egg yolk

Summary

Summary: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.

Top Publications

  1. Aly S, Mangold B, Whitlock R, Sweeney R, Anderson R, Jiang J, et al. Correlation between Herrold egg yolk medium culture and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in pooled fecal and environmental samples. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:677-83 pubmed
    ..avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in fecal samples is a rapid alternative to culture on Herrold egg yolk medium (HEYM), the traditional antemortem reference test for MAP...
  2. Ferreira Júnior A, Santiago F, Silva M, Ferreira F, Macêdo Júnior A, Mota C, et al. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40391 pubmed publisher
    ..IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model...
  3. Cai Y, Guo J, Chen S, Tian L, Steinmann P, Chen M, et al. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) for detecting circulating antigens of Schistosoma japonicum. Parasitol Int. 2012;61:385-90 pubmed publisher
    IgY isolated from egg yolk has been widely used in immunodiagnostic tests, including tests to detect circulating antigen (soluble egg antigen or SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum.
  4. Henriksen R, Groothuis T, Rettenbacher S. Elevated plasma corticosterone decreases yolk testosterone and progesterone in chickens: linking maternal stress and hormone-mediated maternal effects. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23824 pubmed publisher
    ..the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn) were implanted subcutaneously with ..
  5. Yao L, Wang T, Persia M, Horst R, Higgins M. Effects of vitamin D(3) -enriched diet on egg yolk vitamin D(3) content and yolk quality. J Food Sci. 2013;78:C178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..using Hy-Line W-36 laying hens (19-wk old) to investigate the impact of feeding cholecalciferol-enriched diets on egg yolk quality...
  6. Teuber K, Schiller J, Fuchs B, Karas M, Jaskolla T. Significant sensitivity improvements by matrix optimization: a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric study of lipids from hen egg yolk. Chem Phys Lipids. 2010;163:552-60 pubmed publisher
    ..An organic extract from hen egg yolk was used as a simple and easily available test system...
  7. Galván I, Alonso Alvarez C. Yolk testosterone shapes the expression of a melanin-based signal in great tits: an antioxidant-mediated mechanism?. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:3127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is well known that female birds can differentially transfer testosterone to the egg yolk. Furthermore, high testosterone levels have been related to high oxidative stress...
  8. Pillet E, Duchamp G, Batellier F, Beaumal V, Anton M, Desherces S, et al. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders. Theriogenology. 2011;75:105-14 pubmed publisher
    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated...
  9. Bourin M, Gautron J, Berges M, Attucci S, Le Blay G, Labas V, et al. Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Ruuskanen S, Laaksonen T. Yolk hormones have sex-specific long-term effects on behavior in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Horm Behav. 2010;57:119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..As behaviour is strongly linked with fitness, our results suggest that yolk androgens may play a role in determining fitness, and thus play a potentially adaptive role...
  2. Thomas M, Klinkenberg D, Bergwerff A, Van Eerden E, Stegeman J, Bouma A. Evaluation of suspension array analysis for detection of egg yolk antibodies against Salmonella Enteritidis. Prev Vet Med. 2010;95:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate egg yolk anti-Salmonella antibody detection using suspension array analysis...
  3. Poisbleau M, Demongin L, Chastel O, Eens M, Quillfeldt P. Yolk androgen deposition in rockhopper penguins, a species with reversed hatching asynchrony. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;170:622-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss these results in relation to the chronology of egg formation and the potential effect of the observed differences on embryo development and brood reduction...
  4. Plagemann I, Zelena K, Krings U, Berger R. Volatile flavours in raw egg yolk of hens fed on different diets. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:2061-5 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have suggested that the composition of lipophilic components of egg yolk is influenced by the feed...
  5. Quillfeldt P, Poisbleau M, Parenteau C, Trouve C, Demongin L, van Noordwijk H, et al. Measuring corticosterone in seabird egg yolk and the presence of high yolk gestagen concentrations. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;173:11-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This was observed for both species. We further found species-specific differences in the actual corticosterone amounts present in the egg yolks...
  6. Parma Y, Chacana P, Roge A, Kahl A, Cangelosi A, Geoghegan P, et al. Antibodies anti-Shiga toxin 2 B subunit from chicken egg yolk: isolation, purification and neutralization efficacy. Toxicon. 2011;58:380-8 pubmed publisher
    ..observed 25 days after the first immunization and IgY antibodies were extracted from day 47th and purified from egg yolk. A concentration of 0.84 mg of total IgY/ml of egg yolk was obtained, of which 8% were antigen specific...
