germ cells


Summary: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.

Top Publications

  1. van de Lavoir M, COLLARINI E, Leighton P, Fesler J, Lu D, Harriman W, et al. Interspecific germline transmission of cultured primordial germ cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35664 pubmed publisher
    ..From a pragmatic perspective, these data are the basis of a novel strategy to produce endangered species of birds using domesticated hosts that are both tractable and fecund. ..
  2. Leitch H, Tang W, Surani M. Primordial germ-cell development and epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2013;104:149-87 pubmed publisher
    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of the gametes and represent the founder cells of the germline. Specification of PGCs is a critical divergent point during embryogenesis...
  3. Lee W, Park H, Lee R, Lee K, Kim Y, Ryu B, et al. Establishment and in vitro culture of porcine spermatogonial germ cells in low temperature culture conditions. Stem Cell Res. 2013;11:1234-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, pSGCs from neonatal porcine were successfully established and cultured for long periods under a low temperature culture environment in vitro. ..
  4. Intarapat S, Stern C. Sexually dimorphic and sex-independent left-right asymmetries in chicken embryonic gonads. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69893 pubmed publisher
    ..In males, however, testes develop on both sides. We examined the distribution of germ cells using Vasa/Cvh as a marker...
  5. Boisen A, SHIPLEY T, Jackson P, Wallin H, Nellemann C, Vogel U, et al. In utero exposure to nanosized carbon black (Printex90) does not induce tandem repeat mutations in female murine germ cells. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;41:45-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ESTR mutation rates in CB-exposed F2 female offspring were not statistically different from those of F2 female control offspring. ..
  6. Ohno R, Nakayama M, Naruse C, Okashita N, Takano O, Tachibana M, et al. A replication-dependent passive mechanism modulates DNA demethylation in mouse primordial germ cells. Development. 2013;140:2892-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, primordial germ cells (PGCs) erase genome-wide DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation marks in a stepwise manner during migration and ..
  7. Okumura L, Lesch B, Page D. The ligand binding domain of GCNF is not required for repression of pluripotency genes in mouse fetal ovarian germ cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66062 pubmed publisher
    In mice, successful development and reproduction require that all cells, including germ cells, transition from a pluripotent to a differentiated state. This transition is associated with silencing of the pluripotency genes Oct4 and Nanog...
  8. Looijenga L, van Agthoven T, Biermann K. Development of malignant germ cells - the genvironmental hypothesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2013;57:241-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In the context of male germ cells, only three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and ..
  9. Skinner M, Guerrero Bosagna C, Haque M, Nilsson E, Bhandari R, McCarrey J. Environmentally induced transgenerational epigenetic reprogramming of primordial germ cells and the subsequent germ line. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66318 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, disruptions in DNA methylation patterns and altered transcriptomes were distinct between germ cells at the onset of gonadal sex determination at embryonic day 13 (E13) and after cord formation in the testis at ..

More Information


  1. Tedesco M, Desimio M, Klinger F, De Felici M, Farini D. Minimal concentrations of retinoic acid induce stimulation by retinoic acid 8 and promote entry into meiosis in isolated pregonadal and gonadal mouse primordial germ cells. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:145 pubmed publisher
    ..5-days postcoitum (dpc) XX and XY mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) in culture...
  2. Nakaki F, Hayashi K, Ohta H, Kurimoto K, Yabuta Y, Saitou M. Induction of mouse germ-cell fate by transcription factors in vitro. Nature. 2013;501:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a new insight into the transcriptional logic for PGC specification, and create a foundation for the transcription-factor-based reconstitution and regulation of mammalian gametogenesis. ..
  3. Lei L, Spradling A. Mouse primordial germ cells produce cysts that partially fragment prior to meiosis. Development. 2013;140:2075-81 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian germ cells divide mitotically and form nests of associated cells just prior to entering meiosis...
  4. Naeemipour M, Dehghani H, Bassami M, Bahrami A. Expression dynamics of pluripotency genes in chicken primordial germ cells before and after colonization of the genital ridges. Mol Reprod Dev. 2013;80:849-61 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not known if avian species utilize a similar mechanism nor if, analogous to mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs), pluripotency genes are continuously upregulated in migrating and genital ridge-colonizing avian PGCs...
