female genitalia


Summary: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.

Top Publications

  1. Briceño R, Eberhard W, Robinson A. Copulation behaviour of Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Muscidae) outside and inside the female, with a discussion of genitalic evolution. Bull Entomol Res. 2007;97:471-88 pubmed
    ..The elaborate copulatory courtship behaviour and male genitalia may provide the stimuli that previous studies showed to induce female ovulation and resistance to remating...
  2. Arthur B, Sbilordo S, Pemberton A, Ward P. The anatomy of fertilization in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria. J Morphol. 2008;269:630-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Such anatomy potentially gives the female a large degree of control over sperm traffic from storage to the site of fertilization...
  3. Odeh M, Ophir E, Bornstein J. Hypospadias mimicking female genitalia on early second trimester sonographic examination. J Clin Ultrasound. 2008;36:581-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore suggest that female fetal sex assignment should be based on the demonstration of the 2 or 4 parallel lines representing the labial folds and not only upon the demonstration of the downward direction of the genital tubercle...
  4. Arbuckle T, Hauser R, Swan S, Mao C, Longnecker M, Main K, et al. Meeting report: measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints within the first years of life. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:948-51 pubmed publisher
  5. Han C, Jablonski P. Female genitalia concealment promotes intimate male courtship in a water strider. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5793 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the apparent victory of coevolutionary arms race by one sex in terms of morphology may trigger evolution of a behavioral phenotype in the opposite sex...
  6. Manier M, Belote J, Berben K, Novikov D, Stuart W, Pitnick S. Resolving mechanisms of competitive fertilization success in Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2010;328:354-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that competitive male fertilization success derives from a multivariate process involving ejaculate-female and ejaculate-ejaculate interactions, as well as complex sperm behavior in vivo...
  7. da Rosa J, Mendonça V, Rocha C, Gardim S, Cilense M. Characterization of the external female genitalia of six species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidade) by scanning electron microscopy. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:286-92 pubmed
    ..Scanning observation of the dorsal, ventral, lateral and posterior sides of the female genitalia of Panstrongylus herreri, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius colombiensis, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma ..
  8. Puniamoorthy N, Kotrba M, Meier R. Unlocking the "Black box": internal female genitalia in Sepsidae (Diptera) evolve fast and are species-specific. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:275 pubmed publisher
    ..The internal female genitalia, in sharp contrast, remain poorly studied...
  9. Pillai S, Pantin Jackwood M, Jadhao S, Suarez D, Wang L, Yassine H, et al. Pathobiology of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses in breeder turkeys and its potential implication for vaccine studies in turkeys. Vaccine. 2009;27:819-24 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications148 found, 100 shown here

  1. Burger M. Complex female genitalia indicate sperm dumping in armored goblin spiders (Arachnida, Araneae, Oonopidae). Zoology (Jena). 2010;113:19-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising many species with peculiar female genitalia. Especially in species where studies of mating behavior are difficult, morphological investigations of the ..
  2. Salazar Martinez E, Romano Riquer P, Yanez Marquez E, Longnecker M, Hernandez Avila M. Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2004;3:8 pubmed
    ..Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females...
  3. Pioli P, Amiel E, Schaefer T, Connolly J, Wira C, Guyre P. Differential expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in tissues of the human female reproductive tract. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5799-806 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that TLRs are differentially expressed in distinct compartments of the female reproductive tract and may provide insight regarding the regulation of inflammation and immunity within the tract...
  4. Philpott S, Burger H, Tsoukas C, Foley B, Anastos K, Kitchen C, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA sequences in the female genital tract and blood: compartmentalization and intrapatient recombination. J Virol. 2005;79:353-63 pubmed
  5. Twig E, Yuval B. Function of multiple sperm storage organs in female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:67-74 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the use of both organs by females results in sperm economy, which adaptively prolongs the intervals between copulations...
