clitoris

Summary

Summary: An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.

Top Publications

  1. Zaparackaite I, Barauskas V, Nielsen O, Jokela R. [Adrenogenital syndrome: feminizing genital reconstruction]. Medicina (Kaunas). 2002;38:706-11 pubmed
    ..There were 4 cases of vaginal stenosis and 2 cases of urethrovaginal fistula (all successfully repaired later). Early one staged genitoplasty and postoperative vaginal dilatations for the period of 6-12 months is recommended. ..
  2. Galli Tsinopoulou A, Emmanouilidou E, Karagianni P, Grigoriadou M, Kirkos J, Varlamis G. A female infant with Silver Russell Syndrome, mesocardia and enlargement of the clitoris. Hormones (Athens). 2008;7:77-81 pubmed
    ..We present a female infant with SRS, cardiac malposition and asymmetric enlargement of the clitoris. She is the first child of Greek nonconsanguinous parents, born at 38 weeks gestation, following in vitro ..
  3. Ingelman Sundberg A. The anterior vaginal wall as an organ for the transmission of active forces to the urethra and the clitoris. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1997;8:50-1 pubmed
    ..It also functions during intercourse to transmit the effect of penile introduction into the vagina to the clitoris, by stretching the two ligaments that insert around its base.
  4. Yoon H, Chung W, Park Y, Shim B, Han W, Kwon S. Effects of estrogen on nitric oxide synthase and histological composition in the rabbit clitoris and vagina. Int J Impot Res. 2001;13:205-11 pubmed
    We investigated the functional and histological changes after oophorectomy in the rabbit clitoris and vagina to determine the mechanism responsible for the development of arousal disorder in postmenopausal women...
  5. Kuo J, Smith L, Berkowitz C. A hair tourniquet resulting in strangulation and amputation of the clitoris. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:939-41 pubmed
    ..Appendages commonly involved include the toe, finger, and penis. We report a hair tourniquet resulting in amputation of the clitoris.
  6. Haidopoulos D, Elsheikh A, Vlahos G, Sotiropoulou M, Rodolakis A, Voulgaris Z, et al. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the clitoris in an elderly patient: report of a case. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2002;23:447-9 pubmed
    ..We report a case of malignant rhabdoid tumor of the clitoris occurring in an elderly patient...
  7. Hattori R, Kubo T, Yano K, Tanemura A, Yamaguchi Y, Itami S, et al. Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis of the clitoris. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:1071-2 pubmed
    Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS) is a relatively rare condition. Although NLCS can affect any region of the entire body, no case of NLCS in the clitoris has ever been reported.
  8. O Connell H, Sanjeevan K, Hutson J. Anatomy of the clitoris. J Urol. 2005;174:1189-95 pubmed
    ..We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available...
  9. Achtari C, McKenzie B, Hiscock R, Rosamilia A, Schierlitz L, Briggs C, et al. Anatomical study of the obturator foramen and dorsal nerve of the clitoris and their relationship to minimally invasive slings. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006;17:330-4 pubmed
    The objective of the study is to clarify potential risks to the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) and obturator canal using different minimally invasive slings.

More Information

Publications132 found, 100 shown here

  1. Haritharan T, Islah M, Zulfiqar A, Thambi Dorai C. Solitary vascular malformation of the clitoris. Med J Malaysia. 2006;61:258-9 pubmed
    Isolated involvement of the clitoris by vascular malformation (VM) is very rare. Clinically, the lesion simulates female pseudohermaphroditism...
  2. Chuang W, Yeh C, Jung S, Hsueh S. Plexiform schwannoma of the clitoris. APMIS. 2007;115:889-90 pubmed
    ..Here we report the first plexiform schwannoma of the clitoris. A 41-year-old woman without neurofibromatosis presented with a 2 x 2 cm, slowly growing, painless tumor of the ..
  3. Ghushe N, Drugas G. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the clitoris. Pediatr Radiol. 2007;37:1179 pubmed
  4. Baker T, Barclay D, Ballard C. Pilonidal cyst involving the clitoris: a case report. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2008;12:127-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Follow-up of patients reported in the literature has been too short to provide a consensus in regard to the extent of surgery required to provide permanent cure...