  5. Gazave E, Béhague J, Laplane L, Guillou A, Préau L, Demilly A, et al. Posterior elongation in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii involves stem cells molecularly related to primordial germ cells. Dev Biol. 2013;382:246-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of these genes are expressed both in the migrating primordial germ cells and in overlapping ring-like patterns in the SAZ, similar to some previously analyzed genes (piwi, vasa)...
  6. Rengaraj D, Park T, Lee S, Lee B, Han B, Song G, et al. Regulation of glucose phosphate isomerase by the 3'UTR-specific miRNAs miR-302b and miR-17-5p in chicken primordial germ cells. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:33 pubmed publisher
    ..Because glucose metabolism is crucial for the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic stem and germ cells, reducing GPI expression may affect the characteristic features of these cells...
  7. Ishii T, Pera R, Greely H. Ethical and legal issues arising in research on inducing human germ cells from pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:145-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss important ethical, legal, and social issues that would be raised by the development of such female or male gametes for clinical use. ..
  8. Magnúsdóttir E, Dietmann S, Murakami K, Günesdogan U, Tang F, Bao S, et al. A tripartite transcription factor network regulates primordial germ cell specification in mice. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate that, in principle, BLIMP1, AP2γ and PRDM14 are sufficient for PGC specification, and the unprecedented resetting of the epigenome towards a basal state. ..
  9. Evans T, Wade C, Chapman F, Johnson A, Loose M. Acquisition of germ plasm accelerates vertebrate evolution. Science. 2014;344:200-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that germ plasm liberates constraints on somatic development and that enhanced evolvability drives the evolution of germ plasm. ..
  10. Aramaki S, Hayashi K, Kurimoto K, Ohta H, Yabuta Y, Iwanari H, et al. A mesodermal factor, T, specifies mouse germ cell fate by directly activating germline determinants. Dev Cell. 2013;27:516-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Germ cells ensure reproduction and heredity. In mice, primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors for spermatozoa and oocytes, are induced in pluripotent epiblast by BMP4 and WNT3, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
  11. Easley C, Latov D, Simerly C, Schatten G. Adult somatic cells to the rescue: nuclear reprogramming and the dispensability of gonadal germ cells. Fertil Steril. 2014;101:14-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this research is to generate functional gametes from no greater starting material than a mere skin biopsy. ..
  12. Hayashi K, Saitou M. Stepwise differentiation from naïve state pluripotent stem cells to functional primordial germ cells through an epiblast-like state. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1074:175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..some of the postimplantation epiblast cells adjacent to the extraembryonic ectoderm are specified as primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of the germ cell lineage, in response to bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)...
  13. Ewen Campen B, Donoughe S, Clarke D, Extavour C. Germ cell specification requires zygotic mechanisms rather than germ plasm in a basally branching insect. Curr Biol. 2013;23:835-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there has been no direct experimental evidence to date for germ plasm-independent arthropod PGC specification...
  14. Mathieu J, Cauvin C, Moch C, Radford S, Sampaio P, Perdigoto C, et al. Aurora B and cyclin B have opposite effects on the timing of cytokinesis abscission in Drosophila germ cells and in vertebrate somatic cells. Dev Cell. 2013;26:250-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Aurora B and Survivin regulate the number of germ cells in each Drosophila egg chamber by inhibiting abscission during differentiation...
  15. Ermolaeva M, Segref A, Dakhovnik A, Ou H, Schneider J, Utermöhlen O, et al. DNA damage in germ cells induces an innate immune response that triggers systemic stress resistance. Nature. 2013;501:416-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In adult Caenorhabditis elegans worms germ cells undergo mitotic and meiotic cell divisions, whereas somatic tissues are entirely post-mitotic...
  16. Allen J, de Paula W. Mitochondrial genome function and maternal inheritance. Biochem Soc Trans. 2013;41:1298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..e. male and female. Maternal inheritance then circumvents incremental accumulation of age-related disease in each new generation. ..