  6. Fazeli A, Bruce C, Anumba D. Characterization of Toll-like receptors in the female reproductive tract in humans. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:1372-8 pubmed
  7. Sentman C, Wira C, Eriksson M. NK cell function in the human female reproductive tract. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2007;57:108-15 pubmed
    ..Uterine NK cells have a unique phenotype compared with blood NK cell subsets, yet little is known about how NK cells function as a part of the innate immune cell network in the female reproductive tract...
  8. Henrion R. [The role of the physician when faced with mutilations of the female genitalia]. Presse Med. 2003;32:1347-8 pubmed
  9. Baskin L. Anatomical studies of the female genitalia: surgical reconstructive implications. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2004;17:581-7 pubmed
    ..Herein, we review the neuroanatomy of the female genitalia and the implications for the rare patient who needs surgical reconstruction.
  10. Nikaido Y, Yoshizawa K, Danbara N, Tsujita Kyutoku M, Yuri T, Uehara N, et al. Effects of maternal xenoestrogen exposure on development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female CD-1 mouse offspring. Reprod Toxicol. 2004;18:803-11 pubmed
    ..High-dose GEN and RES and high- and low-dose BPA and DES exerted transient effects on the reproductive tract and mammary glands, whereas ZEA exerted prolonged effects...
  11. Lacey Knowles L, Brodie Hernandez B, Markow T. Nonantagonistic interactions between the sexes revealed by the ecological consequences of reproductive traits. J Evol Biol. 2005;18:156-61 pubmed
  12. Ilango K. Structure and function of the spermathecal complex in the phlebotomine sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae): II. post-copulatory histophysiological changes during the gonotrophic cycle. J Biosci. 2005;30:733-47 pubmed
    ..papatasi. As the females of P. papatasi mate polyandrously, the anatomical and physiological complexity of the spermathecal complex may be related to post-copulatory sexual selection...
  13. Burger M, Graber W, Michalik P, Kropf C. Silhouettella loricatula (Arachnida, Araneae, Oonopidae): a Haplogyne spider with complex female genitalia. J Morphol. 2006;267:663-77 pubmed
    ..The microorganisms can be identified partly as bacteria. They are enclosed in secretion and are always found in the same position inside the receptaculum...
  14. Frenkel L, McKernan J, Dinh P, Goldman D, Hitti J, Watts D, et al. HIV type 1 zidovudine (ZDV) resistance in blood and uterine cervical secretions of pregnant women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:870-3 pubmed
    ..However, in only 1 (1.8%) of 57 pregnancies evaluated was resistant virus limited to the cervical secretions. ZDV-resistant virus is rarely limited to the female genital tract...
  15. Chomont N, Hocini H, Gresenguet G, Brochier C, Bouhlal H, Andreoletti L, et al. Early archives of genetically-restricted proviral DNA in the female genital tract after heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. AIDS. 2007;21:153-62 pubmed
  16. Kemal K, Burger H, Mayers D, Anastos K, Foley B, Kitchen C, et al. HIV-1 drug resistance in variants from the female genital tract and plasma. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:535-45 pubmed
    ..Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug-resistance mutations may arise in a fraction of viral variants, and these variants may differ between compartments, including the genital tract and blood...
  17. Jefferson W, Padilla Banks E, Newbold R. Disruption of the female reproductive system by the phytoestrogen genistein. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;23:308-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, neonatal treatment with genistein at environmentally relevant doses caused adverse consequences on reproduction in adulthood...
  18. Brennan P, Prum R, McCracken K, Sorenson M, Wilson R, Birkhead T. Coevolution of male and female genital morphology in waterfowl. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e418 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that females have evolved a cryptic anatomical mechanism of choice in response to forced extra-pair copulations...
  19. Kemal K, Foley B, Burger H, Anastos K, Minkoff H, Kitchen C, et al. HIV-1 in genital tract and plasma of women: compartmentalization of viral sequences, coreceptor usage, and glycosylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12972-7 pubmed
    ..These findings are relevant to the prevention and control of HIV-1 infection...