  7. Spence J, Jenkins D, Davignon J. Egg yolk consumption and carotid plaque. Atherosclerosis. 2012;224:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide perspective on the magnitude of the effect, we also analysed the effect of smoking (pack-years)...
  8. Bourin M, Gautron J, Berges M, Nys Y, Rehault Godbert S. Sex- and tissue-specific expression of "similar to nothepsin" and cathepsin D in relation to egg yolk formation in Gallus gallus. Poult Sci. 2012;91:2288-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Egg yolk constitutes the main storage compartment of the avian egg and the first nutritional source that supports embryonic growth...
  9. Vega C, Bok M, Chacana P, Saif L, Fernandez F, Parreño V. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;142:156-69 pubmed publisher
    ..IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves...
  10. Malekshahi Z, Gargari S, Rasooli I, Ebrahimizadeh W. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in mice with oral administration of egg yolk-driven anti-UreC immunoglobulin. Microb Pathog. 2011;51:366-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present research attempts have been made to study the effect of IgY purified from egg yolk of hens immunized with recombinant UreC in treatment of mice infected with H. pylori.
  11. Pfannkuche K, Gahr M, Weites I, Riedstra B, Wolf C, Groothuis T. Examining a pathway for hormone mediated maternal effects--yolk testosterone affects androgen receptor expression and endogenous testosterone production in young chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;172:487-93 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate both pathways, testosterone within the physiological range or vehicle only was injected into the egg yolk of unincubated chicken eggs and AR mRNA expression in different brain nuclei as well as plasma testosterone ..
  12. Chanapiwat P, Kaeoket K, Tummaruk P. Cryopreservation of boar semen by egg yolk-based extenders containing lactose or fructose is better than sorbitol. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:351-4 pubmed
    ..study determined the effect of different types of sugars (lactose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol) used in egg yolk-based extender on the post-thawed boar semen quality...
  13. Dai Y, Wang Y, Zhang X, Tan M, Xia M, Wu X, et al. Evaluation of anti-norovirus IgY from egg yolk of chickens immunized with norovirus P particles. J Virol Methods. 2012;186:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..7-9.2mg/egg yolk. The egg yolk antibodies strongly reacted with NoV P particles by both ELISA and Western blot and blocked NoV ..
  14. Parma Y, Chacana P, Lucchesi P, Roge A, Granobles Velandia C, Kruger A, et al. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli...
  15. Jung S, Kim D, Son J, Nam K, Ahn D, Jo C. The functional property of egg yolk phosvitin as a melanogenesis inhibitor. Food Chem. 2012;135:993-8 pubmed publisher
    Phosvitin is a phosphoglycoprotein present in egg yolk. More than half of the amino acids in phosvitin molecule are serine, of which >90% are phosphorylated. Therefore, phosvitin has a strong metal binding capability...
  16. Ramos I, Miranda K, Ulrich P, Ingram P, LEFURGEY A, Machado E, et al. Calcium- and polyphosphate-containing acidocalcisomes in chicken egg yolk. Biol Cell. 2010;102:421-34 pubmed publisher
  17. Hernández Campos F, Brito De la Fuente E, Torrestiana Sánchez B. Purification of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) by ultrafiltration: effect of pH, ionic strength, and membrane properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:187-93 pubmed publisher
    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) was purified from hen egg yolk water-soluble protein fraction by ultrafiltration-diafiltration with different membranes...
  18. Hirai K, Arimitsu H, Umeda K, Yokota K, Shen L, Ayada K, et al. Passive oral immunization by egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) to Vibrio cholerae effectively prevents cholera. Acta Med Okayama. 2010;64:163-70 pubmed
    In an attempt to prepare egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) to treat and prevent cholera, hens were immunized by a mixture of heat- or formalin-killed Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 organisms, or by the recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)...
  19. Liu W, Li D, Liu J, Chen S, Qu L, Zheng J, et al. A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28600 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs...
  20. Kovacs Nolan J, Mine Y. Egg yolk antibodies for passive immunity. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2012;3:163-82 pubmed publisher
    ..required for the developing embryo, including antibodies that are transported from the blood of the hen into the egg yolk to provide immunity to the chick...
  21. Jeong O, Kim M, Kang H, Ha G, Oh J, Yoo J, et al. Validation of egg yolk antibody based C-ELISA for avian influenza surveillance in breeder duck. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..To further effective antibody screening in laying breeder ducks, we validated the egg yolk antibody as alternative source to serum for AIV antibody...