  5. Vaze A, Goldman H, Jones J, Rackley R, Vasavada S, Gustafson K. Determining the course of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. Urology. 2008;72:1040-3 pubmed publisher
    To describe the course and variation of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) to better define its anatomy in the human adult before embarking on therapeutic strategies in this region of the body and as an aid to surgeons to help avoid ..
  6. Michels L, Mehnert U, Boy S, Schurch B, Kollias S. The somatosensory representation of the human clitoris: an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2010;49:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, we found activations on the lateral surface of the postcentral gyrus...
  7. Welsh M, Macleod D, Walker M, Smith L, Sharpe R. Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development. Int J Androl. 2010;33:e144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Foetal and/or postnatal TP exposure does not increase adult penile size above its 'predetermined' length though its growth towards this maximum is advanced by peripubertal TP treatment...
  8. Gelez H, Poirier S, Facchinetti P, Allers K, Wayman C, Alexandre L, et al. Neuroanatomical evidence for a role of central melanocortin-4 receptors and oxytocin in the efferent control of the rodent clitoris and vagina. J Sex Med. 2010;7:2056-2067 pubmed publisher
    The clitoris and the vagina are the main peripheral anatomical structures involved in physiological changes related to sexual arousal and orgasm...
  9. Hauser Kronberger C, Cheung A, Hacker G, Graf A, Dietze O, Frick J. Peptidergic innervation of the human clitoris. Peptides. 1999;20:539-43 pubmed
    In the present study, the distributions of neuropeptides in the normal human clitoris and in a clitoris from an adrenogenital syndrome (AGS) was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
  10. Gordon A. Clitoral pain: the great unexplored pain in women. J Sex Marital Ther. 2002;28 Suppl 1:123-8 pubmed
    ..Eight claimed painful, allodynic nipples and seven had sensitive nipples. Clitoral pain was an important cause of pain in these women...
  11. Kluwe W, Mau H. Duplication and exstrophy of the bladder with clitoris and vagina duplex as well as uterus bicornis. Urology. 2007;70:591.e1-2 pubmed
    ..The surgical treatment, aiming at anatomic reconstruction of the genitourinary system and closure of the symphysis, was successfully performed without any complication...
  12. Martin Alguacil N, Schober J, Sengelaub D, Pfaff D, Shelley D. Clitoral sexual arousal: neuronal tracing study from the clitoris through the spinal tracts. J Urol. 2008;180:1241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..specific afferent neural pathways transmit sensory stimuli of arousal, beginning at the epithelial level on the clitoris and following the course of arousal stimuli through the central nervous system...
  13. Battaglia C, Nappi R, Mancini F, Cianciosi A, Persico N, Busacchi P, et al. Menstrual cycle-related morphometric and vascular modifications of the clitoris. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2853-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The evaluation of clitoral anatomy and function is of paramount importance to understand the physiology and pathology of clitoral function...
  14. Dumont T, Black A, Ahmet A, Fleming N. Isolated transient neonatal clitoromegaly with hyperandrogenism of unknown etiology. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22:e142-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report where, despite an exhaustive workup, the cause of hyperandrogenism remains unknown...
  15. Shih C, Cold C, Yang C. Cutaneous corpuscular receptors of the human glans clitoris: descriptive characteristics and comparison with the glans penis. J Sex Med. 2013;10:1783-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reflexes begin with cutaneous corpuscular receptors in the glabrous genital skin, including those of the glans clitoris. The aim of this study is to characterize the corpuscular receptors of the glans clitoris...
  16. O Connell H, Delancey J. Clitoral anatomy in nulliparous, healthy, premenopausal volunteers using unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Urol. 2005;173:2060-3 pubmed
    ..The glans was seen more caudal than the body of the clitoris. The bulbs of the clitoris had the same signal as the rest of the clitoris in the axial plane and they related ..
