sperm head

Summary

Summary: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.

Top Publications

  1. Kierszenbaum A, Rivkin E, Tres L. Molecular biology of sperm head shaping. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2007;65:33-43 pubmed
    ..The acroplaxome-manchette perinuclear rings may reduce their diameter to balance exogenous constriction forces generated by the embracing Sertoli cell F-actin hoops and guide nuclear elongation...
  2. Hidalgo M, Rodriguez I, Dorado J. The effect of cryopreservation on sperm head morphometry in Florida male goat related to sperm freezability. Anim Reprod Sci. 2007;100:61-72 pubmed
    The Sperm Class Analyzer was used to investigate the effect of freeze-thawing procedure on Florida buck sperm head morphometry, and to relate possible changes in sperm head dimensions to cryopreservation success...
  3. Harbuz R, Zouari R, Pierre V, Ben Khelifa M, Kharouf M, Coutton C, et al. A recurrent deletion of DPY19L2 causes infertility in man by blocking sperm head elongation and acrosome formation. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..with globozoospermia have a homozygous deletion of DPY19L2, thus indicating that DPY19L2 is necessary in men for sperm head elongation and acrosome formation...
  4. Manandhar G, Toshimori K. Fate of postacrosomal perinuclear theca recognized by monoclonal antibody MN13 after sperm head microinjection and its role in oocyte activation in mice. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:655-63 pubmed
    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) MN13 labels mouse sperm head postacrosomal perinuclear theca (PT), which is possibly involved in oocyte activation during fertilization...
  5. Perdrix A, Rives N. Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) and sperm head vacuoles: state of the art in 2013. Hum Reprod Update. 2013;19:527-41 pubmed publisher
    ..METHODS We searched PubMed for articles in the English language published in 2001-2012 regarding human sperm head vacuoles, MSOME and IMSI...
  6. Utsuno H, Oka K, Yamamoto A, Shiozawa T. Evaluation of sperm head shape at high magnification revealed correlation of sperm DNA fragmentation with aberrant head ellipticity and angularity. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:1573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Academic tertiary care center. A total of 60 men in our assisted reproductive program. Quantifying sperm head shape using elliptic Fourier analysis, and detecting DNA fragmentation by use of a terminal deoxynucleotidyl ..
  7. Emery B, Thorp C, Malo J, Carrell D. Pregnancy from intracytoplasmic sperm injection of a sperm head and detached tail. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:686-8 pubmed
    To evaluate sperm ultrastructure and the efficacy of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with careful positioning of the sperm midpiece next to the sperm head in a patient with easily decapitated sperm syndrome.
  8. Lee K, Niwa K. Fertilization and development in vitro of bovine oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of heat-dried sperm heads. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:146-52 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that bovine oocytes can be fertilized with heat-dried spermatozoa and that the fertilized oocytes can develop at least to the blastocyst stage...
  9. Maroto Morales A, Ramon M, García Álvarez O, Soler A, Esteso M, Martinez Pastor F, et al. Characterization of ram (Ovis aries) sperm head morphometry using the Sperm-Class Analyzer. Theriogenology. 2010;73:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..ejaculates from 241 mature rams (Ovis aries) belonging to 36 different dairy herds were used to evaluate sperm head morphometry by means of the Sperm-Class Analyzer...
  10. Maree L, du Plessis S, Menkveld R, van der Horst G. Morphometric dimensions of the human sperm head depend on the staining method used. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:1369-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study was aimed at comparing the effect of three staining techniques [Papanicolaou (PAP), Rapidiff (RD) and SpermBlue (SB)] on human sperm head dimensions and to compare these with the head dimensions in fresh semen.

Detail Information

Publications65

  1. Kierszenbaum A, Rivkin E, Tres L. Molecular biology of sperm head shaping. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2007;65:33-43 pubmed
    ..The acroplaxome-manchette perinuclear rings may reduce their diameter to balance exogenous constriction forces generated by the embracing Sertoli cell F-actin hoops and guide nuclear elongation...