  20. Kaur T, Gupta S, Kumar B. Multiple pyogenic granuloma involving female genitalia: a rare entity?. Pediatr Dermatol. 2004;21:614-5 pubmed
  21. Swanson W, Wong A, Wolfner M, Aquadro C. Evolutionary expressed sequence tag analysis of Drosophila female reproductive tracts identifies genes subjected to positive selection. Genetics. 2004;168:1457-65 pubmed publisher
  22. Ilango K. Structure and function of the spermathecal complex in the phlebotomine sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli (Diptera: Psychodidae): I. ultrastructure and histology. J Biosci. 2005;30:711-31 pubmed
    ..Post-mating sexual selection may be responsible for the structural uniqueness of the spermathecal complex in phlebotomine sandflies...
  23. Yang C, Maravilla K, Kilbourne Brook M, Austin G. Magnetic resonance imaging of SILCS diaphragm: anatomical considerations and corroboration with clinical fit. Contraception. 2007;76:238-44 pubmed
    ..MRI confirms the anatomic position of the SILCS diaphragm in vivo, among a sample of women varying in body mass and parity. ..
  24. D Cruz O, Uckun F. Preclinical evaluation of a dual-acting microbicidal prodrug WHI-07 in combination with vanadocene dithiocarbamate in the female reproductive tract of rabbit, pig, and cat. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35:910-27 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the combined use of WHI-07 and VDDTC via gel-microemulsion appears safe for topical use as a prophylactic anti-HIV microbicide. ..
  25. Sutcliffe P, Dixon S, Akehurst R, Wilkinson A, Shippam A, White S, et al. Evaluation of surgical procedures for sex reassignment: a systematic review. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:294-306; discussion 306-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Some satisfactory outcomes were reported, but the magnitude of benefit and harm for individual surgical procedures cannot be estimated accurately using the current available evidence. ..
  26. Rosenbaum T. Physical therapy treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder during pregnancy: a case report. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether the etiology of this disorder is essentially central or peripheral is unclear; however, a presenting symptom may be persistent engorgement of genital erectile and vascular tissue...
  27. Li Y, Li L, Hwang I, Tang F, O W. Coexpression of adrenomedullin and its receptors in the reproductive system of the rat: effects on steroid secretion in rat ovary. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of ADM and the gene expression of ADM and its receptor components in the female reproductive system suggest a paracrine effect of ADM on ovarian steroidogenesis. ..
  28. Bull M, Learn G, Genowati I, McKernan J, Hitti J, Lockhart D, et al. Compartmentalization of HIV-1 within the female genital tract is due to monotypic and low-diversity variants not distinct viral populations. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7122 pubmed publisher
  29. Reichart R, Kuhn S, Vogel I, Walter J, Kalff R. [Spinal cord stimulation at the level of the conus medullaris : treatment option for therapy-resistant postoperative neuralgia of the pudendal nerve]. Schmerz. 2009;23:640-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidural spinal cord stimulation at the level of the terminal cone of the spinal cord may be a new and successful therapeutic concept in otherwise untreatable cases. ..
  30. Stany M, Sunde J, Bidus M, Rose G, Elkas J. The use of acellular dermal allograft for vulvovaginal reconstruction. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:1079-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of an acellular dermal allograft decreases operative time and decreases the incidence of postoperative morbidity because harvesting autologous tissue for the neovagina is not required. ..
  31. Matson T, Wagner D. A New Cryptic Lactura from Texas (Lepidoptera, Zygaenoidea, Lacturidae). Zookeys. 2017;:141-150 pubmed publisher
    ..We illustrate the adult and larval stages and male and female genitalia, review available DNA barcode data that support the recognition of the new Lactura, and briefly ..
  32. van der Putte S. Penislike clitorises with megalourethras in nonvirilized female fetuses and a newborn. A histopathologic study and its bearing on their pathogenesis. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:2223-9 pubmed publisher
  33. Behounek G, Han H, Kononenko V. A revision of the genus Belciana Walker, 1862 with description of three new species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Pantheinae) from East and South East Asia. Revision of Pantheinae, contribution XII. Zootaxa. 2015;4027:341-65 pubmed publisher
    ..n. and D. sophronia (Prout, 1924) comb. n. The extensive diagnoses of known species of Belciana are given. The imagines, male and female genitalia are illustrated. The checklist of the genus Belciana in East Asia is presented.