  17. Tyack S, Jenkins K, O Neil T, Wise T, Morris K, Bruce M, et al. A new method for producing transgenic birds via direct in vivo transfection of primordial germ cells. Transgenic Res. 2013;22:1257-64 pubmed publisher
    ..manipulations involving either retroviral infection of blastoderms or the ex vivo manipulation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) followed by injection of the cells back into a recipient embryo...
  18. Venhoranta H, Pausch H, Wysocki M, Szczerbal I, Hänninen R, Taponen J, et al. Ectopic KIT copy number variation underlies impaired migration of primordial germ cells associated with gonadal hypoplasia in cattle (Bos taurus). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75659 pubmed publisher
    Impaired migration of primordial germ cells during embryonic development causes hereditary gonadal hypoplasia in both sexes of Northern Finncattle and Swedish Mountain cattle...
  19. Krom Y, Thijssen P, Young J, den Hamer B, Balog J, Yao Z, et al. Intrinsic epigenetic regulation of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat in a transgenic mouse model for FSHD. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003415 pubmed publisher
    ..These transgenic mice therefore represent a valuable animal model for FSHD and will be a useful resource to study the molecular mechanisms underlying FSHD and to test new therapeutic intervention strategies...
  20. Schusser B, COLLARINI E, Yi H, Izquierdo S, Fesler J, Pedersen D, et al. Immunoglobulin knockout chickens via efficient homologous recombination in primordial germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20170-5 pubmed publisher
    ..the joining (J) gene segment of the chicken Ig heavy chain gene by homologous recombination in primordial germ cells to establish fully transgenic chickens carrying the knockout...
  21. Kristensen D, Skakkebæk N, Rajpert De Meyts E, Almstrup K. Epigenetic features of testicular germ cell tumours in relation to epigenetic characteristics of foetal germ cells. Int J Dev Biol. 2013;57:309-17 pubmed publisher
    Foetal development of germ cells is a unique biological process orchestrated by cellular specification, migration and niche development in concert with extensive epigenetic and transcriptional programs...
  22. Shirazi R, Zarnani A, Soleimani M, Abdolvahabi M, Nayernia K, Ragerdi Kashani I. BMP4 can generate primordial germ cells from bone-marrow-derived pluripotent stem cells. Cell Biol Int. 2012;36:1185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..male and female gametes, oocyte and sperm, are derived from a specific cell population, PGCs (primordial germ cells) that segregate early in embryogenesis...
  23. Arnaiz O, Mathy N, Baudry C, Malinsky S, Aury J, Denby Wilkes C, et al. The Paramecium germline genome provides a niche for intragenic parasitic DNA: evolutionary dynamics of internal eliminated sequences. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002984 pubmed publisher
  24. Lehmann R. Germline stem cells: origin and destiny. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:729-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This perspective highlights some examples of this regulation to illustrate the diversity and complexity of the mechanisms involved. ..
  25. Bailly A, Gartner A. Germ cell apoptosis and DNA damage responses. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;757:249-76 pubmed publisher
    ..It became evident that multiple genetic pathways lead to the apoptotic demise of germ cells. We are only beginning to understand how these pathways that all require the CED-9/Bcl-2, Apaf-1/CED-4 and CED-3 ..
  26. Ayadi A, Birling M, Bottomley J, Bussell J, Fuchs H, Fray M, et al. Mouse large-scale phenotyping initiatives: overview of the European Mouse Disease Clinic (EUMODIC) and of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project. Mamm Genome. 2012;23:600-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These efforts provide an important underpinning for a future global programme that will undertake the complete functional annotation of the mammalian genome in the mouse model. ..
  27. Ge C, Yu M, Zhang C. G protein-coupled receptor 30 mediates estrogen-induced proliferation of primordial germ cells via EGFR/Akt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3504-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it remains unclear whether estrogens are able to modulate development of the fetal germ cells. Here, we show that, unexpectedly, chicken primordial germ cells (PGC) lacking estrogen receptor ?/? still ..
  28. Yang Q, Racicot K, Kaucher A, Oatley M, Oatley J. MicroRNAs 221 and 222 regulate the undifferentiated state in mammalian male germ cells. Development. 2013;140:280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that miR-221/222 plays a crucial role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of mammalian spermatogonia through repression of KIT expression. ..