  17. Montoya T, Calver L, Carrick K, Prats J, Corton M. Anatomic relationships of the pudendal nerve branches. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:504.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The inferior rectal nerve might be at risk of injury during procedures that involve passage of needles through the ischioanal fossa. ..
  18. Costa R, Miller G, Brody S. Women who prefer longer penises are more likely to have vaginal orgasms (but not clitoral orgasms): implications for an evolutionary theory of vaginal orgasm. J Sex Med. 2012;9:3079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Future experimental research might assess to what extent different penis sizes influence women's satisfaction and likelihood of vaginal orgasm. ..
  19. Schiller B. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2012;60:1161-97 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware." ..
  20. Leiblum S. Arousal disorders in women: complaints and complexities. Med J Aust. 2003;178:638-40 pubmed
    ..There may be a place for drugs that increase vasocongestion and vasodilation. Psychological therapy addresses inhibitions, and interpersonal and motivational factors. ..
  21. Conley A, Corbin C, Browne P, Mapes S, Place N, Hughes A, et al. Placental expression and molecular characterization of aromatase cytochrome P450 in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Placenta. 2007;28:668-75 pubmed
    ..Other hyaenids and carnivores must be investigated to determine the morphological and functional ancestral state of their placentas, as it relates to evolutionary relationships among species in this important taxonomic group...
  22. Chivers M, Rosen R. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and female sexual response: faulty protocols or paradigms?. J Sex Med. 2010;7:858-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Discordance between genital and subjective measures of sexual response in women may be augmented by PDE5 effects on genital vasocongestion in some populations, rendering successful treatment unlikely via pharmacological treatment alone. ..
  23. Castiglione F, Bergamini A, Russo A, La Croce G, Castagna G, Colciago G, et al. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 enhances clitoral and vaginal blood flow responses to dorsal clitoral nerve stimulation or PGE1 in anesthetized female rats. J Sex Med. 2013;10:939-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is expressed in the vagina and clitoris, but no information is available on the functional role for PDE4-related signals in the female neurovascular ..
  24. Fernandez Aguilar S, Noel J. Neuroma of the clitoris after female genital cutting. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101:1053-4 pubmed
    Nerve tumors of the clitoris and particularly neuromas are extremely rare. A 27-year-old infibulated African woman suffering from chronic vulvar pain increasing with sexual intercourse presented for gynecologic care...
  25. Xiao H, Liu J, Wang S, Guo X, Wang T, Fan L, et al. [One case report of clitoral priapism and literature review]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2004;10:524-5 pubmed
    ..A 29-year-old case of painful priapism of the clitoris lasting 60 hours was reported...
  26. Mimoun S. [Clitoris and G spot: a fatal connection: Gynecol Obstet Fertil 2007;35:3-5]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2007;35:923 pubmed
  27. Quilichini J, Burin des Roziers B, Daoud G, Cartier S. [Clitoridal reconstruction after female circumcision]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2011;56:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique is still unknown by patients and plastic surgeons. Through a clinical case, the authors discuss the principles, results and key points of this procedure. ..
  28. Tovar J. Clitoral surgery and sexual outcome in intersex individuals. Lancet. 2003;362:247-8; author reply 248 pubmed
  29. Selvaggi G, Monstrey S, Ceulemans P, T sjoen G, De Cuypere G, Hoebeke P. Genital sensitivity after sex reassignment surgery in transsexual patients. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;58:427-33 pubmed
    ..In phalloplasty, the dorsal hood of the clitoris is incorporated into the neoscrotum; the clitoris is transposed, buried, and fixed directly below the ..
  30. Caruso S, Rugolo S, Bandiera S, Mirabella D, Cavallaro A, Cianci A. Clitoral blood flow changes after surgery for stress urinary incontinence: pilot study on TVT Versus TOT procedures. Urology. 2007;70:554-7 pubmed
    ..The different vaginal approach for these two surgical methods influenced clitoral blood flow. Our data could add new information about sexual behavior after incontinence treatment, particularly the impact of clitoral blood flow changes. ..