  34. Tai C, Shen B, Wang J, Chancellor M, Roppolo J, de Groat W. Inhibitory and excitatory perigenital-to-bladder spinal reflexes in the cat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F591-602 pubmed
    ..The ability to either inhibit or excite the bladder by noninvasive methods could significantly transform the current clinical management of bladder function after SCI. ..
  35. Dietz H, Shek C. Validity and reproducibility of the digital detection of levator trauma. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008;19:1097-101 pubmed publisher
    ..There seems to be a substantial learning curve. Palpatory detection of major levator trauma is less repeatable than identification by ultrasound. ..
  36. Langerhans R, Anderson C, Heinen Kay J. Causes and Consequences of Genital Evolution. Integr Comp Biol. 2016;56:741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, we echo recent calls for increased research on female genitalia, as non-trivial female genital diversity exists, and multiple mechanisms can lead to rapid diversification of ..
  37. Biglu M, Farnam A, Abotalebi P, Biglu S, Ghavami M. Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016;10:3-8 pubmed publisher
    ..FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers...
  38. Nascimento D, Mendonça M, Fernandes J. Description of a new group of species of <i>Edessa</i> (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Edessinae). Zootaxa. 2017;4254:136-150 pubmed publisher
    ..Descriptions of the group and species are provided. Illustrations of the species along with metasternal process and male and female genitalia are provided; an identification key and distributional map are presented.
  39. Miyagawa S, Katsu Y, Ohta Y, Sudo T, Lubahn D, Iguchi T. Estrogen receptor ESR1 is indispensable for the induction of persistent vaginal change by neonatal 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone exposure in mice. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..These results shed light on mechanisms of the induction of developmental effects elicited by sex steroid hormones on the developing animals. ..
  40. Stonis J, Diskus A, Remeikis A, Torres N. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae). Zootaxa. 2016;4061:119-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia.
  41. Taxvig C, Hass U, Axelstad M, Dalgaard M, Boberg J, Andeasen H, et al. Endocrine-disrupting activities in vivo of the fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:464-73 pubmed
    ..These effects strongly indicate that one major underlying mechanism for the endocrine-disrupting effects of azole fungicides is disturbance of key enzymes like CYP17 involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones. ..
  42. Baets J, Dierick I, Groote C, Ende J, Martin J, Geens K, et al. Peripheral neuropathy and 46XY gonadal dysgenesis: a heterogeneous entity. Neuromuscul Disord. 2009;19:172-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of minifascicle formation and the absence of a mutation in desert hedgehog homolog in this patient with gonadal dysgenesis and peripheral neuropathy expand the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of this rare entity. ..
  43. Lax S. [Serous genital carcinoma: molecular pathogenesis and the role of tubal fimbria]. Pathologe. 2009;30 Suppl 2:210-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Since an advanced tumor stage is frequent and often makes the determination of the origin impossible, the term pelvic serous carcinoma was recently proposed for high grade serous (adeno)carcinomas involving multiple sites...
  44. Nappi R, Albani F, Chiovato L, Polatti F. Local estrogens for quality of life and sexuality in postmenopausal women with cardiovascular disease. Climacteric. 2009;12 Suppl 1:112-6 pubmed
    ..When a history of CVD is present, local estrogens may be safely used to treat urogenital atrophy with a significant improvement of sexual health and quality of life. ..
  45. Goodman M, Placik O, Benson R, Miklos J, Moore R, Jason R, et al. A large multicenter outcome study of female genital plastic surgery. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1565-77 pubmed publisher
    ..to correct "abnormalities," as there is a wide range of normality in the external and internal female genitalia, both parous and nulliparous, many women chose to modify their vulvas and vaginas...
  46. Buttin R, Zara F, Shariat B, Redarce T. A biomechanical model of the female reproductive system and the fetus for the realization of a childbirth virtual simulator. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:5263-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Then, we present some results showing that FEM analysis can be used to model forces during childbirth. In the future, we plan to use this work to more accurately control a childbirth simulator. ..