  2. Hidalgo M, Rodriguez I, Dorado J. The effect of cryopreservation on sperm head morphometry in Florida male goat related to sperm freezability. Anim Reprod Sci. 2007;100:61-72 pubmed
    The Sperm Class Analyzer was used to investigate the effect of freeze-thawing procedure on Florida buck sperm head morphometry, and to relate possible changes in sperm head dimensions to cryopreservation success...
  3. Harbuz R, Zouari R, Pierre V, Ben Khelifa M, Kharouf M, Coutton C, et al. A recurrent deletion of DPY19L2 causes infertility in man by blocking sperm head elongation and acrosome formation. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..with globozoospermia have a homozygous deletion of DPY19L2, thus indicating that DPY19L2 is necessary in men for sperm head elongation and acrosome formation...
  4. Manandhar G, Toshimori K. Fate of postacrosomal perinuclear theca recognized by monoclonal antibody MN13 after sperm head microinjection and its role in oocyte activation in mice. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:655-63 pubmed
    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) MN13 labels mouse sperm head postacrosomal perinuclear theca (PT), which is possibly involved in oocyte activation during fertilization...
  5. Perdrix A, Rives N. Motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) and sperm head vacuoles: state of the art in 2013. Hum Reprod Update. 2013;19:527-41 pubmed publisher
    ..METHODS We searched PubMed for articles in the English language published in 2001-2012 regarding human sperm head vacuoles, MSOME and IMSI...
  6. Utsuno H, Oka K, Yamamoto A, Shiozawa T. Evaluation of sperm head shape at high magnification revealed correlation of sperm DNA fragmentation with aberrant head ellipticity and angularity. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:1573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Academic tertiary care center. A total of 60 men in our assisted reproductive program. Quantifying sperm head shape using elliptic Fourier analysis, and detecting DNA fragmentation by use of a terminal deoxynucleotidyl ..
  7. Emery B, Thorp C, Malo J, Carrell D. Pregnancy from intracytoplasmic sperm injection of a sperm head and detached tail. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:686-8 pubmed
    To evaluate sperm ultrastructure and the efficacy of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with careful positioning of the sperm midpiece next to the sperm head in a patient with easily decapitated sperm syndrome.
  8. Lee K, Niwa K. Fertilization and development in vitro of bovine oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of heat-dried sperm heads. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:146-52 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that bovine oocytes can be fertilized with heat-dried spermatozoa and that the fertilized oocytes can develop at least to the blastocyst stage...
  9. Maroto Morales A, Ramon M, García Álvarez O, Soler A, Esteso M, Martinez Pastor F, et al. Characterization of ram (Ovis aries) sperm head morphometry using the Sperm-Class Analyzer. Theriogenology. 2010;73:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..ejaculates from 241 mature rams (Ovis aries) belonging to 36 different dairy herds were used to evaluate sperm head morphometry by means of the Sperm-Class Analyzer...
  10. Maree L, du Plessis S, Menkveld R, van der Horst G. Morphometric dimensions of the human sperm head depend on the staining method used. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:1369-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study was aimed at comparing the effect of three staining techniques [Papanicolaou (PAP), Rapidiff (RD) and SpermBlue (SB)] on human sperm head dimensions and to compare these with the head dimensions in fresh semen.
  11. Lin Y, Chou C, Hung Y, Yu I, Pan H, Lin S, et al. SEPT12 deficiency causes sperm nucleus damage and developmental arrest of preimplantation embryos. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:363-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that SEPT12 is expressed at the edge of the sperm nucleus in both humans and mice, we hypothesized the vital roles of Septin 12 in sperm head shaping, nuclear DNA condensation, and early embryonic development.
  12. Chelli M, Albert M, Ray P, Guthauser B, Izard V, Hammoud I, et al. Can intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection be used to select normal-sized sperm heads in infertile patients with macrocephalic sperm head syndrome?. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1347.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    To study the chromosomal content of spermatozoa selected by intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) in cases of macrocephalic sperm head syndrome.
  13. Golas A, Dzieza A, Kuzniarz K, Styrna J. Gene mapping of sperm quality parameters in recombinant inbred strains of mice. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:287-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A detailed analysis of the genes located in these regions enabled us to prepare a list of candidate genes. We discuss the basis of the correlation between the measured parameters...
