theca cells


Summary: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.

Top Publications

  1. Wickenheisser J, Nelson Degrave V, McAllister J. Dysregulation of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase messenger ribonucleic acid stability in theca cells isolated from women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1720-7 pubmed
    ..CYP17 gene expression is also posttranscriptionally regulated at the level of mRNA stability in normal and PCOS theca cells maintained in long-term culture...
  2. Woodruff T, Shea L. The role of the extracellular matrix in ovarian follicle development. Reprod Sci. 2007;14:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The process of in-follicle maturation provides a new tool for understanding ovarian follicle development under the influence of these factors...
  3. Allegrucci C, Hunter M, Webb R, Luck M. Interaction of bovine granulosa and theca cells in a novel serum-free co-culture system. Reproduction. 2003;126:527-38 pubmed
    ..Granulosa and theca cells from follicles 4-6 mm in diameter were cultured on either side of laminin-coated BioCoat cell culture inserts ..
  4. Giometti I, Bertagnolli A, Ornes R, da Costa L, Carambula S, Reis A, et al. Angiotensin II reverses the inhibitory action produced by theca cells on bovine oocyte nuclear maturation. Theriogenology. 2005;63:1014-25 pubmed
    ..6 +/- 7.4, 34.4 +/- 7.7, 30.0 +/- 10.8 and 31.2 +/- 5.1, respectively). The theca cells (MII = 22.9%) or medium conditioned with follicular cells (GV = 65.5%, MI = 23...
  5. Orisaka M, Mizutani T, Tajima K, Orisaka S, Shukunami K, Miyamoto K, et al. Effects of ovarian theca cells on granulosa cell differentiation during gonadotropin-independent follicular growth in cattle. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:737-44 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of theca cells or FSH on granulosa cell differentiation and steroid production during bovine early follicular growth, using a co-culture system in which granulosa and theca cells were cultured on opposite ..
  6. Skorska Wyszyńska E, Jakimiuk E, Gajecka M, Młynarczuk J, Obremski K, Gajecki M. Preliminary evaluation of influence of zearalenone on cocultures of granulosa and internal theca cells of ovarian follicles in bitches in in vitro culture. Pol J Vet Sci. 2004;7:305-9 pubmed
    ..An assessment of the influence of ZEA on the granulosa and theca cells of the ovarian follicle in bitches in vitro was carried out...
  7. Voge J, Santiago C, Aad P, Goad D, Malayer J, Spicer L. Quantification of insulin-like growth factor binding protein mRNA using real-time PCR in bovine granulosa and theca cells: effect of estradiol, insulin, and gonadotropins. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2004;26:241-58 pubmed
    ..of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2, -3, -4, and -5 mRNA levels in bovine granulosa and theca cells were evaluated in vitro using serum-free medium containing various hormone treatments arranged in four ..
  8. Nelson Degrave V, Wickenheisser J, Cockrell J, Wood J, Legro R, Strauss J, et al. Valproate potentiates androgen biosynthesis in human ovarian theca cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:799-808 pubmed
    ..We examined the effect of VPA on androgen biosynthesis in ovarian theca cells isolated from follicles of normal cycling women to determine whether the hyperandrogenemia reported with VPA ..
  9. Fisseha S, Towns R, Harada M, Peegel H, Menon K. Inhibitory effect of valproic acid on ovarian androgen biosynthesis in rat theca-interstitial cells. Endocrine. 2010;37:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, VPA exerts an inhibitory effect on hCG-stimulated androgen synthesis in rat T-I cells. ..

More Information


  1. Young J, McNeilly A. Theca: the forgotten cell of the ovarian follicle. Reproduction. 2010;140:489-504 pubmed publisher
    b>Theca cells function in a diverse range of necessary roles during folliculogenesis; to synthesize androgens, provide crosstalk with granulosa cells and oocytes during development, and provide structural support of the growing follicle as ..