  31. Djordjevic M, Stanojevic D, Bizic M, Kojovic V, Majstorovic M, Vujovic S, et al. Metoidioplasty as a single stage sex reassignment surgery in female transsexuals: Belgrade experience. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..It involves lengthening and straightening of hypertrophied clitoris to create a neophallus, urethral lengthening to enable voiding while standing, and scrotal reconstruction with ..
  32. Weiss D, Rodriguez E, Cunha T, Menshenina J, Barcellos D, Chan L, et al. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;354:94-102 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation...
  33. Berman J, Berman L, Werbin T, Goldstein I. Female sexual dysfunction: anatomy, physiology, evaluation and treatment options. Curr Opin Urol. 1999;9:563-8 pubmed
    ..This review addresses the etiologies and incidence of female sexual complaints, as well as new findings in the evaluation and treatment of female sexual dysfunction. ..
  34. Lean W, Hutson J, Deshpande A, Grover S. Clitoroplasty: past, present and future. Pediatr Surg Int. 2007;23:289-93 pubmed
    ..The changing operations, from amputation through to attempts to produce a normal clitoris mirror the changing attitudes and available knowledge...
  35. Waldinger M, de Lint G, Venema P, van Gils A, Schweitzer D. Successful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in two women with restless genital syndrome: the role of adelta- and C-nerve fibers. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A neurological hypothesis on the pathophysiology of ReGS encompassing its clinical symptomatology, TENS, and drug treatment is put forward. ..
  36. Bloemers J, Gerritsen J, Bults R, Koppeschaar H, Everaerd W, Olivier B, et al. Induction of sexual arousal in women under conditions of institutional and ambulatory laboratory circumstances: a comparative study. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1160-76 pubmed publisher
  37. Buisson O, Foldes P, Jannini E, Mimoun S. Coitus as revealed by ultrasound in one volunteer couple. J Sex Med. 2010;7:2750-4 pubmed publisher
    ..studies of the clitoral complex during intercourse have been conducted to gain insight into the role of the clitoris and its relation to vagina and urethra during arousal and penetration...
  38. Kanhai R. Sensate Vagina Pedicled-Spot for Male-to-Female Transsexuals: The Experience in the First 50 Patients. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2016;40:284-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The sexual arousal function of the neo-female genitalia depends mainly on the clitoris. Due to the lack of a sexual arousal organ within the neo-vagina, patients are denied sexual arousal during ..
  39. Chowdhury M, Anwar R, Saha A. Ambiguous genitalia-A social dilemma in Bangladesh: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2018;42:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..On examination, there was enlarged clitoris or micropenis, bifid scrotum or labioscrotal fold, and separate presence of urethral and vaginal orifices...
  40. Baiocchi G, Mantoan H, De Brot L, Badiglian Filho L, Kumagai L, Faloppa C, et al. How important is the pathological margin distance in vulvar cancer?. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2015;41:1653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A more conservative surgical approach may be considered in certain situations, such as margins near the clitoris, urethra, and anus.
  41. Nelson K, McQuillan S, Brain P. Literature Review of Periclitoral Cysts in the Prepubertal Population. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2016;29:558-561 pubmed publisher
    ..and advanced PubMed search was conducted of all English language articles published using the search terms "clitoris" and "cyst" until February 2015. Reference tracing was completed for all articles for completeness...
  42. Drea C, Weil A. External genital morphology of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta): females are naturally "masculinized". J Morphol. 2008;269:451-63 pubmed
    ..In contrast, females were unusual among mammals, presenting an enlarged, pendulous external clitoris, tunneled by the urethra...
  43. Sugiyama Y, Mizuno H, Hayashi Y, Imamine H, Ito T, Kato I, et al. Severity of virilization of external genitalia in Japanese patients with salt-wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2008;215:341-8 pubmed
    ..The degree of the impairment of 21-hydroxylase activity does not correlate with the severity of virilization of the external genitalia in female patients with the SW type of 21OHD. ..