  14. Gutierrez Pérez O, Juárez Mosqueda M, Mota D, Trujillo M. The disruption in actin-perinuclear theca interactions are related with changes induced by cryopreservation observed on sperm chromatin nuclear decondensation of boar semen. Cryobiology. 2011;62:32-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Tanaka A, Nagayoshi M, Tanaka I, Kusunoki H. Human sperm head vacuoles are physiological structures formed during the sperm development and maturation process. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify whether human sperm vacuoles affected intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) success rates...
  16. Pesch S, Bostedt H, Failing K, Bergmann M. Advanced fertility diagnosis in stallion semen using transmission electron microscopy. Anim Reprod Sci. 2006;91:285-98 pubmed
    ..It suggests that the most likely reason for sub- and infertility in stallion in case of increased LM pathomorphology of semen are acrosomal alterations, especially detached acrosomes...
  17. Chandler J, Canal A, Paul J, Moser E. Collection frequency affects percent Y-chromosome bearing sperm, sperm head area and quality of bovine ejaculates. Theriogenology. 2002;57:1327-46 pubmed
    ..Differences were least for the last two collections. Sperm head area also fluctuated. In Experiment 2, collection frequency affected the pattern of %Y-CDBS response...
  18. Yang K, Meinhardt A, Zhang B, Grzmil P, Adham I, Hoyer Fender S. The small heat shock protein ODF1/HSPB10 is essential for tight linkage of sperm head to tail and male fertility in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..fertile while sperm motility is reduced, but Odf1-deficient male mice are infertile due to the detachment of the sperm head. Although headless tails are somehow motile, transmission electron microscopy revealed disturbed organization of ..
  19. Yan W, Morozumi K, Zhang J, Ro S, Park C, Yanagimachi R. Birth of mice after intracytoplasmic injection of single purified sperm nuclei and detection of messenger RNAs and MicroRNAs in the sperm nuclei. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:896-902 pubmed publisher
    We have developed a method that effectively removes all of the perinuclear materials of a mouse sperm head, including the acrosome, plasma membrane, perinuclear theca, and nuclear envelope...
  20. James P, Hennessy C, Berge T, Jones R. Compartmentalisation of the sperm plasma membrane: a FRAP, FLIP and SPFI analysis of putative diffusion barriers on the sperm head. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6485-95 pubmed
    ..Passage of heterogeneous complexes, such as lipid rafts, requires disassembly and reassembly on either side of the filter...
  21. Chemes H, Alvarez Sedó C. Tales of the tail and sperm head aches: changing concepts on the prognostic significance of sperm pathologies affecting the head, neck and tail. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The one sperm characteristic that seriously affects fertility prognosis is teratozoospermia, primarily sperm head and neck anomalies...
  22. Breed W. The spermatozoon of Eurasian murine rodents: Its morphological diversity and evolution. J Morphol. 2004;261:52-69 pubmed
    ..in all components of the spermatozoon was found to occur, although most species have a bilaterally flattened sperm head with a single apical hook of variable length and orientation...
  23. Moore H, Dvorakova K, Jenkins N, Breed W. Exceptional sperm cooperation in the wood mouse. Nature. 2002;418:174-7 pubmed
    ..Cells undergoing an acrosome reaction in aggregations remote from the egg are altruistic in that they help sperm transport to the egg but compromise their own fertilizing ability...
  24. Kierszenbaum A. Intramanchette transport (IMT): managing the making of the spermatid head, centrosome, and tail. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002;63:1-4 pubmed
    ..Details of specific role of Ran GTPase in nucleocytoplasmic transport and its relocation from the manchette to the centrosome to the sperm tail await elucidation...
  25. Lee J, Tian X, Yang X. Failure of male pronucleus formation is the major cause of lack of fertilization and embryo development in pig oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1341-7 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the association between sperm head decondensation and oocyte activation and to investigate the cause of embryonic development failure, in ..
  26. Said S, Han M, Niwa K. Development of rat oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of sperm heads isolated from testicular and epididymal spermatozoa. Theriogenology. 2003;60:359-69 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that sperm heads from all sources tested are similar in their ability to contribute to full development of normal, fertile offspring...