  2. Kayani A, Glister C, Knight P. Evidence for an inhibitory role of bone morphogenetic protein(s) in the follicular-luteal transition in cattle. Reproduction. 2009;137:67-78 pubmed publisher
    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors are expressed in ovarian theca cells (TC) and granulosa cells (GC) and BMPs have been implicated in the regulation of several aspects of follicle development including thecal ..
  3. Abdennebi L, Lesport A, Remy J, Grebert D, Pisselet C, Monniaux D, et al. Differences in splicing of mRNA encoding LH receptor in theca cells according to breeding season in ewes. Reproduction. 2002;123:819-26 pubmed
    ..Granulosa and theca cells were collected from individual follicles...
  4. Berkholtz C, Lai B, Woodruff T, Shea L. Distribution of extracellular matrix proteins type I collagen, type IV collagen, fibronectin, and laminin in mouse folliculogenesis. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;126:583-92 pubmed
    ..This understanding of ECM composition and distribution can be used in the basic studies of ECM function during follicle development, and could aid in the development of in vitro systems for follicle growth. ..
  5. Glister C, Satchell L, Knight P. Changes in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), their receptors and inhibin co-receptor betaglycan during bovine antral follicle development: inhibin can antagonize the suppressive effect of BMPs on thecal androgen production. Reproduction. 2010;140:699-712 pubmed publisher
  6. Taubøll E, Gregoraszczuk E, Kołodziej A, Kajta M, Ropstad E. Valproate inhibits the conversion of testosterone to estradiol and acts as an apoptotic agent in growing porcine ovarian follicular cells. Epilepsia. 2003;44:1014-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, VPA may act as an apoptotic agent in both small and medium-sized follicles. ..
  7. Wickenheisser J, Nelson Degrave V, Quinn P, McAllister J. Increased cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase promoter function in theca cells isolated from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome involves nuclear factor-1. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:588-605 pubmed
    ..P450 17alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17) gene expression and androgen biosynthesis are persistently elevated in theca cells isolated from ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  8. Ho C, Wood J, Stewart D, Ewens K, Ankener W, Wickenheisser J, et al. Increased transcription and increased messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) stability contribute to increased GATA6 mRNA abundance in polycystic ovary syndrome theca cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:6596-602 pubmed
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) theca cells secrete increased levels of androgens...
  9. Lebedev V, Lebedeva I, Grossmann R, Kuzmina T, Parvizi N. Ovulatory cycle-related alterations in the thecal growth and membrane protein content of thecal tissue of hen preovulatory follicles. Theriogenology. 2006;66:217-23 pubmed
  10. Spicer L, Sudo S, Aad P, Wang L, Chun S, Ben Shlomo I, et al. The hedgehog-patched signaling pathway and function in the mammalian ovary: a novel role for hedgehog proteins in stimulating proliferation and steroidogenesis of theca cells. Reproduction. 2009;138:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..system with Ihh mRNA abundance in granulosa cells was greater, whereas Smo and Ptch1 mRNA abundance was less in theca cells of small versus large follicles of cattle...
  11. Campbell B, Souza C, Skinner A, Webb R, Baird D. Enhanced response of granulosa and theca cells from sheep carriers of the FecB mutation in vitro to gonadotropins and bone morphogenic protein-2, -4, and -6. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1608-20 pubmed
    ..We examined the effect of the mutation on the responsiveness of granulosa (GC) and theca cells (TC) to BMPs and other local regulators using tissue from animals with (Fec(B/B)) and without (Fec(+/+)) the ..
  12. Lagaly D, Aad P, Grado Ahuir J, Hulsey L, Spicer L. Role of adiponectin in regulating ovarian theca and granulosa cell function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;284:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP11A1 and LH receptor (LHR) in large-follicle theca and granulosa cells, as well as expression of CYP17A1 in theca cells and CYP19A1 in granulosa cells. Adiponectin decreased (P<0...