  29. Ray B, D Souza A, Potu B, Saxena A. Effect of cyclophosphamide exposure on the migration of primordial germ cells in rat fetuses. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2012;113:637-40 pubmed
    Effect of a single dose of cyclophosphamide on migration of the primordial germ cells (PGC), when they are about to reach gonadal ridge was investigated histochemically by staining for alkaline phosphatase...
  30. Leitch H, McEwen K, Turp A, Encheva V, Carroll T, Grabole N, et al. Naive pluripotency is associated with global DNA hypomethylation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:311-6 pubmed publisher
    Naive pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and embryonic germ cells (EGCs) are derived from the preimplantation epiblast and primordial germ cells (PGCs), respectively...
  31. Wang C, Wilson Berry L, Schedl T, Hansen D. TEG-1 CD2BP2 regulates stem cell proliferation and sex determination in the C. elegans germ line and physically interacts with the UAF-1 U2AF65 splicing factor. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:505-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of TEG-1 CD2BP2 with UAF-1 U2AF65, combined with its previously described function in U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP, suggests that TEG-1 CD2BP2 functions in two distinct locations in the splicing cascade. ..
  32. Miles D, Van Den Bergen J, Wakeling S, Anderson R, Sinclair A, Western P. The proto-oncogene Ret is required for male foetal germ cell survival. Dev Biol. 2012;365:101-9 pubmed publisher
    The spermatogenic and oogenic lineages originate from bipotential primordial germ cells in response to signalling in the foetal testis or ovary, respectively...
  33. Li Y, Maines J, Tastan O, McKearin D, Buszczak M. Mei-P26 regulates the maintenance of ovarian germline stem cells by promoting BMP signaling. Development. 2012;139:1547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Within undifferentiated germ cells, Mei-P26 associates with miRNA pathway components and represses the translation of a shared target mRNA, ..
  34. Villarroel Espíndola F, Maldonado R, Mancilla H, Vander Stelt K, Acuña A, Covarrubias A, et al. Muscle glycogen synthase isoform is responsible for testicular glycogen synthesis: glycogen overproduction induces apoptosis in male germ cells. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:1653-64 pubmed publisher
  35. White Y, Woods D, Takai Y, Ishihara O, Seki H, Tilly J. Oocyte formation by mitotically active germ cells purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women. Nat Med. 2012;18:413-21 pubmed publisher purify rare mitotically active cells that have a gene expression profile that is consistent with primitive germ cells. Once established in vitro, these cells can be expanded for months and can spontaneously generate 35- to 50-?m ..
  36. Okamura D, Mochizuki K, Taniguchi H, Tokitake Y, Ikeda M, Yamada Y, et al. REST and its downstream molecule Mek5 regulate survival of primordial germ cells. Dev Biol. 2012;372:190-202 pubmed publisher
    In mouse embryos, some primordial germ cells (PGCs) are eliminated by apoptosis, but the molecular pathways that lead to PGC survival versus apoptosis have not been fully characterized...
  37. Lin F, Xu S, Ma D, Xiao Z, Zhao C, Xiao Y, et al. Germ line specific expression of a vasa homologue gene in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): evidence for vasa localization at cleavage furrows in euteleostei. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:803-13 pubmed publisher
    Specification of primordial germ cells during early embryogenesis is a critical biological issue in reproduction and development. Yet, little is known in marine economic fish species...
  38. Webster C, Deline M, Watts J. Stress response pathways protect germ cells from omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-mediated toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev Biol. 2013;373:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..dietary exposure to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), an omega-6 fatty acid, causes the destruction of germ cells and leads to sterility...
  39. Saffer A, Kim D, van Oudenaarden A, Horvitz H. The Caenorhabditis elegans synthetic multivulva genes prevent ras pathway activation by tightly repressing global ectopic expression of lin-3 EGF. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002418 pubmed publisher
    ..Analogous genes in mammals might function as tumor suppressors by preventing broad ectopic expression of EGF-like ligands. ..
  40. Kobayashi H, Sakurai T, Miura F, Imai M, Mochiduki K, Yanagisawa E, et al. High-resolution DNA methylome analysis of primordial germ cells identifies gender-specific reprogramming in mice. Genome Res. 2013;23:616-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in male and female mouse primordial germ cells at embryonic days 10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 by whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing...
