vulva

Summary

Summary: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.

Top Publications

  1. Deshpande R, Inoue T, Priess J, Hill R. lin-17/Frizzled and lin-18 regulate POP-1/TCF-1 localization and cell type specification during C. elegans vulval development. Dev Biol. 2005;278:118-29 pubmed
    The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva is comprised of highly similar anterior and posterior halves that are arranged in a mirror symmetric pattern...
  2. Aggarwal K, Gupta S, Jain V, Marwah N. Congenital lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46:428-9 pubmed
    Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva is a disorder of lymphatic channels involving deep dermal tissues. Most of these cases are confused with genital warts leading to improper diagnosis and treatment...
  3. Braendle C, Baer C, Felix M. Bias and evolution of the mutationally accessible phenotypic space in a developmental system. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000877 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides an empirical assessment of developmental bias and the evolution of mutationally accessible phenotypes and supports the notion that such bias may influence the directions of evolutionary change...
  4. Carne C, McClean H, Sullivan A, Menon Johansson A, Gokhale R, Sethi G, et al. National audit of asymptomatic screening in UK genitourinary medicine clinics: clinic policies audit. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21:512-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Davison E, Saffer A, Huang L, Demodena J, Sternberg P, Horvitz H. The LIN-15A and LIN-56 transcriptional regulators interact to negatively regulate EGF/Ras signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans vulval cell-fate determination. Genetics. 2011;187:803-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, LIN-56 and LIN-15A interact in the yeast two-hybrid system. We propose that LIN-56 and LIN-15A associate in a nuclear complex that inhibits vulval specification by repressing lin-3 EGF expression...
  6. Liu Y, Lebeouf B, Guo X, Correa P, Gualberto D, Lints R, et al. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001326 pubmed publisher
    ..During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed...
  7. Koester Eiserfunke N, Fischle W. H3K9me2/3 binding of the MBT domain protein LIN-61 is essential for Caenorhabditis elegans vulva development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002017 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, H3K9me2/3 interaction of LIN-61 is required for C. elegans vulva development within the synMuvB pathway...
  8. Pénigault J, Felix M. Evolution of a system sensitive to stochastic noise: P3.p cell fate in Caenorhabditis. Dev Biol. 2011;357:419-27 pubmed publisher
    The C. elegans cell lineage is overall invariant. One rare instance of variability concerns P3.p, the most anterior vulva precursor cell, which may either fuse with the epidermis without dividing, or remain competent to form vulval ..
  9. Verghese E, Schocken J, Jacob S, Wimer A, Royce R, Nesmith J, et al. The tailless ortholog nhr-67 functions in the development of the C. elegans ventral uterus. Dev Biol. 2011;356:516-28 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wang X, Sommer R. Antagonism of LIN-17/Frizzled and LIN-18/Ryk in nematode vulva induction reveals evolutionary alterations in core developmental pathways. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001110 pubmed publisher
    ..We test this hypothesis by comparing vulva induction in two genetically tractable nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus...
  2. Chiyoda T, Ishikawa M, Nakamura M, Ogawa M, Takamatsu K. Successfully treated case of epithelioid sarcoma of the vulva. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:1856-9 pubmed publisher
    Epithelioid sarcoma of the vulva is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor. This tumor most commonly occurs on the labia majora in women of reproductive age. The molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown...
  3. Felix M, Barkoulas M. Robustness and flexibility in nematode vulva development. Trends Genet. 2012;28:185-95 pubmed publisher
    The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva has served as a paradigm for how conserved developmental pathways, such as EGF-Ras-MAPK, Notch and Wnt signaling, participate in networks driving animal organogenesis...
  4. Bertozzi S, Londero A, Fruscalzo A, Marchesoni D, Lelle R. [Paget disease of the vulva: resolution after local treatment with imiquimod--report of a case and review of the literature]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch. 2009;49:326-30 pubmed publisher
    Paget disease is a rare disorder of the skin of the vulva, comprising less than 1% of vulvar neoplasms. Surgical excision is considered the standard of care...
  5. Terada T. Sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva expressing smooth muscle actin and S100 protein. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;283:1103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Vulvar sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported...