  13. Paradis F, Novak S, Murdoch G, Dyck M, Dixon W, Foxcroft G. Temporal regulation of BMP2, BMP6, BMP15, GDF9, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2 and TGFBR1 mRNA expression in the oocyte, granulosa and theca cells of developing preovulatory follicles in the pig. Reproduction. 2009;138:115-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Oocytes, granulosa (GC) and theca cells (TC) were recovered from antral follicles of primiparous sows at day 1, 2 and 4 after weaning and at day 14, 16 ..
  14. Munir I, Yen H, Geller D, Torbati D, Bierden R, Weitsman S, et al. Insulin augmentation of 17alpha-hydroxylase activity is mediated by phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 in human ovarian theca cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:175-83 pubmed
    ..signaling pathway(s) that mediates insulin regulation of 17alpha-hydroxylase activity in human ovarian theca cells. Third-passage theca cells, isolated from the ovaries of regularly cycling premenopausal women, were used...
  15. Zhang G, Veldhuis J. Insulin drives transcriptional activity of the CYP17 gene in primary cultures of swine theca cells. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:1600-5 pubmed
    ..and the accumulation of CYP17 mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn) RNA in primary cultures of immature swine theca cells. To further assess insulinomimetic transcriptional control, we subcloned 1...
  16. Aad P, Voge J, Santiago C, Malayer J, Spicer L. Real-time RT-PCR quantification of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A mRNA abundance in bovine granulosa and theca cells: effects of hormones in vitro. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2006;31:357-72 pubmed
    ..Granulosa (GC) from small (SM) (1-5 mm) and large (LG) (8-22 mm) follicles as well as theca cells (TC) from LG follicles were collected from bovine ovaries and cultured for 48 h in medium containing 10% FCS ..
  17. Wood J, Nelson V, Ho C, Jansen E, Wang C, Urbanek M, et al. The molecular phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) theca cells and new candidate PCOS genes defined by microarray analysis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26380-90 pubmed
    ..Our previous studies demonstrated that theca cells from PCOS ovaries maintained in long term culture persistently secrete significantly greater amounts of ..
  18. Da Silva Buttkus P, Jayasooriya G, Mora J, Mobberley M, Ryder T, Baithun M, et al. Effect of cell shape and packing density on granulosa cell proliferation and formation of multiple layers during early follicle development in the ovary. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the basement membrane and/or theca cells that surround the follicle provide an important confinement for rapidly dividing columnar cells so that they ..
  19. Magoffin D. Ovarian theca cell. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005;37:1344-9 pubmed
    b>Theca cells are the endocrine cells associated with ovarian follicles that play an essential role in fertility by producing the androgen substrate required for ovarian estrogen biosynthesis...
  20. Towns R, Menon K. The role of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in transactivation of scavenger receptor class B type I promoter in transfected cells and in primary cultures of rat theca-interstitial cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;245:23-30 pubmed
  21. Schreiber N, Totty M, Spicer L. Expression and effect of fibroblast growth factor 9 in bovine theca cells. J Endocrinol. 2012;215:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..FGF9 may act as an autocrine regulator of ovarian function in cattle by slowing TC differentiation via inhibiting LH+IGF1 action via decreasing gonadotropin receptors and the cAMP signaling cascade while stimulating proliferation of TCs...
  22. Matson C, Murphy M, Sarver A, Griswold M, Bardwell V, Zarkower D. DMRT1 prevents female reprogramming in the postnatal mammalian testis. Nature. 2011;476:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this environment, theca cells form, oestrogen is produced and germ cells appear feminized...
  23. Murayama C, Miyazaki H, Miyamoto A, Shimizu T. Luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates production of androstenedione and progesterone via control of histone acetylation of StAR and CYP17 promoters in ovarian theca cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;350:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Although luteinizing hormone (LH) affects androstenedione (A4) and progesterone (P4) production in theca cells, it is still unknown how LH influences molecular mechanism of A4 and P4 production...