  47. Chang Z, Yang L, Zhang Z, Chen X. Review of the genus Neotetricodes Zhang et Chen (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) with description of two new species. Zootaxa. 2015;4057:340-52 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. (China: Yunnan) are described and illustrated. The generic characteristic is redefined. A checklist and key to the species of the genus are provided. The female genitalia of the genus are firstly described.
  48. Rhoads M, Meyer J, Kolath S, Lamberson W, Lucy M. Growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and IGF-binding protein-2 expression in the reproductive tissues of early postpartum dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:1802-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences between cows (independent of their BCS and milk production) accounted for a major portion of the variation that we observed. ..
  49. Ryan B, Hotchkiss A, Crofton K, Gray L. In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sexually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats. Toxicol Sci. 2010;114:133-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant dosage levels of EE2 can permanently disrupt the reproductive morphology and function of the female rat. ..
  50. Acién P, Acien M. Malformations of the female genital tract: always be alert for surprises!. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:766; author reply 766-7 pubmed
  51. Laws S, Stoker T, Ferrell J, Hotchkiss M, Cooper R. Effects of altered food intake during pubertal development in male and female wistar rats. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:194-202 pubmed
  52. Johnson C, Nour N. Surgical techniques: defibulation of Type III female genital cutting. J Sex Med. 2007;4:1544-7 pubmed
  53. Guerra Junior G, Aun A, Miranda M, Beraldo L, Guimaraes Moraes S, Baptista M, et al. Congenital perineal lipoma presenting as ambiguous genitalia. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2008;18:269-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Migration and fusion of the labioscrotal folds and formation of the urorectal septum are simultaneous developmental events occurring in the same region, which may explain the association of perineal lipoma and anorectal malformations. ..
  54. Boudaya L, Neifar L, Euzet L. Diplectanid parasites of Lithognathus mormyrus (L.) (Teleostei: Sparidae) from the Mediterranean Sea, with the description of Lamellodiscus flagellatus n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae). Syst Parasitol. 2009;74:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The status of L. ignoratus Palombi, 1943, another species from Lithognathus mormyrus, is discussed. A possible scenario for the synxenic speciation of these congeneric parasites of L. mormyrus is proposed...
  55. Liao L, Creighton S. Requests for cosmetic genitoplasty: how should healthcare providers respond?. BMJ. 2007;334:1090-2 pubmed
  56. Jewkes R, Christofides N, Vetten L, Jina R, Sigsworth R, Loots L. Medico-legal findings, legal case progression, and outcomes in South African rape cases: retrospective review. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000164 pubmed publisher
    ..Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. ..
  57. Turkmani S, Homer C, Varol N, Dawson A. A survey of Australian midwives' knowledge, experience, and training needs in relation to female genital mutilation. Women Birth. 2018;31:25-30 pubmed publisher
    Female genital mutilation (FGM) involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or any other injury for non-medical reasons...
  58. Stranzinger E, Strouse P. Ultrasound of the pediatric female pelvis. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2008;29:98-113 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of differential diagnosis for disease processes of the female pelvic organs is essential. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice for evaluating the pediatric female pelvis. ..
  59. Jadoon S, Khan Jadoon S, Shah R. Maternal and neonatal complications in term breech delivered vaginally. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008;18:555-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It also decreases the rate of operative delivery for this malpresentation. ..
  60. Zouache K, Voronin D, Tran Van V, Mousson L, Failloux A, Mavingui P. Persistent Wolbachia and cultivable bacteria infection in the reproductive and somatic tissues of the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6388 pubmed publisher
    ..albopictus. Improved understanding of the vectorial system, including the role of bacteria in the vector's biology and competence, could have major implications for understanding viral emergences and for disease control. ..
  61. Rodrigues L, Mejdalani G. Description of the Aguatala compsa young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) female. Neotrop Entomol. 2009;38:508-11 pubmed
    ..This consists also on a new distribution record for the monotypic genus Aguatala Young. The female genitalia of A...