  27. Roy A, Lin Y, Matzuk M. Shaping the sperm head: an ER enzyme leaves its mark. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2860-3 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, GBA2 deficiency leaves bile acid and cholesterol metabolism intact, instead causing lipid accumulation in the ER of testicular Sertoli cells, round-headed sperm (globozoospermia), and impaired male fertility...
  28. Hunter R. Sperm head binding to epithelium of the oviduct isthmus is not an essential preliminary to mammalian fertilization - review. Zygote. 2011;19:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..attention was focused on experimental models in which fertilization can occur without a preliminary phase of sperm head binding to the isthmus epithelium...
  29. Göb E, Schmitt J, Benavente R, Alsheimer M. Mammalian sperm head formation involves different polarization of two novel LINC complexes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12072 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they are shown to be essential for maintaining nuclear shape...
  30. Sutovsky P, Manandhar G, Wu A, Oko R. Interactions of sperm perinuclear theca with the oocyte: implications for oocyte activation, anti-polyspermy defense, and assisted reproduction. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;61:362-78 pubmed
    Perinuclear theca (PT) is the cytoskeletal coat of mammalian sperm nucleus that is removed from the sperm head at fertilization...
  31. Neyer A, Vanderzwalmen P, Bach M, Stecher A, Spitzer D, Zech N. Sperm head vacuoles are not affected by in-vitro conditions, as analysed by a system of sperm-microcapture channels. Reprod Biomed Online. 2013;26:368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..According to these observations, it is concluded that nuclear vacuoles on the sperm head are already produced at earlier stages of sperm maturation and are not induced or modulated by routine ..
  32. Tan Y, Fan L, Luo K, Zhu W, Lu G. [Establishment of the two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein map of the human sperm head]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2004;10:886-9 pubmed
    To construct the two-dimensional electrophoretic (2-DE) protein map of the human sperm head.
  33. Garcia Herreros M, Aparicio I, Barón F, Garcia Marin L, Gil M. Standardization of sample preparation, staining and sampling methods for automated sperm head morphometry analysis of boar spermatozoa. Int J Androl. 2006;29:553-63 pubmed
    ..techniques [rapid Panoptic, Hemacolor and Harris's Haematoxylin (HH)] on image-processing accuracy and boar sperm head morphometry...
  34. Butscheid Y, Chubanov V, Steger K, Meyer D, Dietrich A, Gudermann T. Polycystic kidney disease and receptor for egg jelly is a plasma membrane protein of mouse sperm head. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:350-60 pubmed
    ..Immunogold labeling was only visible at the plasma membrane of the mouse sperm head. Collectively, these data suggest PKDREJ to be a sperm plasma membrane protein presumably contributing to ..
  35. Memmolo P, Di Caprio G, Distante C, Paturzo M, Puglisi R, Balduzzi D, et al. Identification of bovine sperm head for morphometry analysis in quantitative phase-contrast holographic microscopy. Opt Express. 2011;19:23215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, two different methods have been developed for in vitro bull sperm head morphometry analysis. We show that semen analysis can be accomplished by means of the proposed techniques ...
  36. Dvorakova K, Moore H, Sebkova N, Palecek J. Cytoskeleton localization in the sperm head prior to fertilization. Reproduction. 2005;130:61-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of the sperm head cytoskeleton before and after the AR in spermatozoa representing a range of acrosome size and shape...
  37. Firman R, Cheam L, Simmons L. Sperm competition does not influence sperm hook morphology in selection lines of house mice. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:856-62 pubmed publisher
    Sperm show a remarkable degree of variation in size, shape and complexity. Murine rodents exhibit a sperm head morphology that differs greatly from the ovoid shape that is characteristic of most mammals...
  38. Qi Y, Jiang M, Yuan Y, Bi Y, Zheng B, Guo X, et al. ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3, a manchette-associated protein, is essential for mouse spermiogenesis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2013;19:327-35 pubmed publisher
    During spermiogenesis, the manchette is an important structure for sperm head and tail formation. However, the mechanisms responsible for this process are poorly understood...
  39. Petersen C, Vagnini L, Mauri A, Massaro F, Cavagna M, Baruffi R, et al. Relationship between DNA damage and sperm head birefringence. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;22:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the pattern of human sperm head birefringence (SHBF) and DNA damage. A total of 26 patients with normal semen were included...