  24. Towns R, Azhar S, Peegel H, Menon K. LH/hCG-stimulated androgen production and selective HDL-cholesterol transport are inhibited by a dominant-negative CREB construct in primary cultures of rat theca-interstitial cells. Endocrine. 2005;27:269-77 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that CREB plays an intermediary role in the stimulatory action of LH/hCG on androgen synthesis and the selective uptake of HDL-cholesterol in T-I cells...
  25. Kendall N, Marsters P, Guo L, Scaramuzzi R, Campbell B. Effect of copper and thiomolybdates on bovine theca cell differentiation in vitro. J Endocrinol. 2006;189:455-63 pubmed
    ..P450 17alpha-hydroxylase and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage) and lysyl oxidase mRNA expression in cultured theca cells maintained under serum-free conditions...
  26. Wijgerde M, Ooms M, Hoogerbrugge J, Grootegoed J. Hedgehog signaling in mouse ovary: Indian hedgehog and desert hedgehog from granulosa cells induce target gene expression in developing theca cells. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3558-66 pubmed
    Follicle development in the mammalian ovary requires interactions among the oocyte, granulosa cells, and theca cells, coordinating gametogenesis and steroidogenesis...
  27. Phelan N, O Connor A, Kyaw Tun T, Correia N, Boran G, Roche H, et al. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: results from a cross-sectional analysis and a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93:652-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, improve metabolic health, but their therapeutic potential in PCOS is unknown...
  28. Honda A, Hirose M, Hara K, Matoba S, Inoue K, Miki H, et al. Isolation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo differentiation of putative thecal stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12389-94 pubmed
    Although ovarian theca cells play an indispensable role in folliculogenesis by providing follicular structural integrity and steroid substrates for estrogen production, little information is available about their recruitment, growth, and ..
  29. Murayama C, Miyazaki H, Miyamoto A, Shimizu T. Involvement of Ad4BP/SF-1, DAX-1, and COUP-TFII transcription factor on steroid production and luteinization in ovarian theca cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;314:51-8 pubmed publisher
    To examine the essential mechanisms of steroid production in ovarian theca cells, we analyzed the expression of genes associated with steroid production using simple culture system with serum medium...
  30. Tajima K, Orisaka M, Hosokawa K, Amsterdam A, Kotsuji F. Effects of ovarian theca cells on apoptosis and proliferation of granulosa cells: changes during bovine follicular maturation. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:1635-9 pubmed
    We have investigated the role of theca cells in the control of apoptosis and proliferation of granulosa cells during bovine ovarian follicular development using a coculture system in which granulosa and theca cells were grown on opposite ..
  31. Shimizu T, Kosaka N, Murayama C, Tetsuka M, Miyamoto A. Apelin and APJ receptor expression in granulosa and theca cells during different stages of follicular development in the bovine ovary: Involvement of apoptosis and hormonal regulation. Anim Reprod Sci. 2009;116:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of steroid hormone and gonadotrophins on the expression of these genes in cultured granulosa cells and theca cells. The expression of apelin mRNA was not found in the granulosa cells of bovine follicles...
  32. Brankin V, Mitchell M, Webb B, Hunter M. Paracrine effects of oocyte secreted factors and stem cell factor on porcine granulosa and theca cells in vitro. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:55 pubmed
    ..Granulosa and theca cells were isolated from 2-6 mm healthy follicles of mature porcine ovaries and cultured under serum-free conditions, ..
  33. Zhao L, Li W, Han F, Hou L, Baillargeon J, Kuang H, et al. Berberine reduces insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone in theca cells in vitro. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:461-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Theca cells with dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance showed defective glucose uptake and excessive testosterone production, both of which were effectively antagonized by berberine...
  34. Demeestere I, Delbaere A, Gervy C, Van Den Bergh M, Devreker F, Englert Y. Effect of preantral follicle isolation technique on in-vitro follicular growth, oocyte maturation and embryo development in mice. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:2152-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the isolation procedure of mouse preantral follicles on their subsequent development in vitro...