  44. Yafi F, April D, Powers M, Sangkum P, Hellstrom W. Penile Priapism, Clitoral Priapism, and Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: A Contemporary Review. Sex Med Rev. 2015;3:145-159 pubmed publisher
    ..clitoral priapism may occur in females manifested by symptoms such as engorgement with pain and swelling of the clitoris and surrounding tissue...
  45. Gress S. Composite reduction labiaplasty. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2013;37:674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..e., not only the part below the clitoris but also the part of the clitoral hood and above), it currently is possible to achieve further tightening of the ..
  46. Llaneza P, Fresno F, Ferrer J. Schwannoma of the clitoris. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81:471-2 pubmed
    ..Simple surgical excision and follow up is the most convenient treatment (1). ..
  47. Møller B, Hansen U. Foreign bodies as a complication of female genital mutilation. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;23:449-50 pubmed
  48. Paulus Y, Wong A, Chen B, Jacobson M. Preputial epidermoid cyst: an atypical case of acquired pseudoclitoromegaly. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2010;14:382-6 pubmed publisher
    ..postmenopausal woman who presented with a 1-year history of a progressive and painful enlargement of her clitoris. Surgical resection revealed an epidermoid, or follicular infundibular, cyst of the prepuce...
  49. van der Walt S, van Wijk F, Abdool Z, Oettlé A. The dorsal nerve of the clitoris in relation to urinary incontinence sling procedures. Int Urogynecol J. 2017;28:119-123 pubmed publisher
    ..The dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) may be at risk when performing the retropubic (tension-free vaginal tape) procedure as well as the inside-..
  50. Naiki Y, Nanao K, Hasegawa Y. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels during high-dose glucocorticoid supplement for the management of clitoroplasty of CYP21A2 deficiency. Endocr J. 2004;51:367-73 pubmed
    ..ACTH and 17OHP levels were completely suppressed throughout operation, indicating that this kind of additional pretreatment is more effective approach. ..
  51. Cellek S. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the soluble guanylyl cyclase activator BAY41-2272 relax rabbit vaginal wall and clitoral corpus cavernosum. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;138:287-90 pubmed
    ..Y-27632 had no effect on nitrergic relaxations in either tissue. These results demonstrate that Y-27632 and BAY41-2272 elicit relaxation of the rabbit vaginal wall and clitoral corpus cavernosum. ..
  52. Stringer M, Becker I. Colombo and the clitoris. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;151:130-3 pubmed publisher
    In 1559, the Italian anatomist Realdo Colombo (1515/6-1559) claimed to have "discovered" the clitoris. Closer scrutiny reveals that whilst he certainly emphasized the role of the clitoris in female sexuality, his claim to ..
  53. Celik N, Yalcin S, Gucer S, Karnak I. Clitoral epidermoid cyst secondary to blunt trauma in a 9-year-old child. Turk J Pediatr. 2011;53:108-10 pubmed
    ..This implantation in the clitoris is most commonly induced by female genital mutilation...
  54. Johnson L, Lara Torre E, Murchison A, Garcia E. Large epidermal cyst of the clitoris: a novel diagnostic approach to assist in surgical removal. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2013;26:e33-5 pubmed publisher
    Epidermal cysts of the clitoris are uncommon and usually associated with previous trauma. Surgical removal is the preferred treatment with close attention to preserve sensation and vascular supply...
  55. Dessy L, Mazzocchi M, Corrias F, Ceccarelli S, Marchese C, Scuderi N. The use of cultured autologous oral epithelial cells for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals: a feasibility, safety, and advantageousness clinical pilot study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:158-61 pubmed publisher
    ..fistula that was treated conservatively; one case of partial glans necrosis resulting in a scarred but sensitive clitoris; one case of large labia majora requiring reduction; and one case of short vagina requiring surgical revision ..
  56. Toubia N. Female circumcision as a public health issue. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:712-6 pubmed
    ..In the United States a 1993 bill drafted by the Congressional Women's Caucus would make the practice illegal and fund a program to assist immigrant communities to deal with the problem. ..