  62. Scalercio S, Infusino M, Hausmann A. Nothocasis rosariae sp. n., a new sylvicolous, montane species from southern Europe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Larentiinae). Zootaxa. 2016;4161:177-92 pubmed publisher
    ..sertata (Hübner, 1817) are presented basing on wing pattern, morphology of male and female genitalia, and molecular data (COI barcode region)...
  63. Sauther M, Cuozzo F. Somatic variation in living, wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Folia Primatol (Basel). 2008;79:55-78 pubmed
    ..Amassing such data is a critical first step to assess if wild primate populations are exhibiting normal variability or are being affected by potential inbreeding and/or environmental effects. ..
  64. Funke G, Frodl R. Comprehensive study of Corynebacterium freneyi strains and extended and emended description of Corynebacterium freneyi Renaud, Aubel, Riegel, Meugnier, and Bollet 2001. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:638-43 pubmed
    ..freneyi presented here for the first time. Based on the large number of additional C. freneyi strains from our culture collection, we provide an extended and emended species description of C. freneyi...
  65. Frangos J, Alavian C, Kimball A. Acne and oral contraceptives: update on women's health screening guidelines. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:781-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These new guideline revisions could change the way dermatologists treat acne in their healthy female patients of child-bearing age. ..
  66. Waxman S, Pukall C. Laser Doppler imaging of genital blood flow: a direct measure of female sexual arousal. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2278-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that LDI is a useful instrument for measuring female sexual arousal, and that women may be more aware of their level of physiological arousal than previously assumed. ..
  67. Escala Aguirre J, Cadena Y, Lopez P, Angel L, Retamal M, Letelier N, et al. [Feminizing genitoplasty in adrenal congenital hyperplasia: one or two surgical steps?]. Arch Esp Urol. 2009;62:724-30 pubmed
    ..Based on this series, we recommend performing vaginoplasty in a 2nd stage surgery, avoiding complications and further procedures such as di lactations. ..
  68. Nazer D, Palusci V. Child sexual abuse: can anatomy explain the presentation?. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008;47:7-14 pubmed
    ..The case discussion is an attempt to understand the science responsible for the disease that is present and make that understanding useful for future clinical problem solving. ..
  69. Pérez López F. Sunlight, the vitamin D endocrine system, and their relationships with gynaecologic cancer. Maturitas. 2008;59:101-13 pubmed publisher
  70. Helpman L, Greenstein A, Hartoov J, Abramov L. Genito-sensory analysis in women with arousal and orgasmic dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1039-1044 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the incorporation of the GSA as a quantitative tool in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with FSD. ..
  71. Volynkin A, Cerný K. Revision of the <i>Barsine</i> <i>cardinalis</i>-<i>anomala</i> 'species-complex' (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae). Zootaxa. 2017;4358:441-461 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. ), new synonymy (Barsine cardinalis cardinalis (Hampson, 1900) = Miltochrista erubescens Rothschild, 1936, syn. nov.), and six new species-groups are established. Adults, male and female genitalia of all species are illustrated.
  72. Richman S. Pelvic examination. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1778; author reply 1779 pubmed
  73. Masse J, Watrin T, Laurent A, Deschamps S, Guerrier D, Pellerin I. The developing female genital tract: from genetics to epigenetics. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:411-24 pubmed publisher
  74. ter Kuile M, Both S, van Uden J. The effects of experimentally-induced sad and happy mood on sexual arousal in sexually healthy women. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide empirical support for the idea that mood can impact on subjective sexual arousal in women. ..
  75. Dubatolov V, Volynkin A. On the systematic position of the genera <i>Paraplastis</i> Hampson, <i>Migoplastis</i> Felder and <i>Dondera</i> Moore (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae). Zootaxa. 2017;4358:258-270 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. The check-list of the subgenus Dondera is presented. Male and female genitalia of N. correcta and N. alba and female genitalia of N...