  35. Budnik L, Brunswig Spickenheier B, Mukhopadhyay A. Lysophosphatidic acid signals through mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal regulated kinase in ovarian theca cells expressing the LPA1/edg2-receptor: involvement of a nonclassical pathway?. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1593-606 pubmed
    We investigated the mechanism of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling in ovarian theca cells and observed that stimulation with this bioactive lipid markedly enhanced Thr/Tyr phosphorylation of the MAPK ERK1/2...
  36. Sakumoto R, Shibaya M, Okuda K. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) inhibits progesterone and estradiol-17beta production from cultured granulosa cells: presence of TNFalpha receptors in bovine granulosa and theca cells. J Reprod Dev. 2003;49:441-9 pubmed
    ..necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) receptors are present in the granulosa cells and the cells of theca interna (theca cells), obtained from bovine follicles classified into one of three groups...
  37. Wood J, Ho C, Nelson Degrave V, McAllister J, Strauss J. The molecular signature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) theca cells defined by gene expression profiling. J Reprod Immunol. 2004;63:51-60 pubmed
    ..Characterization of PCOS theca cells demonstrated that elevated expression of the steroidogenic enzymes 17alpha hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (CYP17) and ..
  38. Wickenheisser J, Nelson Degrave V, McAllister J. Human ovarian theca cells in culture. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006;17:65-71 pubmed
    Elucidating the regulation of androgen biosynthesis in ovarian theca cells is not only important for determining the mechanisms of regulation of estrogen biosynthesis throughout the menstrual cycle, but is also essential for ..
  39. Yamamoto N, Christenson L, McAllister J, Strauss J. Growth differentiation factor-9 inhibits 3'5'-adenosine monophosphate-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa and theca cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:2849-56 pubmed
    ..a member of the transforming growth factor superfamily, modulates the development and function of granulosa and theca cells. Targeted deletion of GDF-9 in the mouse revealed that GDF-9 was essential for the establishment of the thecal ..
  40. Murayama C, Kaji A, Miyauchi K, Matsui M, Miyamoto A, Shimizu T. Effect of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) on expression of IL-8 (interleukin-8), IL-1beta and their receptors in bovine theca cells. Cell Biol Int. 2010;34:531-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of IL-8 and -1 that differ during follicular development; the relationships between IL-8, IL-1 and VEGF in theca cells is still unknown...
  41. Li M, Xue K, Ling J, Diao F, Cui Y, Liu J. The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 regulates transcription of key steroidogenic enzymes in ovarian theca cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;319:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its function in ovarian theca cells remains to be defined...
  42. Nelson Degrave V, Wickenheisser J, Hendricks K, Asano T, Fujishiro M, Legro R, et al. Alterations in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and extracellular regulated kinase signaling in theca cells contribute to excessive androgen production in polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:379-90 pubmed
    ..A comparison of MAPK kinase (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in propagated normal and PCOS theca cells, revealed that MEK1/2 phosphorylation was decreased more than 70%, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was reduced 50% ..
  43. Itami S, Tamotsu S, Sakai A, Yasuda K. The roles of THY1 and integrin beta3 in cell adhesion during theca cell layer formation and the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone on THY1 and integrin beta3 localization in mouse ovarian follicles. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:986-95 pubmed publisher
    ..strongest THY1 signal was observed in theca cell layers from secondary to preantral follicles, at which time theca cells have begun to participate in follicle formation...
  44. Voge J, Aad P, Santiago C, Goad D, Malayer J, Allen D, et al. Effect of insulin-like growth factors (IGF), FSH, and leptin on IGF-binding-protein mRNA expression in bovine granulosa and theca cells: quantitative detection by real-time PCR. Peptides. 2004;25:2195-203 pubmed
    ..2, FSH, or leptin alter IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-2, -3, -4, and -5 mRNA levels in bovine granulosa and (or) theca cells, granulosa and theca cells were collected from bovine ovarian follicles, plated for 48 h in 10% FCS and then ..