  6. van der Avoort I, van de Nieuwenhof H, Otte Holler I, Nirmala E, Bulten J, Massuger L, et al. High levels of p53 expression correlate with DNA aneuploidy in (pre)malignancies of the vulva. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, high p53 expression correlates with increased DNA content and aneuploidy; but it requires further research to unveil a possible causal relation...
  7. Hoyos E, Kim K, Milloz J, Barkoulas M, Pénigault J, Munro E, et al. Quantitative variation in autocrine signaling and pathway crosstalk in the Caenorhabditis vulval network. Curr Biol. 2011;21:527-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Two seemingly conflicting verbal models of vulval precursor cell fate specification have been proposed: sequential induction by the EGF-MAP kinase and Notch pathways, or morphogen-based induction by the former...
  8. Beikert F, Le M, Koeninger A, Technau K, Clad A. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis: focus on the vulva. Mycoses. 2011;54:e807-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Of 139 women, 105 (76%) had at least one C. albicans positive culture from the external vulva. Vulvar positive cultures correlated with pruritus (OR 5.4; P < 0.001), vulvar edema (OR 3.8; P = 0...
  9. Santegoets L, van Baars R, Terlou A, Heijmans Antonissen C, Swagemakers S, van der Spek P, et al. Different DNA damage and cell cycle checkpoint control in low- and high-risk human papillomavirus infections of the vulva. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:2874-85 pubmed publisher
    ..we compared our results with publicly available gene expression profiles of various other HPV-induced cancers (vulva, cervix and head-and-neck)...
  10. Tan S, Garland S, Rumbold A, Tabrizi S. Comparison of the INNO-LiPA and PapType assays for detection of human papillomavirus in archival vulva dysplasia and/or neoplasia tissue biopsy specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3980-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The INNO-LiPA assay detected amplifiable DNA in 59 (91%) biopsy specimens, compared with 57 (88%) specimens for which amplifiable DNA was detected by the PapType assay. The two genotyping assays were highly comparable...
  11. Sims S, Stinson K, McLean F, Davis J, Wilkinson E. Angiomyofibroblastoma of the vulva: a case report of a pedunculated variant and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2012;16:149-54 pubmed publisher
    Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a benign mesenchymal tumor usually found in the vulva. We reviewed 70 cases of vulvar AMF that have been reported in the English-language literature and report 1 case of a pedunculated variant...
  12. Skorobogata O, Rocheleau C. RAB-7 antagonizes LET-23 EGFR signaling during vulva development in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36489 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used Caenorhabditis elegans vulva cell fate induction, a paradigm for genetic analysis of EGFR/Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) signaling, to assess ..
  13. Kingsberg S, Wysocki S, Magnus L, Krychman M. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: findings from the REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey. J Sex Med. 2013;10:1790-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant barriers to treatment include lack of knowledge about VVA, reluctance to discuss symptoms with HCPs, safety concerns, inconvenience, and inadequate symptom relief from available treatments. ..
  14. Shaco Levy R, Bean S, Vollmer R, Jewell E, Jones E, Valdes C, et al. Paget disease of the vulva: a study of 56 cases. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;149:86-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To resolve controversial issues regarding vulvar Paget disease through analysis of a substantial number of cases...
  15. Seetharaman A, Cumbo P, Bojanala N, Gupta B. Conserved mechanism of Wnt signaling function in the specification of vulval precursor fates in C. elegans and C. briggsae. Dev Biol. 2010;346:128-39 pubmed publisher
    The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva serves as a paradigm for understanding how signaling pathways control organ formation. Previous studies have shown that Wnt signaling plays important roles in vulval development...
  16. Poulin G, Ahringer J. The Caenorhabditis elegans CDT-2 ubiquitin ligase is required for attenuation of EGFR signalling in vulva precursor cells. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:109 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no previous link to EGFR signalling has been identified. We have characterised CDT-2's role during vulva development and found that it is a novel attenuator of LET-23 signalling...