  57. Park J, Kim S, Kim J, Kim Y, Kim S, Cho K. Comparison of effects of angiotensin peptides in the regulation of clitoral cavernosum smooth muscle tone. Int J Impot Res. 2002;14:72-80 pubmed
    ..It is also suggested that peptides of the ANG family have a cross-talk with the NO system and aminopeptidase is involved in the modulation of the tone of clitoral CSM by ANG III and ANG IV. ..
  58. Bechara A, Bertolino M, Casabe A, Munarriz R, Goldstein I, Morin A, et al. Duplex Doppler ultrasound assessment of clitoral hemodynamics after topical administration of alprostadil in women with arousal and orgasmic disorders. J Sex Marital Ther. 2003;29 Suppl 1:1-10 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed to establish the diagnostic role of topical vasoactive agents in the hemodynamic evaluation of women with sexual dysfunction. ..
  59. Sedy J, Nanka O, Jarolim L. [Sulcus nervi dorsalis penis/clitoridis: clinical and forensic aspects]. Cas Lek Cesk. 2006;145:844-7; discussion 848 pubmed
    ..and ventral surface of the body of pubis, where dorsal nerve of penis in male and dorsal nerve and artery of clitoris in female run...
  60. Park K, Ahn K, Lee S, Ryu S, Park Y, Azadzoi K. Decreased circulating levels of estrogen alter vaginal and clitoral blood flow and structure in the rabbit. Int J Impot Res. 2001;13:116-24 pubmed
    ..Cross sections of the clitoris and vagina were processed for histologic examination and histomorphometric image analysis...
  61. Orpen N, Mathievathaniy M, Hitchcock R. Left-sided gastroschisis and pseudoexstrophy: a rare combination of anomalies. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004;20:551-2 pubmed
    ..Identifying and reporting these unusual cases is essential to further expand our understanding of these conditions and their potential associations. ..
  62. Alatas E, Yagci A. The effect of sildenafil citrate on uterine and clitoral arterial blood flow in postmenopausal women. MedGenMed. 2004;6:51 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to determine whether there are roles for sildenafil therapy in postmenopausal women and evaluation of clitoral blood flow by Doppler sonography. ..
  63. Waldinger M, Venema P, van Gils A, Schweitzer D. New insights into restless genital syndrome: static mechanical hyperesthesia and neuropathy of the nervus dorsalis clitoridis. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2778-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Finger touch investigation of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) along the RIPB provoked ReGS in all women...
  64. Ostrzenski A. Clitoral subdermal hoodoplasty for medical indications and aesthetic motives. A new technique. J Reprod Med. 2013;58:149-52 pubmed
    ..In this study the procedure was simple to execute and well-tolerated by all subjects, without short-term and long-term complications. Clitoral subdermal hoodoplasty is a useful method in the treatment of clitoral subdermal hypertrophy. ..
  65. Battaglia C, Nappi R, Sisti G, Persico N, Busacchi P, Venturoli S. The role of 3-D ultrasonography in the evaluation of menstrual cycle-related vascular modifications of the clitoris. A prospective pilot study. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2715-21 pubmed publisher
    ..622; P = 0.011). During the normal menstrual cycle, the estrogens may, probably, influence the clitoral anatomic and vascular structures and the 3-D ultrasonography may easily and precisely demonstrate these modifications. ..
  66. Shindel A. 2009 update on phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy part 2: updates on optimal utilization for sexual concerns and rare toxicities in this class. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2352-64; quiz 2365-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Rare but serious toxicities have been reported with PDE5I and, therefore, judicious counseling is indicated before prescribing these medications. ..
  67. Crouch N, Michala L, Creighton S, Conway G. Androgen-dependent measurements of female genitalia in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. BJOG. 2011;118:84-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Women with CAIS had a reduced mean clitoral length compared with controls(P = 0.001), but no difference was observed for the clitoral to urethral distance between the two groups (P = 0.116). ..
  68. Thabet S, Thabet A. Defective sexuality and female circumcision: the cause and the possible management. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2003;29:12-9 pubmed
    ..Counseling parents about these sexual defects and asserting the need for correcting the mutilation, which resulted from these circumcisions, are effective steps in banning such procedures. ..