  40. Selvaraj V, Asano A, Page J, Nelson J, Kothapalli K, Foster J, et al. Mice lacking FABP9/PERF15 develop sperm head abnormalities but are fertile. Dev Biol. 2010;348:177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9(-/-) mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the ..
  41. Nakai M, Ito J, Sato K, Noguchi J, Kaneko H, Kashiwazaki N, et al. Pre-treatment of sperm reduces success of ICSI in the pig. Reproduction. 2011;142:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also show that in addition to its expected localization to the sperm head, PLC? is also localized in the tail of pig sperm, thus raising the possibility that injection of whole sperm may ..
  42. Kuo P, Chiang H, Wang Y, Kuo Y, Chen M, Yu I, et al. SEPT12-microtubule complexes are required for sperm head and tail formation. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:22102-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we discovered that the SEPTIN12-microtubule complexes are critical for sperm formation during spermiogenesis. ..
  43. Hidalgo M, Rodríguez I, Dorado J, Soler C. Morphometric classification of Spanish thoroughbred stallion sperm heads. Anim Reprod Sci. 2008;103:374-8 pubmed
    ..analysis was performed on the morphometric data from that sperm to obtain a classification matrix for sperm head shape. Thereafter, we defined six types of sperm head shape...
  44. Toshimori K, Ito C. Formation and organization of the mammalian sperm head. Arch Histol Cytol. 2003;66:383-96 pubmed
    The formation and organization of a mammalian sperm head occurs through diverse cellular and molecular processes during spermiogenesis...
  45. Seita Y, Ito J, Kashiwazaki N. Removal of acrosomal membrane from sperm head improves development of rat zygotes derived from intracytoplasmic sperm injection. J Reprod Dev. 2009;55:475-9 pubmed
    ..successful ICSI was reported in rats, but with low efficiency, it has been observed that the acrosome of the sperm head seems to have detrimental effects on the embryonic development of ICSI oocytes...
  46. Foresta C, Garolla A, Zuccarello D, Pizzol D, Moretti A, Barzon L, et al. Human papillomavirus found in sperm head of young adult males affects the progressive motility. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:802-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in a cohort of young adult males...
  47. Mendoza Lujambio I, Burfeind P, Dixkens C, Meinhardt A, Hoyer Fender S, Engel W, et al. The Hook1 gene is non-functional in the abnormal spermatozoon head shape (azh) mutant mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:1647-58 pubmed
    ..the azh mutation causes tail abnormalities often resulting in coiled sperm tails or in the decapitation of the sperm head from the flagellum...
  48. Buendia P, Soler C, Paolicchi F, Gago G, Urquieta B, Pérez Sánchez F, et al. Morphometric characterization and classification of alpaca sperm heads using the sperm-class analyzer computer-assisted system. Theriogenology. 2002;57:1207-18 pubmed
    ..For this purpose, ejaculates from fertile alpacas were used to evaluate sperm head morphometry by means of the Sperm-Class Analyzer (SCA) computer-aided image analysis system...
  49. Rijsselaere T, Van Soom A, Hoflack G, Maes D, de Kruif A. Automated sperm morphometry and morphology analysis of canine semen by the Hamilton-Thorne analyser. Theriogenology. 2004;62:1292-306 pubmed
    ..spermatozoa from pooled semen samples (n = 4) at 40x and 60x demonstrated a more accurate identification of the sperm head boundaries at a magnification level 60x...
  50. Esteso M, Soler A, Fernández Santos M, Quintero Moreno A, Garde J. Functional significance of the sperm head morphometric size and shape for determining freezability in iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) epididymal sperm samples. J Androl. 2006;27:662-70 pubmed
    In the present study, computer-automated sperm head morphometry of epididymal samples was used to determine if sperm head area and shape are useful measurements for separating "good" and "bad" Iberian red deer freezers...
  51. El Ghobashy A, West C. The human sperm head: a key for successful fertilization. J Androl. 2003;24:232-8 pubmed
    In order to examine the predictive value of determining the sperm head shape, the acrosomal size, the presence of acrosomal vacuoles, and the challenged acrosome reaction (AR) on the outcome of a standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) ..
