymal cells, at which stage the protein remained associated with the ..
  46. Kohn M, Kaneko K, DePamphilis M. DkkL1 (Soggy), a Dickkopf family member, localizes to the acrosome during mammalian spermatogenesis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2005;71:516-22 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, however, DkkL1 localized to the developing acrosome in spermatocytes and spermatids and to the acrosome in mature sperm...
  47. Teijeiro J, Cabada M, Marini P. Sperm binding glycoprotein (SBG) produces calcium and bicarbonate dependent alteration of acrosome morphology and protein tyrosine phosphorylation on boar sperm. J Cell Biochem. 2008;103:1413-23 pubmed
    ..We show that the presence of SBG produces alterations of the acrosome morphology of sperm only when they are incubated in capacitating conditions...
  48. Juneja S, van Deursen J. A mouse model of familial oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:881-93 pubmed
    ..The Hrb-deficient mouse may be useful in understanding familial oligoasthenoteratozoospermia syndrome. ..
  49. Hirohashi N, Vacquier V. Store-operated calcium channels trigger exocytosis of the sea urchin sperm acrosomal vesicle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;304:285-92 pubmed
    The acrosome reaction (AR) of sperm is a prerequisite for fusion with the egg...
  50. Olson G, Winfrey V, Nagdas S. Structural modification of the hamster sperm acrosome during posttesticular development in the epididymis. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;61:46-55 pubmed
    The acrosome of the mature spermatozoon functions as a regulated secretory vesicle which performs several critical functions in mammalian fertilization...
  51. Wassarman P. Zona pellucida glycoproteins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Many features of mammalian and non-mammalian egg coat polypeptides have been conserved during several hundred million years of evolution...
  52. Yi Y, Im G, Park C. Lactose-egg yolk diluent supplemented with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine affect acrosome morphology and motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Anim Reprod Sci. 2002;74:187-94 pubmed
    ..025 or 0.05% soluble N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in the first diluent, 0.5% final orvus es paste concentration and 20% egg yolk concentration significantly enhanced NAR acrosomes and motility of boar sperm after freezing and thawing...
  53. Sun Wada G, Imai Senga Y, Yamamoto A, Murata Y, Hirata T, Wada Y, et al. A proton pump ATPase with testis-specific E1-subunit isoform required for acrosome acidification. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18098-105 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that E1 isoform is essential for energy coupling involved in acidification of acrosome.
  54. Celeghini E, de Arruda R, de Andrade A, Nascimento J, Raphael C. Practical techniques for bovine sperm simultaneous fluorimetric assessment of plasma, acrosomal and mitochondrial membranes. Reprod Domest Anim. 2007;42:479-88 pubmed
    ..95, 0.93 and 0.92, respectively), acrosome integrity (R(2) = 0.95, 0.92 and 0.91, respectively) and mitochondrial function (R(2) = 0.84, 0.93 and R(2) = 0...
  55. Tomes C, De Blas G, Michaut M, Farré E, Cherhitin O, Visconti P, et al. alpha-SNAP and NSF are required in a priming step during the human sperm acrosome reaction. Mol Hum Reprod. 2005;11:43-51 pubmed
    The acrosome is a membrane-limited granule that overlies the nucleus of the mature spermatozoon...
  56. Obermann H, Raabe I, Balvers M, Brunswig B, Schulze W, Kirchhoff C. Novel testis-expressed profilin IV associated with acrosome biogenesis and spermatid elongation. Mol Hum Reprod. 2005;11:53-64 pubmed
    ..of round and elongating spermatids with its perinuclear location coinciding with the position of the developing acrosome-acroplaxome and the manchette...
  57. Lin Y, Roy A, Yan W, Burns K, Matzuk M. Loss of zona pellucida binding proteins in the acrosomal matrix disrupts acrosome biogenesis and sperm morphogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6794-805 pubmed
    Zona pellucida binding protein 1 (ZPBP1), a spermatid and spermatozoon protein that localizes to the acrosome, was originally identified in pigs and named for its binding to the oocyte zona pellucida...
  58. Alsheimer M, Drewes T, Schütz W, Benavente R. The cancer/testis antigen CAGE-1 is a component of the acrosome of spermatids and spermatozoa. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:445-52 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results allowed to define protein CAGE-1 as a novel component of the acrosome of mammalian spermatids and spermatozoa.
  59. Yi Y, Manandhar G, Sutovsky M, Li R, Jonáková V, Oko R, et al. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-activity is involved in sperm acrosomal function and anti-polyspermy defense during porcine fertilization. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:780-93 pubmed
    ..Consequently, we have hypothesized that inhibition of sperm acrosome-borne UCHs increases the rate of sperm-ZP penetration and polyspermy during porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
  60. Mor V, Das T, Bhattacharjee M, Chatterjee T. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation of a heparin-binding sperm membrane mitogen (HBSM) is associated with capacitation and acrosome reaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;352:404-9 pubmed
    ..Epididymal spermatozoa were induced to undergo capacitation and acrosome reaction by 70% when the cells were incubated in BWW medium supplemented with heparin...
  61. Chakravarty S, Kadunganattil S, Bansal P, Sharma R, Gupta S. Relevance of glycosylation of human zona pellucida glycoproteins for their binding to capacitated human spermatozoa and subsequent induction of acrosomal exocytosis. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:75-88 pubmed
    ..of the baculovirus-expressed recombinant ZP3 as well as ZP4 to either acrosomal cap or equatorial region whereas acrosome-reacted sperm failed to show any binding to the acrosomal cap...
  62. Beltrán C, Vacquier V, Moy G, Chen Y, Buck J, Levin L, et al. Particulate and soluble adenylyl cyclases participate in the sperm acrosome reaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;358:1128-35 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that sAC is present in the sperm head and as in mammals is stimulated by bicarbonate. The acrosome reaction (AR), a process essential for fertilization, is influenced by the bicarbonate concentration in seawater...
  63. Feiden S, Stypa H, Wolfrum U, Wegener G, Kamp G. A novel pyruvate kinase (PK-S) from boar spermatozoa is localized at the fibrous sheath and the acrosome. Reproduction. 2007;134:81-95 pubmed
    Boar spermatozoa contain a novel pyruvate kinase (PK-S) that is tightly bound at the acrosome of the sperm head and at the fibrous sheath in the principal piece of the flagellum, while the midpiece contains a soluble pyruvate kinase (PK)...