  41. Yoon S, Kawasaki I, Shim Y. CDC-25.1 controls the rate of germline mitotic cell cycle by counteracting WEE-1.3 and by positively regulating CDK-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:1354-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that CDC-25.1 regulates the rate of germline mitotic cell cycle by counteracting WEE-1.3 and by positively controlling CDK-1, which forms a complex primarily with CYB-3, but also possibly with CYD-1 and CYE-1. ..
  42. Seisenberger S, Peat J, Hore T, Santos F, Dean W, Reik W. Reprogramming DNA methylation in the mammalian life cycle: building and breaking epigenetic barriers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20110330 pubmed publisher
    ..reprogramming of DNA methylation takes place firstly on fertilization in the zygote, and secondly in primordial germ cells (PGCs), which are the direct progenitors of sperm or oocyte...
  43. Piccolo F, Bağci H, Brown K, Landeira D, Soza Ried J, Feytout A, et al. Different roles for Tet1 and Tet2 proteins in reprogramming-mediated erasure of imprints induced by EGC fusion. Mol Cell. 2013;49:1023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the Tet1 and Tet2 proteins have discrete roles in cell-fusion-mediated pluripotent reprogramming and imprint erasure in somatic cells. ..
  44. Parrott B, Hudson A, Brady R, Schulz C. Control of germline stem cell division frequency--a novel, developmentally regulated role for epidermal growth factor signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36460 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, regulation of GSC division frequency is a specific role for EGF signaling as it is not affected in all tumor models. These data advance our understanding concerning stem cell dynamics in normal tissues and in a tumor model. ..
  45. He Z, Wu Y, Xie J, Wang T, Zhang L, Zhang W. Growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) was localized in the female as well as male germ cells in a protogynous hermaphroditic teleost fish, ricefield eel Monopterus albus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;178:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results of present study suggested that Gdf9 may play important roles in the folliculogenesis as well as spermatogenesis in ricefield eels. ..
  46. Park T, Han J. piggyBac transposition into primordial germ cells is an efficient tool for transgenesis in chickens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that piggyBac transposition into the chicken PGC line could be the surest way to generate transgenic chickens safely for practical applications...
  47. Cantone I, Fisher A. Epigenetic programming and reprogramming during development. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:282-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize current models of epigenetic erasure and discuss the various enzymes and mechanisms that may operate in cellular reprogramming. ..
  48. Siddiqui N, Li X, Luo H, Karaiskakis A, Hou H, Kislinger T, et al. Genome-wide analysis of the maternal-to-zygotic transition in Drosophila primordial germ cells. Genome Biol. 2012;13:R11 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous genome-wide analyses of the MZT have been restricted to whole embryos. Here we report the first such analysis for primordial germ cells (PGCs), the progenitors of the germ-line stem cells.
  49. Childs A, Kinnell H, He J, Anderson R. LIN28 is selectively expressed by primordial and pre-meiotic germ cells in the human fetal ovary. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:2343-9 pubmed publisher mice, and LIN28 is expressed in human germ cell tumors with phenotypic similarities to human fetal germ cells. We have therefore examined the expression of LIN28 during normal germ cell development in the human fetal ovary,..
  50. Sugimoto R, Nabeshima Y, Yoshida S. Retinoic acid metabolism links the periodical differentiation of germ cells with the cycle of Sertoli cells in mouse seminiferous epithelium. Mech Dev. 2012;128:610-24 pubmed publisher
    ..actions of exogenous RA signaling on A(undiff) and Sertoli cells were strongly interfered by the differentiating germ cells of intimate location...
  51. Shibata Y, Kumar P, Layer R, Willcox S, Gagan J, Griffith J, et al. Extrachromosomal microDNAs and chromosomal microdeletions in normal tissues. Science. 2012;336:82-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We have thus identified a previously unknown DNA entity in mammalian cells and provide evidence that their generation leaves behind deletions in different genomic loci...
  52. Cai H, Xia X, Wang L, Liu Y, He Z, Guo Q, et al. In vitro and in vivo differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into male germ cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;433:286-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we induced the differentiation of miPS-4.1 cells into male germ cells, in vivo and in vitro. In the in vitro model, the behavior of miPS-4...