  17. Ihara S, Hagedorn E, Morrissey M, Chi Q, Motegi F, Kramer J, et al. Basement membrane sliding and targeted adhesion remodels tissue boundaries during uterine-vulval attachment in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Basement membrane sliding followed by targeted adhesion represents a new mechanism for creating precise basement membrane breaches that can be used by cells to break down compartment boundaries...
  18. Sawada M, Tochigi N, Sasajima Y, Hasegawa T, Kasamatsu T, Kitawaki J. Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the vulva. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2011;37:1706-10 pubmed publisher
    Primary extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) of the vulva is extremely rare. There is little available information about the biological behavior and treatment strategy for primary EMC of the vulva...
  19. Omholt K, Grafström E, Kanter Lewensohn L, Hansson J, Ragnarsson Olding B. KIT pathway alterations in mucosal melanomas of the vulva and other sites. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:3933-42 pubmed publisher
  20. Pénigault J, Felix M. High sensitivity of C. elegans vulval precursor cells to the dose of posterior Wnts. Dev Biol. 2011;357:428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..p competence without affecting their LIN-39 level. The centered vulval competence profile is thus under the control of the posterior Wnts and of cross-regulation of three HOM-C genes and prepatterns the later induction of vulval fates...
  21. Gadducci A, Tana R, Barsotti C, Guerrieri M, Genazzani A. Clinico-pathological and biological prognostic variables in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2012;83:71-83 pubmed publisher
    ..parameters have been related to survival of patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, whereas few studies have investigated the ability of biological variables to predict the clinical outcome of ..
  22. Lu X, Horvitz H. lin-35 and lin-53, two genes that antagonize a C. elegans Ras pathway, encode proteins similar to Rb and its binding protein RbAp48. Cell. 1998;95:981-91 pubmed
    ..We propose that LIN-35 and LIN-53 antagonize the Ras signaling pathway in C. elegans by repressing transcription in the vulval precursor cells of genes required for the expression of vulval cell fates. ..
  23. Moghal N, Garcia L, Khan L, Iwasaki K, Sternberg P. Modulation of EGF receptor-mediated vulva development by the heterotrimeric G-protein Galphaq and excitable cells in C. elegans. Development. 2003;130:4553-66 pubmed
    ..EGL-30 acts with muscle-expressed EGL-19 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels to promote vulva development, and acts downstream or parallel to LET-60 (RAS)...
  24. Felix M. Cryptic quantitative evolution of the vulva intercellular signaling network in Caenorhabditis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:103-14 pubmed
    The Caenorhabditis vulva is formed from a row of Pn.p precursor cells, which adopt a spatial cell-fate pattern-3 degrees 3 degrees 2 degrees 1 degrees 2 degrees 3 degrees -centered on the gonadal anchor cell...
  25. Fisher J, Piterman N, Hajnal A, Henzinger T. Predictive modeling of signaling crosstalk during C. elegans vulval development. PLoS Comput Biol. 2007;3:e92 pubmed
    ..The insights gained by our modeling study further substantiate the usefulness of executing and analyzing mechanistic models to investigate complex biological behaviors. ..
  26. Sundaram M, Han M. The C. elegans ksr-1 gene encodes a novel Raf-related kinase involved in Ras-mediated signal transduction. Cell. 1995;83:889-901 pubmed
    ..Genetic epistasis analysis suggests that ksr-1 acts downstream of or in parallel to let-60 ras. We cloned ksr-1 and have shown that it encodes a novel putative protein kinase related to the Raf family of Ser/Thr kinases...
  27. Kaech S, Whitfield C, Kim S. The LIN-2/LIN-7/LIN-10 complex mediates basolateral membrane localization of the C. elegans EGF receptor LET-23 in vulval epithelial cells. Cell. 1998;94:761-71 pubmed
    ..Each of the binding interactions within this complex is conserved, suggesting that this complex may also mediate basolateral localization in mammals. ..
  28. Hage J, Goedkoop A, Karim R, Kanhai R. Secondary corrections of the vulva in male-to-female transsexuals. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;106:350-9 pubmed
    ..5-year period. In 86 of the 390 patients (22 percent), secondary corrections of the vulva were deemed necessary. A total of 130 corrections were performed in these 86 patients. In the same 17...