  45. Tajima K, Orisaka M, Mori T, Kotsuji F. Ovarian theca cells in follicular function. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;15:591-609 pubmed
    The role of theca cells in every aspect of ovarian follicular function is reviewed...
  46. Spicer L, Aad P, Allen D, Mazerbourg S, Payne A, Hsueh A. Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) stimulates proliferation and inhibits steroidogenesis by bovine theca cells: influence of follicle size on responses to GDF9. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:243-53 pubmed
    ..The effects of GDF9 on function of theca cells collected from small (3-6 mm) and large (8-22 mm) ovarian follicles were investigated...
  47. Ethun K, Wood C, Parker C, Kaplan J, Chen H, Appt S. Effect of ovarian aging on androgen biosynthesis in a cynomolgus macaque model. Climacteric. 2012;15:82-92 pubmed publisher
  48. Thoroddsen A, Dahm Kähler P, Lind A, Weijdegård B, Lindenthal B, Müller J, et al. The water permeability channels aquaporins 1-4 are differentially expressed in granulosa and theca cells of the preovulatory follicle during precise stages of human ovulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in vascular permeability and expansion of the fluid-filled antrum are major events in the LH-induced ovulatory process...
  49. Strauss J. Some new thoughts on the pathophysiology and genetics of polycystic ovary syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;997:42-8 pubmed
    ..Studies on cultures of human theca cells derived from follicles isolated from the ovaries of PCOS and normal women demonstrated that PCOS theca cells ..
  50. Budnik L, Mukhopadhyay A. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced nuclear localization of protein kinase C delta in bovine theca cells stimulated with luteinizing hormone. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:935-44 pubmed
    ..We used immunoblotting and immunohistochemical methods to show that stimulation of bovine theca cells with LPA leads to an unexpected redistribution of PKCdelta from the cytosol to the perinuclear area and that in ..
  51. Nakamura S, Kurokawa H, Asakawa S, Shimizu N, Tanaka M. Two distinct types of theca cells in the medaka gonad: germ cell-dependent maintenance of cyp19a1-expressing theca cells. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2652-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cells become located close to the developing follicles, and are distinguishable from the P450c17-I-expressing theca cells. In the adult ovary, the expression of P450c17-I and cyp19a1 are mutually exclusive in the outer theca-cell ..
  52. Glister C, Richards S, Knight P. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) -4, -6, and -7 potently suppress basal and luteinizing hormone-induced androgen production by bovine theca interna cells in primary culture: could ovarian hyperandrogenic dysfunction be caused by a defect in thecal B. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1883-92 pubmed
    ..0001; respective IC(50) values, 5.00, 0.55, and 4.55 ng/ml) androgen production by bovine theca cells while having only a moderate effect on progesterone production and cell number...
  53. Glister C, Satchell L, Michael A, Bicknell A, Knight P. The anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) inhibits steroidogenesis in bovine theca and granulosa cells in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49553 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, VPA inhibits both LH-dependent androgen production and FSH/IGF-dependent estradiol production in this in vitro bovine model, likely by inhibition of HDAC...
  54. Portela V, Machado M, Buratini J, Zamberlam G, Amorim R, Goncalves P, et al. Expression and function of fibroblast growth factor 18 in the ovarian follicle in cattle. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Messenger RNA encoding FGF18 was detected primarily in theca cells, and in contrast to the mouse, FGF18 was not detected in bovine oocytes...
  55. Wickenheisser J, Nelson Degrave V, Hendricks K, Legro R, Strauss J, McAllister J. Retinoids and retinol differentially regulate steroid biosynthesis in ovarian theca cells isolated from normal cycling women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4858-65 pubmed
    ..Recent experiments have suggested that several genes involved in retinoic acid synthesis may be differentially expressed in PCOS theca cells and may contribute to excessive theca-derived androgen production.