  69. Gourbal B, Gabrion C. Histomorphological study of the preputial and clitoral glands in BALB/c mice with experimental Taenia crassiceps infections. J Parasitol. 2006;92:189-92 pubmed
    ..A probable cause for such a divergence between infected male and female mice might be related to a sex steroid imbalance as described during T. crassiceps infection. ..
  70. Liu L, Fan J, Gan C, Tian J. Staged reconstruction of the labia minora and reduction clitoroplasty for female pseudohermaphroditism. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2010;34:652-6 pubmed publisher
    ..First, the cavernosa was mostly removed, and a clitoroplasty was performed to form a clitoris with part of the glans...
  71. Koussidis G. Gynecologic rarities: a case of periclitoral abscess and review of the literature. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:e3-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here a case of periclitoral abscess in a 17 year old patient, which was treated with incision and drainage. We also review all the similar cases that have been reported in the English literature until now. ..
  72. Rosato E, Gigante A, Barbano B, La Marra F, Molinaro I, Quarta S, et al. Clitoral blood flow in systemic sclerosis women: correlation with disease clinical variables and female sexual dysfunction. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52:2238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Clitoral blood flow was reduced in SSc women with digital ulcers and it correlated with capillaroscopic damage progression. A negative correlation exists between the RI and S/D ratio and all domains of the FSFI score except for desire. ..
  73. Rodi Z, Vodusek D. Intraoperative monitoring of the bulbocavernosus reflex: the method and its problems. Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;112:879-83 pubmed
    ..Stimulating electrodes were placed on the dorsum of the penis or the clitoris. Single and double stimuli were used, as well as trains of 3, 4 and 5 stimuli...
  74. Pascual Castroviejo I, Lopez Pereira P, Savasta S, Lopez Gutierrez J, Lago C, Cisternino M. Neurofibromatosis type 1 with external genitalia involvement presentation of 4 patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:1998-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..Two girls with clitoral hypertrophy had a neurofibroma that infiltrated the clitoris and extended unilaterally to the lower bladder wall. One girl had a plexiform neurofibroma that affected a labium...
  75. Helpman L, Greenstein A, Hartoov J, Abramov L. Genito-sensory analysis in women with arousal and orgasmic dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1039-1044 pubmed publisher
    ..is a quantitative sensory testing tool designed to quantify vibratory and thermal sensation in the vagina and clitoris in a reproducible manner, and may therefore contribute to the diagnosis and management of FSD...
  76. Bruni V, Pontello V, Dei M, Alessandrini M, Li Marzi V, Nicita G. Hemangioma of the clitoris presenting as clitoromegaly: a case report. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22:e137-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A 20-year-old woman with massive clitoral enlargement is presented to discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment of this condition. ..
  77. Klusmann A, Lenard H. Tourniquet syndrome--accident or abuse?. Eur J Pediatr. 2004;163:495-8; discussion 499 pubmed
    ..the tourniquet syndrome in childhood should be included in the list of possible forms of child abuse and should be considered as a differential diagnosis until another aetiology can be convincingly proven. ..
  78. Oyama I, Steinberg A, Holzberg A, Maccarone J. Reduction clitoroplasty: a technique for debulking the enlarged clitoris. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2004;17:393-5 pubmed
    Clitoral reduction, especially in an adult, is a rare procedure which often leaves the glans clitoris without the capacity for tactile sensation...
  79. Fathi K, Dávidovics S, Pinter A. [Posterior cloaca with accessory urethra]. Orv Hetil. 2005;146:753-5 pubmed
    ..She underwent total urogenital mobilization (TUM) without opening the anal canal and the rectum. Eighteen months of follow up period she continues to have full bowel and urinary control with almost normal looking genitalia. ..