  29. Ozcelik B, Serin I, Basbug M, Ozturk F. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis of the vulva in an elderly woman. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2002;47:597-9 pubmed
    Idiopathic calcinosis cutis of the vulva is a rare condition of unknown etiology. Only seven cases have been reported to date, and all of them were in children. We report the first case in an elderly woman...
  30. Thompson B, Lamont L, Kimble J. Germ-line induction of the Caenorhabditis elegans vulva. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:620-5 pubmed
    Development of the Caenorhabditis elegans vulva serves as a paradigm for intercellular signaling during animal development...
  31. Garcia L, LeBoeuf B, Koo P. Diversity in mating behavior of hermaphroditic and male-female Caenorhabditis nematodes. Genetics. 2007;175:1761-71 pubmed
  32. Rolfe K, Crow J, Reid W, Benjamin E, MaClean A, Perrett C. The effect of topical corticosteroids on Ki67 and p53 expression in vulval lichen sclerosus. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147:503-8 pubmed
    ..05). Our data suggest that topical corticosteroids have an effect on cell cycle proteins in genital skin and, in particular, genital skin with LS changes. ..
  33. Cui M, Han M. Cis regulatory requirements for vulval cell-specific expression of the Caenorhabditis elegans fibroblast growth factor gene egl-17. Dev Biol. 2003;257:104-16 pubmed
    ..Interspecies transformation experiments showed that egl-17 cis-regulatory elements are structurally and functionally conserved between C. elegans and C. briggsae. ..
  34. Howard A, Dean D, Cooper S, Kirtshig G, Wojnarowska F. Circulating basement membrane zone antibodies are found in lichen sclerosus of the vulva. Australas J Dermatol. 2004;45:12-5 pubmed
    ..and clinical correlations in 96 patients attending the Oxford vulval clinic with lichen sclerosus (LS) of the vulva. Indirect immunofluorescence of serum (intact and split skin) to immunoglobulin (Ig)G was performed looking for ..
  35. Newman A, Inoue T, Wang M, Sternberg P. The Caenorhabditis elegans heterochronic gene lin-29 coordinates the vulval-uterine-epidermal connections. Curr Biol. 2000;10:1479-88 pubmed
    The development of a connection between the uterus and the vulva in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans requires specification of a uterine cell called the utse, and its attachment to the vulva and the epidermal seam cells...
  36. Kirouac M, Sternberg P. cis-Regulatory control of three cell fate-specific genes in vulval organogenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae. Dev Biol. 2003;257:85-103 pubmed
    ..egl-17, zmp-1, and cdh-3 are expressed differentially in the developing vulva cells, providing a potential readout for different signaling pathways...
  37. Yoder J, Chong H, Guan K, Han M. Modulation of KSR activity in Caenorhabditis elegans by Zn ions, PAR-1 kinase and PP2A phosphatase. EMBO J. 2004;23:111-9 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis also indicates that PP2A phosphatase and PAR-1 kinase act downstream of Raf to positively and negatively regulate KSR activity, respectively...
  38. Kritikou E, Milstein S, Vidalain P, Lettre G, Bogan E, Doukoumetzidis K, et al. C. elegans GLA-3 is a novel component of the MAP kinase MPK-1 signaling pathway required for germ cell survival. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2279-92 pubmed
    ..elegans germline and functions as a negative regulator of the MAPK signaling pathway during vulval development and in muscle cells. ..
  39. Fay D, Han M. Mutations in cye-1, a Caenorhabditis elegans cyclin E homolog, reveal coordination between cell-cycle control and vulval development. Development. 2000;127:4049-60 pubmed
    ..By analyzing cul-1 mutants, we further demonstrate that vulval cell terminal differentiation can be uncoupled from associated changes in vulval cell division planes. ..
  40. Dichtel M, Louvet Vallee S, Viney M, Felix M, Sternberg P. Control of vulval cell division number in the nematode Oscheius/Dolichorhabditis sp. CEW1. Genetics. 2001;157:183-97 pubmed
    ..CEW1 compared with Caenorhabditis elegans. We therefore performed a genetic screen for vulva mutants in Oscheius sp. CEW1. Most mutants display phenotypes unknown in C. elegans...