  56. Wickenheisser J, Biegler J, Nelson Degrave V, Legro R, Strauss J, McAllister J. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage gene expression in theca cells: augmented transcriptional regulation and mRNA stability in polycystic ovary syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48963 pubmed publisher
    Hyperandrogenism is characteristic of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovarian theca cells isolated from PCOS follicles and maintained in long-term culture produce elevated levels of progestins and androgens compared to ..
  57. Qu J, Wang Y, Wu X, Gao L, Hou L, Erkkola R. Insulin resistance directly contributes to androgenic potential within ovarian theca cells. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1990-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether insulin resistance (IR) within theca cells may directly contribute to their hyperandrogenism, a heritable trait of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
  58. Chaturvedi G, Arai K, Terranova P, Roby K. The Src tyrosine kinase pathway regulates thecal CYP17 expression and androstenedione secretion. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;318:191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate Src tyrosine kinase in the regulation of CYP17 and thecal androgen secretion...
  59. Du J, Liang X, Zeng H, Shu Y, Yao S, Zhu B, et al. Effect of small interfering RNAs of cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17) on androgen biosynthesis in theca cells. Cell Biol Int. 2008;32:469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP17) is critical in androgen biosynthesis, and CYP17 mRNA expression was proven augmented in PCOS theca cells. To demonstrate whether RNA interference (RNAi) could lower the androgen concentration in theca cells, small ..
  60. Tajima K, Orisaka M, Yata H, Goto K, Hosokawa K, Kotsuji F. Role of granulosa and theca cell interactions in ovarian follicular maturation. Microsc Res Tech. 2006;69:450-8 pubmed
    ..By contrast, granulosa cells cultured with theca cells were convex, and formed multilayer sheets. Theca cells cultured alone were thin, flat, and spindle-shaped...
  61. Vázquez Cuevas F, Juárez B, Garay E, Arellano R. ATP-induced apoptotic cell death in porcine ovarian theca cells through P2X7 receptor activation. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:745-55 pubmed was demonstrated that P2X7 protein expression, in both mouse and pig, occurs specifically in the theca cells from antral follicles...
  62. Munir I, Yen H, Baruth T, Tarkowski R, Azziz R, Magoffin D, et al. Resistin stimulation of 17alpha-hydroxylase activity in ovarian theca cells in vitro: relevance to polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4852-7 pubmed
    ..A newly discovered hormone resistin has been shown to be increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  63. Tajima K, Yoshii K, Fukuda S, Orisaka M, Miyamoto K, Amsterdam A, et al. Luteinizing hormone-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase activation differently modulates progesterone and androstenedione production in bovine theca cells. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2903-10 pubmed
    ..However, little is known about the effects of gonadotropin on ERK activity in theca cells. This study explores how LH/forskolin controls ERK phosphorylation in cultured bovine theca cells...
  64. Zhang G, Veldhuis J. Requirement for proximal putative Sp1 and AP-2 cis-deoxyribonucleic acid elements in mediating basal and luteinizing hormone- and insulin-dependent in vitro transcriptional activation of the CYP17 gene in porcine theca cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:2760-6 pubmed
    ..In primary cultures of immature swine theca cells, LH and insulin induce CYP17 mRNA and incompletely processed heteronuclear RNA supraadditively over 2-6 h...
  65. Kwintkiewicz J, Foyouzi N, Piotrowski P, Rzepczynska I, Duleba A. Mevastatin inhibits proliferation of rat ovarian theca-interstitial cells by blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1053-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate mechanisms involved in mevastatin-induced inhibition of proliferation of ovarian theca-interstitial cells...
  66. Orisaka M, Tajima K, Mizutani T, Miyamoto K, Tsang B, Fukuda S, et al. Granulosa cells promote differentiation of cortical stromal cells into theca cells in the bovine ovary. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:734-40 pubmed
    ..We suggest that GC-S(C) interaction is important in the formation of the TC layer during early follicular development, although the nature of this interaction remains to be determined...