  53. Men H, Bauer B, Bryda E. Germline transmission of a novel rat embryonic stem cell line derived from transgenic rats. Stem Cells Dev. 2012;21:2606-12 pubmed publisher
  54. Kagiwada S, Kurimoto K, Hirota T, Yamaji M, Saitou M. Replication-coupled passive DNA demethylation for the erasure of genome imprints in mice. EMBO J. 2013;32:340-53 pubmed publisher
    Genome-wide DNA demethylation, including the erasure of genome imprints, in primordial germ cells (PGCs) is a critical first step to creating a totipotent epigenome in the germ line...
  55. Dennis S, Sheth U, Feldman J, English K, Priess J. C. elegans germ cells show temperature and age-dependent expression of Cer1, a Gypsy/Ty3-related retrotransposon. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002591 pubmed publisher
    Virus-like particles (VLPs) have not been observed in Caenorhabditis germ cells, although nematode genomes contain low numbers of retrotransposon and retroviral sequences...
  56. Meier K, Mathieu E, Finkernagel F, Reuter L, Scharfe M, Doehlemann G, et al. LINT, a novel dL(3)mbt-containing complex, represses malignant brain tumour signature genes. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002676 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a direct role of LINT in the repression of brain tumour-relevant target genes by restricting promoter access...
  57. Patel T, Tursun B, Rahe D, Hobert O. Removal of Polycomb repressive complex 2 makes C. elegans germ cells susceptible to direct conversion into specific somatic cell types. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1178-86 pubmed publisher
    ..neuron-type-specific transcription factors ("terminal selectors") to convert Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells directly into specific neuron types...
  58. Kim B, Park K, Rhee K. Heat stress response of male germ cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:2623-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have provided insights into the molecular response of male germ cells to high temperatures...
  59. Shirayama M, Seth M, Lee H, Gu W, Ishidate T, Conte D, et al. piRNAs initiate an epigenetic memory of nonself RNA in the C. elegans germline. Cell. 2012;150:65-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest how organisms can utilize RNAi-related mechanisms to detect foreign sequences not by any molecular signature, but by comparing the foreign sequence to a memory of previous gene expression...
  60. Yu M, Yu P, Leghari I, Ge C, Mi Y, Zhang C. RALDH2, the enzyme for retinoic acid synthesis, mediates meiosis initiation in germ cells of the female embryonic chickens. Amino Acids. 2013;44:405-12 pubmed publisher
    Meiosis is a process unique to the differentiation of germ cells and exhibits sex-specific in timing...
  61. Chojnacka Puchta L, Kasperczyk K, Płucienniczak G, Sawicka D, Bednarczyk M. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) as a tool for creating transgenic chickens. Pol J Vet Sci. 2012;15:181-8 pubmed
    ..transgenic approaches have significant limitations in this species, an alternative approach employing primordial germ cells (PGCs), the progenitor cells to ova and spermatozoa, has now been successfully applied to the insertion of ..
  62. Macdonald J, Taylor L, Sherman A, Kawakami K, Takahashi Y, Sang H, et al. Efficient genetic modification and germ-line transmission of primordial germ cells using piggyBac and Tol2 transposons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E1466-72 pubmed publisher
    The derivation of germ-line competent avian primordial germ cells establishes a cell-based model system for the investigation of germ cell differentiation and the production of genetically modified animals...
  63. Rodriguez A, Allegrucci C, Alberio R. Modulation of pluripotency in the porcine embryo and iPS cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49079 pubmed publisher
    ..These improved culture conditions will pave the way for the generation of germline competent stem cells in this species...
  64. Seisenberger S, Peat J, Reik W. Conceptual links between DNA methylation reprogramming in the early embryo and primordial germ cells. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2013;25:281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..undergoes global reprogramming in the mammalian germ line, including pre-implantation embryos and primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
  65. Li P, Hu H, Yang S, Tian R, Zhang Z, Zhang W, et al. Differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into male germ cells in vitro through embryoid body formation and retinoic acid or testosterone induction. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:608728 pubmed publisher
    Generation of germ cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro could have great application for treating infertility and provides an excellent model for uncovering molecular mechanisms controlling gametogenesis...