  22. Du Bois S, Len J, Parlevliet J, Eilts B. Effects of cooling time on membrane integrity and motility of frozen-thawed canine spermatozoa using two different commercial egg yolk-based extenders at two different cooldown equilibration times. Reprod Domest Anim. 2012;47 Suppl 6:278-80 pubmed publisher
    Two commercially available egg yolk-based semen extenders, one marketed for human semen freezing (HEYE) and one marketed for canine semen freezing (CEYE), were used to cryopreserve semen from single ejaculates of 11 different dogs...
  23. Lee J, Kim C. Determination of allergenic egg proteins in food by protein-, mass spectrometry-, and DNA-based methods. J AOAC Int. 2010;93:462-77 pubmed
    ..for detecting egg allergens in foods using egg allergen standards such as egg whole protein, egg white protein, egg yolk protein, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, lysozyme, and alpha-livetin...
  24. Amo A, Rodriguez Perez R, Blanco J, Villota J, Juste S, Moneo I, et al. Gal d 6 is the second allergen characterized from egg yolk. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7453-7 pubmed publisher
    Only one allergen from the egg yolk, alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) has been described thus far. A new egg yolk allergen was detected studying 27 egg allergic patients...
  25. Xu Y, Li X, Jin L, Zhen Y, Lu Y, Li S, et al. Application of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins in the control of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases: a review. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29:860-8 pubmed publisher
    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) has attracted considerable attention as a means of controlling infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin...
  26. Mañé J, Lorén V, Pedrosa E, Ojanguren I, Domenech E, Gassull M, et al. Therapeutic effect of antisecretory factor-rich egg yolk on the late phases of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid colitis in mice. Br J Nutr. 2011;106:1522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, freeze-dried egg yolk can be used as a source of exogenous AF...
  27. Okuliarová M, Kostal L, Zeman M. Effects of divergent selection for yolk testosterone content on growth characteristics of Japanese quail. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2011;160:81-6 pubmed publisher
  28. Ho D, Reed W, Burggren W. Egg yolk environment differentially influences physiological and morphological development of broiler and layer chicken embryos. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), transgenerational transfer of egg yolk factors may set the stage for morphological and physiological phenotypic differences observed among breeds...
  29. Schwabl H, Holmes D, Strasser R, Scheuerlein A. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird. Age (Dordr). 2012;34:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or aging over the lifespan of adult birds...
  30. Guesdon V, Bertin A, Houdelier C, Lumineau S, Formanek L, Kotrschal K, et al. A place to hide in the home-cage decreases yolk androgen levels and offspring emotional reactivity in Japanese quail. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23941 pubmed publisher
    ..This transgenerational effect caused by an opportunity to hide could lead to applications in care of laboratory animals, conservation biology and animal welfare...
  31. Fulton J, Soller M, Lund A, Arango J, Lipkin E. Variation in the ovocalyxin-32 gene in commercial egg-laying chickens and its relationship with egg production and egg quality traits. Anim Genet. 2012;43 Suppl 1:102-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of the lines showed a significant change in OCX32 frequency over time, indicating selection pressure for certain variants of this gene during the breeding program...
  32. Guibert F, Richard Yris M, Lumineau S, Kotrschal K, Guémené D, Bertin A, et al. Social instability in laying quail: consequences on yolk steroids and offspring's phenotype. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14069 pubmed publisher
  33. Araújo A, Lobato Z, Chavez Olortegui C, Velarde D. Brazilian IgY-Bothrops antivenom: Studies on the development of a process in chicken egg yolk. Toxicon. 2010;55:739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunization process was carried out in three cycles, each performed six weeks apart. For extraction, the egg yolk was diluted 1:10 in distilled water, adjusted to a pH of 5...
  34. Shiva Shankar Reddy N, Jagan Mohanarao G, Atreja S. Effects of adding taurine and trehalose to a tris-based egg yolk extender on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm quality following cryopreservation. Anim Reprod Sci. 2010;119:183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender along with cryoprotectants like taurine (50 mM) or trehalose (100 mM) and used for the assessment of ..
  35. Poisbleau M, Carslake D, Demongin L, Eens M, Chastel O, Quillfeldt P. Yolk androgen deposition without an energetic cost for female rockhopper penguins: a compensatory strategy to accelerate brood reduction?. Biol Lett. 2011;7:605-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the B-egg is usually the first to hatch and the only one to produce a fledging chick, we hypothesize that differential yolk androgen deposition may be an adaptive strategy for females to affect brood reduction...