  41. Hernandez Machin B, Almeida P, Lujan D, Montenegro T, Borrego L. Infantile pyramidal protrusion localized at the vulva as a manifestation of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:S49-50 pubmed
  42. Sommer R. Evolutionary changes of developmental mechanisms in the absence of cell lineage alterations during vulva formation in the Diplogastridae (Nematoda). Development. 1997;124:243-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that developmental mechanisms, some of which are redundantly involved in vulval fate specification of the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, can evolve without concomitant morphological change. ..
  43. Cañadas M, Bosch F, Junquera M, Ejarque M, Font R, Ordoñez E, et al. Concordance of prevalence of human papillomavirus DNA in anogenital and oral infections in a high-risk population. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1330-2 pubmed
    ..HPV was found in 43.6% of the women, and its prevalence at genital sites was similar. Prevalence was highest among women aged 20 years or younger but declined thereafter in specimens from all anogenital sites. ..
  44. Freyd G, Kim S, Horvitz H. Novel cysteine-rich motif and homeodomain in the product of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell lineage gene lin-11. Nature. 1990;344:876-9 pubmed
    ..The presence in these three proteins of both a potential metal-binding domain and a homeodomain distinguishes them from previously characterized proteins. ..
  45. Pukall C, Binik Y, Khalifé S, Amsel R, Abbott F. Vestibular tactile and pain thresholds in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. Pain. 2002;96:163-75 pubmed
    ..The data imply that VVS may reflect a specific pathological process in the vestibular region, superimposed on systemic hypersensitivity to tactile and pain stimuli. ..
  46. Rolfe K, MaClean A, Crow J, Benjamin E, Reid W, Perrett C. TP53 mutations in vulval lichen sclerosus adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:2249-53 pubmed
    Non-neoplastic epithelial lesions of the vulva (NNEDV) lichen sclerosus (LS) and squamous hyperplasia (SH) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (SCC)...
  47. Aroian R, Sternberg P. Multiple functions of let-23, a Caenorhabditis elegans receptor tyrosine kinase gene required for vulval induction. Genetics. 1991;128:251-67 pubmed
    ..Since various let-23 mutant phenotypes can be obtained independently, the let-23 gene is likely to have tissue-specific functions. ..
  48. Inoue T, Wang M, Ririe T, Fernandes J, Sternberg P. Transcriptional network underlying Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:4972-7 pubmed
  49. Puppo V. Sexually responsive vascular tissue of the vulva. BJU Int. 2006;98:463-4 pubmed
  50. Felix M, Wagner A. Robustness and evolution: concepts, insights and challenges from a developmental model system. Heredity (Edinb). 2008;100:132-40 pubmed
    ..We here discuss key concepts related to robustness with examples from vulva development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
  51. Tian H, Schlager B, Xiao H, Sommer R. Wnt signaling induces vulva development in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus. Curr Biol. 2008;18:142-6 pubmed publisher
    The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva is induced by a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that is expressed in the gonadal anchor cell, representing a prime example of signaling processes in animal development...
  52. Hurd D, Kemphues K. PAR-1 is required for morphogenesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans vulva. Dev Biol. 2003;253:54-65 pubmed
    The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva provides a simple model for the genetic analysis of pattern formation and organ morphogenesis during metazoan development...
  53. Louvet Vallee S, Kolotuev I, Podbilewicz B, Felix M. Control of vulval competence and centering in the nematode Oscheius sp. 1 CEW1. Genetics. 2003;163:133-46 pubmed
    To compare vulva development mechanisms in the nematode Oscheius sp. 1 to those known in Caenorhabditis elegans, we performed a genetic screen for vulva mutants in Oscheius sp. 1 CEW1...
  54. Cui M, Chen J, Myers T, Hwang B, Sternberg P, Greenwald I, et al. SynMuv genes redundantly inhibit lin-3/EGF expression to prevent inappropriate vulval induction in C. elegans. Dev Cell. 2006;10:667-72 pubmed
  55. Lackner M, Kornfeld K, Miller L, Horvitz H, Kim S. A MAP kinase homolog, mpk-1, is involved in ras-mediated induction of vulval cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genes Dev. 1994;8:160-73 pubmed
    ..We used a new type of mosaic analysis to show that mpk-1 acts cell autonomously in the Pn.p cells. Our results show that mpk-1 plays an important functional role as an activator in ras-mediated cell signaling in vivo. ..