  52. Falagario D, Brucculeri A, Depalo R, Trerotoli P, Cittadini E, Ruvolo G. Sperm head vacuolization affects clinical outcome in ICSI cycle. A proposal of a cut-off value. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012;29:1281-7 pubmed publisher
  53. Johnson J, Higdon H, Blackhurst D, Boone W. Expectations for oocyte fertilization and embryo cleavage after whole sperm versus sperm head intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 2004;82:1412-7 pubmed
    To compare oocyte fertilization and embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with a whole sperm vs. a sperm head.
  54. Breed W. Evolution of the spermatozoon in muroid rodents. J Morphol. 2005;265:271-90 pubmed
    ..Muroidea, a model for the evolution of sperm form has been proposed in which it is suggested that a hook-shaped sperm head and long tail evolved from a more simple, nonhooked head and short tail in several different subfamilies...
  55. Selvaraj V, Asano A, Buttke D, McElwee J, Nelson J, Wolff C, et al. Segregation of micron-scale membrane sub-domains in live murine sperm. J Cell Physiol. 2006;206:636-46 pubmed
    ..Together, these data provide an example of membrane sub-domains extreme in terms of size and stability of lipid segregation, and implicate a protein-based membrane compartmentation mechanism...
  56. Zavaczki Z, Celik Ozenci C, Ovari L, Jakab A, Sati G, Ward D, et al. Dimensional assessment of X-bearing and Y-bearing haploid and disomic human sperm with the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and objective morphometry. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:121-7 pubmed
    ..To explore the dimensional attributes of haploid and disomic X-bearing and Y-bearing spermatozoa...
  57. Bauer M, Breed W. Variation of sperm head shape and tail length in a species of Australian hydromyine rodent: the spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2006;18:797-805 pubmed
    ..In this study, the structural organisation of the sperm head has been investigated in more detail and the variability in length of the midpiece and total length of the sperm ..
  58. Immler S, Moore H, Breed W, Birkhead T. By hook or by crook? Morphometry, competition and cooperation in rodent sperm. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e170 pubmed
    ..The sperm of most murid rodents are characterised by an apical hook of the sperm head that varies markedly in extent across species...
  59. Gadella B, Tsai P, Boerke A, Brewis I. Sperm head membrane reorganisation during capacitation. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the absence of such lateral diffusion-preventing structures, the sperm head surface is also highly heterogeneous...
  60. Elshal M, El Sayed I, Elsaied M, El Masry S, Kumosani T. Sperm head defects and disturbances in spermatozoal chromatin and DNA integrities in idiopathic infertile subjects: association with cigarette smoking. Clin Biochem. 2009;42:589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate sperm chromatin and DNA integrities in idiopathic infertile men and determine the possible association(s) of cigarette smoking on oxidative stress markers, antioxidant capacity and semen quality...
  61. Marco Jimenez F, Vicente J, Lavara R, Balasch S, Viudes De Castro M. Poor prediction value of sperm head morphometry for fertility and litter size in rabbit. Reprod Domest Anim. 2010;45:e118-23 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to investigate the predictive capacity of fertility and litter size of sperm head morphometric measurements when the ejaculates fulfilled the minimum requirements commonly used in artificial insemination (AI)...
  62. Nozawa Y, Yao E, Gacayan R, Xu S, Chuang P. Mammalian Fused is essential for sperm head shaping and periaxonemal structure formation during spermatogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014;388:170-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Fu plays a central role in shaping the sperm head and controlling the organization of the periaxonemal structures in the flagellum...
  63. Yamauchi Y, Yanagimachi R, Horiuchi T. Full-term development of golden hamster oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm head injection. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:534-9 pubmed
    ..Of the 47 morulae transferred to five recipient females, nine (19%) developed to live offspring...
  64. Lee J, Yang X. Factors affecting fertilization of porcine oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of sperm. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;68:96-102 pubmed
    ..In experiment 4, the development rate of oocytes to the blastocyst stage ([x5]32.1%) following injection of a sperm head only was not significantly different from that of oocytes injected with whole sperm (31.0%)...
  65. Otitoloju A, Obe I, Adewale O, Otubanjo O, Osunkalu V. Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;84:51-4 pubmed publisher
    ..78 and 46.03%, respectively, in sperm head abnormalities compared to 2.13% in control group...