  36. Singh A, Singh V, Narwade B, Mohanty T, Atreja S. Comparative quality assessment of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen chilled (5°C) in egg yolk- and soya milk-based extenders. Reprod Domest Anim. 2012;47:596-600 pubmed publisher
    b>Egg yolk-Tris is most commonly used semen extender; however, its use involves hygienic risk, interference with fertility and poor microscopic examination...
  37. Okuliarová M, Groothuis T, Skrobánek P, Zeman M. Experimental evidence for genetic heritability of maternal hormone transfer to offspring. Am Nat. 2011;177:824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that transfer of maternal T represents an indirect genetic effect that has important consequences for the evolution of traits in offspring...
  38. Zaman S, Mannan J, Lange S, Lönnroth I, Hanson L. B 221, a medical food containing antisecretory factor reduces child diarrhoea: a placebo controlled trial. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:1655-9 pubmed
    We investigated whether egg yolk in the form of B221 (Salovum), a medical food containing antisecretory factor (AF) might be used for treatment of acute and prolonged diarrhoea...
  39. Beck J, Swayne D, Davison S, Casavant S, Gutierrez C. Validation of egg yolk antibody testing as a method to determine influenza status in white leghorn hens. Avian Dis. 2003;47:1196-9 pubmed
    ..However, for many diseases, detection of antibodies in egg yolk has been effective in monitoring the disease status of laying flocks...
  40. Bautista Ortega J, Goeger D, Cherian G. Egg yolk omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids modify tissue lipid components, antioxidant status, and ex vivo eicosanoid production in chick cardiac tissue. Poult Sci. 2009;88:1167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..3% for low, medium, and high n-3 eggs, respectively (P < 0.001). Total long-chain (>20 C) n-6 FA in the egg yolk were 7.4, 2.1, and 1.3 for low n-3, medium n-3, and high n-3 eggs, respectively (P < 0.001)...
  41. Goerlich V, Dijkstra C, Schaafsma S, Groothuis T. Testosterone has a long-term effect on primary sex ratio of first eggs in pigeons--in search of a mechanism. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;163:184-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite T treatment elevating maternal plasma levels, egg yolk T concentrations did not differ between treatment groups and did not vary with embryo sex, suggesting that yolk T ..
  42. Groothuis T, Carere C, Lipar J, Drent P, Schwabl H. Selection on personality in a songbird affects maternal hormone levels tuned to its effect on timing of reproduction. Biol Lett. 2008;4:465-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate a correlated response in maternal hormone transfer to genetic selection on personality, which relates to ecological conditions. ..
  43. Andersson S, Uller T, Lõhmus M, Sundstrom F. Effects of egg yolk testosterone on growth and immunity in a precocial bird. J Evol Biol. 2004;17:501-5 pubmed
    ..Adaptive scenarios where only beneficial effects of increased testosterone levels are considered may therefore need to be re-evaluated. ..
  44. Ko K, Ahn D. Preparation of immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk using ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. Poult Sci. 2007;86:400-7 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to develop an economical, simple, and large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk diluted with 9 volumes of cold water was centrifuged after adjusting the pH to 5.0...
  45. Dong Q, Vandevoort C. Effect of egg yolk on cryopreservation of rhesus monkey ejaculated and epididymal sperm. J Androl. 2009;30:309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we tested whether modification of the concentration of egg yolk, the dilution method, and the time delay between ejaculation and adding egg yolk would result in significant ..
  46. Sarker S, Pant N, Juneja L, Hammarstrom L. Successful treatment of rotavirus-induced diarrhoea in suckling mice with egg yolk immunoglobulin. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25:465-8 pubmed
    ..Oral immunoglobulin therapy with egg yolk-derived anti-rotavirus immunoglobulins has previously been shown to achieve moderate therapeutic effect in ..
  47. Lovern M, Wade J. Maternal plasma and egg yolk testosterone concentrations during embryonic development in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2001;124:226-35 pubmed
  48. Sockman K, Schwabl H. Plasma corticosterone in nestling american kestrels: effects of age, handling stress, yolk androgens, and body condition. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2001;122:205-12 pubmed
    ..The short- and long-term consequences of high glucocorticosteroid levels in young, developing vertebrates are largely unknown...
  49. Zhen Y, Jin L, Guo J, Li X, Li Z, Fang R, et al. Characterization of specific egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105:1529-35 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the in vitro activity of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus.
  50. Devi C, Bai M, Lal A, Umashankar P, Krishnan L. An improved method for isolation of anti-viper venom antibodies from chicken egg yolk. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2002;51:129-38 pubmed
    ..Here, we present the development of polyclonal antibodies against viper venom in hens and its isolation from the egg yolk of immunized birds...