  56. Schott S, Ramos F, Coustham V, Palladino F. HPL-2/HP1 prevents inappropriate vulval induction in Caenorhabditis elegans by acting in both HYP7 and vulval precursor cells. Genetics. 2009;181:797-801 pubmed publisher
    ..in the hyp7 hypodermal syncytium to repress the LIN-3/EGF inducer and prevent ectopic vulval induction of vulva precursor cells (VPCs)...
  57. Tan P, Lackner M, Kim S. MAP kinase signaling specificity mediated by the LIN-1 Ets/LIN-31 WH transcription factor complex during C. elegans vulval induction. Cell. 1998;93:569-80 pubmed
    The let-23 receptor/mpk-1 MAP kinase signaling pathway induces the vulva in C. elegans. We show that MPK-1 directly regulates both the LIN-31 winged-helix and the LIN-1 Ets transcription factors to specify the vulval cell fate...
  58. Walhout A, Sordella R, Lu X, Hartley J, Temple G, Brasch M, et al. Protein interaction mapping in C. elegans using proteins involved in vulval development. Science. 2000;287:116-22 pubmed
    ..A protein interaction mapping project is now feasible for C. elegans on a genome-wide scale and should contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms in this organism and in human diseases. ..
  59. Shim J, Sternberg P, Lee J. Distinct and redundant functions of mu1 medium chains of the AP-1 clathrin-associated protein complex in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:2743-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, apm-1 and unc-101 encode two highly related micro1 chains that share redundant and distinct functions within AP-1 clathrin-associated protein complexes of the same tissue. ..
  60. von Zelewsky T, Palladino F, Brunschwig K, Tobler H, Hajnal A, Muller F. The C. elegans Mi-2 chromatin-remodelling proteins function in vulval cell fate determination. Development. 2000;127:5277-84 pubmed
  61. Mohler W, Shemer G, del Campo J, Valansi C, Opoku Serebuoh E, Scranton V, et al. The type I membrane protein EFF-1 is essential for developmental cell fusion. Dev Cell. 2002;2:355-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, EFF-1 is a key component in the mechanism of cell fusion, a process essential to normal animal development. ..
  62. Al Maghrabi J, Kanaan H, Bondagji N. Postcircumcision epidermoid inclusion cyst of the vulva containing multiple stones. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005;90:155-6 pubmed
  63. Ceol C, Horvitz H. dpl-1 DP and efl-1 E2F act with lin-35 Rb to antagonize Ras signaling in C. elegans vulval development. Mol Cell. 2001;7:461-73 pubmed
    ..We propose that rather than being inhibited by lin-35 Rb, dpl-1 DP and efl-1 E2F act with lin-35 Rb in transcriptional repression to antagonize RTK/Ras signaling during vulval development. ..
  64. Wagmaister J, Gleason J, Eisenmann D. Transcriptional upregulation of the C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 during vulval cell fate specification. Mech Dev. 2006;123:135-50 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that when the Wnt pathway is over activated, expression from the transcriptional lin-39::GFP increases, suggesting that the Wnt pathway also regulates lin-39 at the transcriptional level. ..
  65. Zauner H, Sommer R. Evolution of robustness in the signaling network of Pristionchus vulva development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10086-91 pubmed
    ..One system in which such microevolutionary studies can be performed is vulva development in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus...
  66. Chesney M, Kidd A, Kimble J. gon-14 functions with class B and class C synthetic multivulva genes to control larval growth in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics. 2006;172:915-28 pubmed
    ..We suggest that gon-14 functions with class B and class C synMuv genes to promote larval growth, in part by antagonizing MES-2,3,6/ESC-E(z) and MES-4. ..