  80. Kukkonen T, Paterson L, Binik Y, Amsel R, Bouvier F, Khalifé S. Convergent and discriminant validity of clitoral color Doppler ultrasonography as a measure of female sexual arousal. J Sex Marital Ther. 2006;32:281-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between clitoral blood-flow measures and subjective sexual arousal. Additional research is required to establish the specificity of ultrasonography as a measure of sexual arousal. ..
  81. Fjorback M, Van Rey F, Rijkhoff N, Nøhr M, Petersen T, Heesakkers J. Electrical stimulation of sacral dermatomes in multiple sclerosis patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Neurourol Urodyn. 2007;26:525-530 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason stimulation of the sacral dermatomes is not an option in a system that relies on the acute suppression of a detrusor contraction. ..
  82. Kost álová M, Kost ál M, Ettler K, Hadzi Nikolov D, Jandová E, Simkova M. Melanoma clitoridis. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:393-5 pubmed
  83. Atilgan D, Uluocak N, Erdemir F, Parlaktas B. Female epispadias: a case report and review of the literature. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2009;25:613-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A 12-year-old girl presented with primary urinary incontinence. On physical examination, bifid clitoris and labia minora were seen. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux...
  84. Vilimas P, Yuan S, Haberberger R, Gibbins I. Sensory innervation of the external genital tract of female guinea pigs and mice. J Sex Med. 2011;8:1985-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Large complex nerve endings immunoreactive for NSE and VGluT1 were abundant in dermal papillae of the clitoris. Each large ending was accompanied by one or two fine fibers immunoreactive for CGRP but neither substance P nor ..
  85. Billups K. The role of mechanical devices in treating female sexual dysfunction and enhancing the female sexual response. World J Urol. 2002;20:137-41 pubmed
    ..USA). The Eros Therapy is a small, battery-powered device used to gently apply direct vacuum over the clitoris causing the clitoral erectile chambers and labia to fill with blood...
  86. Oelke M, Hedlund P, Albrecht K, Ellinghaus P, Stief C, Jonas U, et al. Expression of cAMP and cGMP-phosphodiesterase isoenzymes 3, 4, and 5 in the human clitoris: immunohistochemical and molecular biology study. Urology. 2006;67:1111-6 pubmed
    Only a little research has focused on the evaluation of female sexual function. With sexual stimulation, the clitoris becomes engorged with blood and tumescent...
  87. van Netten J, Georgiadis J, Nieuwenburg A, Kortekaas R. 8-13 Hz fluctuations in rectal pressure are an objective marker of clitorally-induced orgasm in women. Arch Sex Behav. 2008;37:279-85 pubmed
    ..This is the first objective and quantitative measure that has a strong correspondence with the subjective experience of orgasm...
  88. Shafik A, El Sibai O, Shafik A. Vaginal response to clitoral stimulation: identification of the clitorovaginal reflex. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:111-6 pubmed
    To investigate the hypothesis that glans clitoris (GC) penile buffeting effects contraction of the vaginal musculature and seems to increase arousal of the penis during coitus.
  89. Alter G. Aesthetic labia minora and clitoral hood reduction using extended central wedge resection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:1780-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The central wedge excision to reduce the labia minora was reported in 1998. The purpose of this article is to present recent modifications and results of this technique...
  90. Corbett S, Walsh C, Spitzer R, Ngan B, Kives S, Zachos M. Vulvar inflammation as the only clinical manifestation of Crohn disease in an 8-year-old girl. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e1518-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation and biopsy of the terminal ileum demonstrated similar findings and was consistent with a diagnosis of Crohn disease...
  91. Al Ojaimi E, Abdulla M. Giant epidermoid inclusion cyst of the clitoris mimicking clitoromegaly. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013;17:58-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a rare case of clitoromegaly due to a large clitoral cyst that occurred spontaneously without any declared previous female genital mutilation. The cyst was excised successfully with good cosmetic results...
  92. Brodie Meijer C, Diemont W, Buijs P. Nefazodone-induced clitoral priapism. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999;14:257-8 pubmed
    A case is presented of painful priapism of the clitoris lasting 3 days, with a strong temporal association with the administration of nefazodone hydrochloride...