  76. Kozovski G, Angelova M. [The Morris syndrome. Case report]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2007;46:43-4 pubmed
  77. Fazeli A. Maternal communication with gametes and embryos. Theriogenology. 2008;70:1182-7 pubmed publisher
  78. Acién P, Acien M. Unilateral renal agenesis and female genital tract pathologies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:1424-31 pubmed publisher
  79. Werner R, Mönig I, Lünstedt R, Wünsch L, Thorns C, Reiz B, et al. New NR5A1 mutations and phenotypic variations of gonadal dysgenesis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176720 pubmed publisher
    ..a broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from infertility, ambiguous genitalia, anorchia to gonadal dygenesis and female genitalia. Here we present the clinical follow up of four 46,XY DSD patients with three novel heterozygous mutations in ..
  80. Uhl G, Nessler S, Schneider J. Copulatory mechanism in a sexually cannibalistic spider with genital mutilation (Araneae: Araneidae: Argiope bruennichi). Zoology (Jena). 2007;110:398-408 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrates that (i) genital coupling is largely accomplished on the external part of the female genitalia, (ii) that the mechanism requires an interaction between several non-sperm-transferring structures and (iii) ..
  81. Herbenick D, Reece M. Development and validation of the female genital self-image scale. J Sex Med. 2010;7:1822-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, female genital self-image was found to be positively related to women's sexual function. ..
  82. Oberley R, Goss K, Hoffmann D, Ault K, Neff T, Ramsey K, et al. Regulation of surfactant protein D in the mouse female reproductive tract in vivo. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:863-8 pubmed
    ..These data are suggestive that SP-D may play a role in innate immunity in the female reproductive tract in vivo. ..
  83. Touraine P. [Amenorrhoea]. Rev Prat. 2007;57:1829-36 pubmed
  84. Acién P. More to be learned about female and male genital tract malformations. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:459; author reply 459-60 pubmed publisher
  85. Jana N, Santra D, Das D, Das A, Dasgupta S. Nonobstetric lower genital tract injuries in rural India. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;103:26-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe hemorrhage caused by NOGTIs is potentially fatal in rural settings if treatment is delayed. Prompt resuscitation, early referral, and appropriate surgical intervention can avert both morbidity and mortality. ..
  86. Qaiser R, Scott R, Smith E. Identification of an association between Robinow syndrome and moyamoya. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2009;45:69-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical, radiographic, and surgical findings are described, as well as the importance of this association...
  87. Orbach D, Hedrick B, Würsig B, Mesnick S, Brennan P. The evolution of genital shape variation in female cetaceans. Evolution. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..b>Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates...
  88. Dias F, Specht A, Blas G, Casagrande M, Mielke O. Resurgence of a forgotten Southern Brazil endemic species: taxonomic position, redescription, and spatio-temporal distribution of <i>Porosagrotis carolia</i> Schaus, 1929 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Noctuinae). Zootaxa. 2017;4363:421-433 pubmed publisher
    ..Head, thorax and its appendages, and male and female genitalia are illustrated through photographs and line drawings; photographs of the holotype and a distribution map for ..
  89. Pavone L, Tafuri S, Avallone L, Staiano N, Vittoria A. Expression of orexin A and its receptor 1 in the vestibular glands of the cattle genital tract. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:202-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The localization of oxA in adrenal glands, stomach, bowel, pancreas, and testis has recently been assessed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the expression of oxA and ox1R in the vestibular glands of mammalian genital tract. ..
  90. Muramori K, Takahashi Y, Handa N, Aikawa H. Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumoretroperitoneum by insufflation of compressed air at the external genitalia in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:E5-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The female genitalia possibly served as the entry point for air into the retroperitoneum and peritoneal cavity, with subsequent ..
  91. Qian H, Cai T, Jin H. Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein genotypes in the genital tract tissue of tubal pregnancy patients. J Int Med Res. 2009;37:385-91 pubmed
  92. Ghosh M, Shen Z, Schaefer T, Fahey J, Gupta P, Wira C. CCL20/MIP3alpha is a novel anti-HIV-1 molecule of the human female reproductive tract. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;62:60-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that CCL20/MIP3alpha is an important endogenous anti-HIV-1 microbicide of the female reproductive tract. ..