  67. Siddiqui S, Loganathan S, Krishnaswamy S, Faoro L, Jagadeeswaran R, Salgia R. C. elegans as a model organism for in vivo screening in cancer: effects of human c-Met in lung cancer affect C. elegans vulva phenotypes. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:856-63 pubmed
    ..elegans transgenic animals. We therefore propose the use of C. elegans as a model to rapidly assess the role of cancer specific gene mutations in the context of a whole organism. ..
  68. Hill R, Sternberg P. The gene lin-3 encodes an inductive signal for vulval development in C. elegans. Nature. 1992;358:470-6 pubmed
    The lin-3 gene is necessary for induction of the Caenorhabditis elegans vulva by the anchor cell...
  69. Jongeward G, Clandinin T, Sternberg P. sli-1, a negative regulator of let-23-mediated signaling in C. elegans. Genetics. 1995;139:1553-66 pubmed
    ..Our analysis suggests that let-23 can activate distinct signaling pathways in different tissues: one pathway is required for vulval induction; another pathway is involved in hermaphrodite fertility and is not regulated by sli-1...
  70. Lee J, Jongeward G, Sternberg P. unc-101, a gene required for many aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans development and behavior, encodes a clathrin-associated protein. Genes Dev. 1994;8:60-73 pubmed
    ..We have sequenced the mutant alleles of unc-101 identified in various genetic screens and shown that all but one are deletions or nonsense mutations, suggesting that these alleles severely reduce unc-101 function...
  71. Kornfeld K. Vulval development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Trends Genet. 1997;13:55-61 pubmed
    ..Important insights have come from analyzing the cells that form the hermaphrodite vulva, a specialized hypodermal passageway used for egg laying and sperm entry...
  72. Levitan D, Greenwald I. LIN-12 protein expression and localization during vulval development in C. elegans. Development. 1998;125:3101-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that downregulation of LIN-12 stability or translation in response to inductive signalling helps impose a bias on lateral signalling and contributes to the invariant pattern of VPC fates...
  73. Boxem M, van den Heuvel S. C. elegans class B synthetic multivulva genes act in G(1) regulation. Curr Biol. 2002;12:906-11 pubmed
    ..In contrast, lin-15B appeared to act in parallel to lin-35. Our results demonstrate the potential for genetic identification of novel G(1) regulators in C. elegans...
  74. Poulin G, Dong Y, Fraser A, Hopper N, Ahringer J. Chromatin regulation and sumoylation in the inhibition of Ras-induced vulval development in Caenorhabditis elegans. EMBO J. 2005;24:2613-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate a novel role for sumoylation in inhibiting LIN-12/Notch signalling in the vulva. We further show that many of the synMuv genes are involved in gene regulation outside the vulva, negatively ..
  75. Gleason J, Szyleyko E, Eisenmann D. Multiple redundant Wnt signaling components function in two processes during C. elegans vulval development. Dev Biol. 2006;298:442-57 pubmed
    ..p lineage. Here, too, we found that four of five Wnt receptors can influence P7.p orientation, suggesting that a surprising amount of functional redundancy exists in Wnt signaling during C. elegans vulval induction...
  76. Rajakumar V, Chamberlin H. The Pax2/5/8 gene egl-38 coordinates organogenesis of the C. elegans egg-laying system. Dev Biol. 2007;301:240-53 pubmed
    ..A functional egg-laying system requires cell fate specification events in the epithelial cells of the vulva as well as the mesodermal cells in the uterus of the somatic gonad...
  77. Green J, Inoue T, Sternberg P. The C. elegans ROR receptor tyrosine kinase, CAM-1, non-autonomously inhibits the Wnt pathway. Development. 2007;134:4053-62 pubmed
    ..A sequestration model is supported by our findings that the CAM-1 ECD binds to several Wnts in vitro. These results demonstrate how ROR proteins help to refine the spatial pattern of Wnt activity in a complex multicellular environment...
  78. Green J, Inoue T, Sternberg P. Opposing Wnt pathways orient cell polarity during organogenesis. Cell. 2008;134:646-56 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, mirror-image symmetry of the C. elegans vulva is achieved by the opposite division orientation of the vulval precursor cells (VPCs) flanking the axis of ..