  66. Smith Z, Meissner A. DNA methylation: roles in mammalian development. Nat Rev Genet. 2013;14:204-20 pubmed publisher
  67. Beer R, Draper B. nanos3 maintains germline stem cells and expression of the conserved germline stem cell gene nanos2 in the zebrafish ovary. Dev Biol. 2013;374:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that mitotic and early meiotic germ cells are present in the adult ovary and that the zebrafish homolog of the conserved vertebrate GSC marker, nanos2, is ..
  68. Yajima M, Wessel G. Autonomy in specification of primordial germ cells and their passive translocation in the sea urchin. Development. 2012;139:3786-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that sea urchin SMics share many more characteristics typical of PGCs than previously thought, and imply a more widely conserved system of germ line development among metazoans...
  69. de Vanssay A, Bouge A, Boivin A, Hermant C, Teysset L, Delmarre V, et al. Paramutation in Drosophila linked to emergence of a piRNA-producing locus. Nature. 2012;490:112-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provides a genetic model for the emergence of piRNA loci, as well as for RNA-mediated trans-generational repression of transposable elements...
  70. Proudhon C, Duffié R, Ajjan S, Cowley M, Iranzo J, Carbajosa G, et al. Protection against de novo methylation is instrumental in maintaining parent-of-origin methylation inherited from the gametes. Mol Cell. 2012;47:909-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide evidence that protection against de novo methylation acts as an equal major pivot, at implantation and throughout life...
  71. Nousch M, Eckmann C. Translational control in the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;757:205-47 pubmed publisher
    ..accessibility in the cell cytoplasm provides unique advantages over DNA-based controls for developing germ cells. This mode of gene expression is especially exploited in germ cell fate decisions and during oogenesis, when the ..
  72. Kamminga L, Van Wolfswinkel J, Luteijn M, Kaaij L, Bagijn M, Sapetschnig A, et al. Differential impact of the HEN1 homolog HENN-1 on 21U and 26G RNAs in the germline of Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002702 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies further refine our understanding of endogenous RNAi in C. elegans and the roles for Hen1 like enzymes in these pathways. ..
  73. Lutzmann M, Grey C, Traver S, Ganier O, Maya Mendoza A, Ranisavljevic N, et al. MCM8- and MCM9-deficient mice reveal gametogenesis defects and genome instability due to impaired homologous recombination. Mol Cell. 2012;47:523-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work uncovers essential functions of MCM8 and MCM9 in HR-mediated DSB repair during gametogenesis, replication fork maintenance, and DNA repair...
  74. Shen W, Park B, Toms D, Li J. Midkine promotes proliferation of primordial germ cells by inhibiting the expression of the deleted in azoospermia-like gene. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3482-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that MK is able to maintain a proliferative PGC phenotype mediated by the suppression of DAZL in early germ cells.
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    ..For this purpose, we focused on unipotent primordial germ cells (PGCs), which can be reprogrammed into pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells under defined conditions...
  76. Guibert S, Forné T, Weber M. Global profiling of DNA methylation erasure in mouse primordial germ cells. Genome Res. 2012;22:633-41 pubmed publisher loss of cytosine methylation and histone modifications, occurs during mammalian development in primordial germ cells (PGCs), yet the targets and kinetics of this process are poorly characterized...
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    Previous studies have revealed that mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming to reset the epigenome for totipotency...
  78. Gillich A, Bao S, Grabole N, Hayashi K, Trotter M, Pasque V, et al. Epiblast stem cell-based system reveals reprogramming synergy of germline factors. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:425-39 pubmed publisher
    Epigenetic reprogramming in early germ cells is critical toward the establishment of totipotency, but investigations of the germline events are intractable...
  79. Li X, Johnson R, Park D, Chin Sang I, Chamberlin H. Somatic gonad sheath cells and Eph receptor signaling promote germ-cell death in C. elegans. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1080-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and cell biological methods, we show that somatic gonad sheath cells, which also act as phagocytes of dying germ cells, promote death in the C. elegans germline through VAB-1/Eph receptor signaling...