  51. Niall Daisley J, Bromundt V, Möstl E, Kotrschal K. Enhanced yolk testosterone influences behavioral phenotype independent of sex in Japanese quail chicks Coturnix japonica. Horm Behav. 2005;47:185-94 pubmed
    ..We conclude that testosterone in the yolk influences the coping style of hatchlings and may be a potential means of maternal influence on offspring phenotype...
  52. Nakane S, Tokumura A, Waku K, Sugiura T. Hen egg yolk and white contain high amounts of lysophosphatidic acids, growth factor-like lipids: distinct molecular species compositions. Lipids. 2001;36:413-9 pubmed
    Hen egg yolk and white were found to contain high amounts of lysophosphatidic acid (acyl LPA) in addition to small amounts of lysoplasmanic acid (alkyl LPA). The levels of acyl LPA in hen egg yolk (44.23 nmol/g tissue) and white (8...
  53. Fujii R, Yamashita S, Hibi M, Hirano T. Asymmetric p38 activation in zebrafish: its possible role in symmetric and synchronous cleavage. J Cell Biol. 2000;150:1335-48 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that asymmetric p38 activation is required for symmetric and synchronous cleavage, and may be regulated by the same machinery that controls the initiation of dorsalizing signals...
  54. Hargitai R, Matus Z, Hegyi G, Michl G, Toth G, Torok J. Antioxidants in the egg yolk of a wild passerine: differences between breeding seasons. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;143:145-52 pubmed
    ..Vitamin E concentration was positively correlated with total carotenoid concentration, which may be beneficial for the nestlings as these antioxidants synergistically provide better protection...
  55. Bathgate R, Maxwell W, Evans G. Studies on the effect of supplementing boar semen cryopreservation media with different avian egg yolk types on in vitro post-thaw sperm quality. Reprod Domest Anim. 2006;41:68-73 pubmed
    ..and acrosome integrity of boar sperm, semen was frozen using an adapted Westendorf method in which the chicken egg yolk was replaced by either duck or quail egg yolk...
  56. Cappelier J, Besnard V, Roche S, Velge P, Federighi M. Avirulent viable but non culturable cells of Listeria monocytogenes need the presence of an embryo to be recovered in egg yolk and regain virulence after recovery. Vet Res. 2007;38:573-83 pubmed
    ..Although the cells were classified as avirulent when in the VBNC state, the virulence was recovered after resuscitation...
  57. Chaudhuri S, Basu K, Sengupta B, Banerjee A, Sengupta P. Ground- and excited-state proton transfer and antioxidant activity of 3-hydroxyflavone in egg yolk phosphatidylcholine liposomes: absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. Luminescence. 2008;23:397-403 pubmed publisher
    ..of 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) have been utilized to monitor its binding to liposomal membranes prepared from egg yolk phosphatydilcholine (EYPC)...
  58. Meenatchisundaram S, Parameswari G, Michael A, Ramalingam S. Neutralization of the pharmacological effects of Cobra and Krait venoms by chicken egg yolk antibodies. Toxicon. 2008;52:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..booster doses of increasing concentrations of venom at 14 days time intervals to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. The antivenom from immunized chicken egg yolk was extracted by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ammonium sulphate ..
  59. Gil D, Graves J, Hazon N, Wells A. Male attractiveness and differential testosterone investment in zebra finch eggs. Science. 1999;286:126-8 pubmed
    ..This study shows that female birds deposit higher amounts of testosterone and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in their eggs when mated to more attractive males...
  60. Rettenbacher S, Möstl E, Groothuis T. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;164:125-9 pubmed publisher
  61. Owusu Asiedu A, Nyachoti C, Baidoo S, Marquardt R, Yang X. Response of early-weaned pigs to an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88) challenge when fed diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma or pea protein isolate plus egg yolk antibody. J Anim Sci. 2003;81:1781-9 pubmed
    ..The effect of supplementing a pea protein isolate (PPI)-based diet with egg yolk antibodies (EYA) from laying hens immunized with ETEC K88 antigen on piglet performance, incidence of scours, and ..
  62. Farinazzo A, Restuccia U, Bachi A, Guerrier L, Fortis F, Boschetti E, et al. Chicken egg yolk cytoplasmic proteome, mined via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:1241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..or with a terminal tertiary amine, allowed discovering and identifying a large number of previously unreported egg yolk proteins. Whereas the most comprehensive list up to date [K. Mann, M...
  63. Pedersen L, Herrmann B, Møller J. Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009;55:120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is important to realize that culture of C. trachomatis may still be needed to detect and characterize new variants of C. trachomatis...