  79. Ambros V. Cell cycle-dependent sequencing of cell fate decisions in Caenorhabditis elegans vulva precursor cells. Development. 1999;126:1947-56 pubmed
    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the fates of the six multipotent vulva precursor cells (VPCs) are specified by extracellular signals...
  80. Barr M, Sternberg P. A polycystic kidney-disease gene homologue required for male mating behaviour in C. elegans. Nature. 1999;401:386-9 pubmed
    ..mating behaviour of the Caenorhabditis elegans male is made up of several substeps: response, backing, turning, vulva location, spicule insertion and sperm transfer...
  81. Hoier E, Mohler W, Kim S, Hajnal A. The Caenorhabditis elegans APC-related gene apr-1 is required for epithelial cell migration and Hox gene expression. Genes Dev. 2000;14:874-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, APR-1 may positively regulate the activity of the beta-Catenin/Armadillo-related proteins HMP-2 in migrating epithelial cells and BAR-1 in the vulval precursor cells...
  82. Wang M, Sternberg P. Pattern formation during C. elegans vulval induction. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2001;51:189-220 pubmed
    ..The temporal and spatial regulation of VPC competence and production of the inductive and the lateral signal are precisely coordinated to ensure the wild-type vulval pattern...
  83. Dufourcq P, Victor M, Gay F, Calvo D, Hodgkin J, Shi Y. Functional requirement for histone deacetylase 1 in Caenorhabditis elegans gonadogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3024-34 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal a novel and specific function for the ubiquitously expressed HDA-1 in C. elegans gonadogenesis and place hda-1 in the Notch signaling pathway...
  84. Tyring S. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: guidelines for early diagnosis and treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:S17-23 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the etiology, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic staging of vulvar SCC. Treatment options are reviewed, including novel topical immunotherapies such as imiquimod...
  85. Ceol C, Stegmeier F, Harrison M, Horvitz H. Identification and classification of genes that act antagonistically to let-60 Ras signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development. Genetics. 2006;173:709-26 pubmed
    ..Some of the mutations we recovered affect new synMuv genes. We present criteria for assigning synMuv mutations into different genetic classes. We also describe the molecular characterization of the class B synMuv gene lin-65...
  86. Fernandes J, Sternberg P. The tailless ortholog nhr-67 regulates patterning of gene expression and morphogenesis in the C. elegans vulva. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e69 pubmed
    ..We postulate that the differential levels and combinatorial patterns of lin-11, cog-1, and nhr-67 expression are a part of a regulatory code for the mature vulval cell types...
  87. Marri S, Gupta B. Dissection of lin-11 enhancer regions in Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. Dev Biol. 2009;325:402-11 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans has led to the identification of three functionally distinct enhancers for the vulva, VC neurons, and uterine pi lineage cells...
  88. Ririe T, Fernandes J, Sternberg P. The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva: a post-embryonic gene regulatory network controlling organogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20095-9 pubmed publisher
    The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva is an elegant model for dissecting a gene regulatory network (GRN) that directs postembryonic organogenesis...
  89. Thomas J, Stern M, Horvitz H. Cell interactions coordinate the development of the C. elegans egg-laying system. Cell. 1990;62:1041-52 pubmed
    Egg laying by the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans requires the functioning of the vulva, the gonad, the egg-laying muscles, and the two HSN neurons, which innervate these muscles...
  90. Sommer R. Evolution and development--the nematode vulva as a case study. Bioessays. 1997;19:225-31 pubmed
    ..the different types of evolutionary alterations seen at the cellular level by focusing mainly on the analysis of vulva development in different species...
  91. Eisenmann D, Maloof J, Simske J, Kenyon C, Kim S. The beta-catenin homolog BAR-1 and LET-60 Ras coordinately regulate the Hox gene lin-39 during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development. Development. 1998;125:3667-80 pubmed
    ..Our genetic and molecular experiments show that the vulval precursor cells can integrate the input from the BAR-1 and LET-60 Ras signaling pathways by coordinately regulating activity of the common target LIN-39 Hox...
  92. Moodley M, Moodley J. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;78:74-5 pubmed
    The purpose of this study is to describe the management of a patient with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) of the vulva and to review the literature.