urogenital system


Summary: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.

Top Publications

  1. Little M, Brennan J, Georgas K, Davies J, Davidson D, Baldock R, et al. A high-resolution anatomical ontology of the developing murine genitourinary tract. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:680-99 pubmed
    ..Visual examples of how terms appear in different specimen types are also provided...
  2. Wei K, Chen J, Akrami K, Sekhon R, Chen F. Generation of mice deficient for Lbx2, a gene expressed in the urogenital system, nervous system, and Pax3 dependent tissues. Genesis. 2007;45:361-8 pubmed
    ..There was reduced Lbx2 expression in dorsal root ganglia and cranial nerve ganglia with Pax3 deficiency, but not in the genital tubercle. This suggested that Pax3 is required for Lbx2 expression in affected neural crest-derived tissues...
  3. Forsyth S, Agogo E, Lau L, Jungmann E, Man S, Edwards S, et al. Would offering rapid point-of-care testing or non-invasive methods improve uptake of HIV testing among high-risk genitourinary medicine clinic attendees? A patient perspective. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:550-2 pubmed publisher
    ..1% of HRP who declined HIV testing said they would be more likely to accept a POCT and 32.8% a salivary test. Introduction of rapid POCT for HIV would increase patient's choice and may increase the likelihood of HRP accepting an HIV test...
  4. Wu X, Ferrara C, Shapiro E, Grishina I. Bmp7 expression and null phenotype in the urogenital system suggest a role in re-organization of the urethral epithelium. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..to perform a detailed analysis of Bmp7 expression and the null phenotype during development of the mouse urogenital system. The urethral compartment originates in mid-embryogenesis from the ventral part of the cloaca, a transient ..
  5. Heba M, Ramadan N, El Laithy M. Polymeric matrix membrane sensors for stability-indicating potentiometric determination of oxybutynin hydrochloride and flavoxate hydrochloride urogenital system drugs. J AOAC Int. 2008;91:1318-30 pubmed
    Four polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix membrane electrodes responsive to 2 drugs affecting the urogenital system--oxybutynin hydrochloride (OX) and flavoxate hydrochloride (FX)--were developed, described, and characterized...
  6. Michalski J, Bae K, Roach M, Markoe A, Sandler H, Ryu J, et al. Long-term toxicity following 3D conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer from the RTOG 9406 phase I/II dose escalation study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76:14-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To update the incidence of late toxicity of RTOG 9406, a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) dose escalation trial for prostate cancer...
  7. Coen J, Bae K, Zietman A, Patel B, Shipley W, Slater J, et al. Acute and late toxicity after dose escalation to 82 GyE using conformal proton radiation for localized prostate cancer: initial report of American College of Radiology Phase II study 03-12. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:1005-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Single-institution data suggest a benefit with even higher doses. American College of Radiology 03-12 is a Phase II trial testing the safety and efficacy of 82 GyE (Gray equivalent) delivered with conformal proton radiation...
  8. Mendenhall N, Li Z, Hoppe B, Marcus R, Mendenhall W, Nichols R, et al. Early outcomes from three prospective trials of image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To report early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer...
  9. Batruch I, Lecker I, Kagedan D, Smith C, Mullen B, Grober E, et al. Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from normal volunteers and post-vasectomy patients identifies over 2000 proteins and candidate biomarkers of the urogenital system. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:941-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins may serve as candidate biomarkers for future studies of infertility and urogenital diseases...

More Information

Publications158 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mohammed N, Kestin L, Ghilezan M, Krauss D, Vicini F, Brabbins D, et al. Comparison of acute and late toxicities for three modern high-dose radiation treatment techniques for localized prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities in prostate cancer patients treated with three different high-dose radiation techniques...
  2. Zilli T, Taussky D, Donath D, Le H, Larouche R, Béliveau Nadeau D, et al. Urethra-sparing, intraoperative, real-time planned, permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy: toxicity analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:e377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the toxicity outcome in patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing (125)I permanent-seed brachytherapy (BT) according to a urethra-sparing, intraoperative (IO), real-time planned conformal technique...
  3. McMahon A, Aronow B, Davidson D, Davies J, Gaido K, Grimmond S, et al. GUDMAP: the genitourinary developmental molecular anatomy project. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:667-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Presented here is a brief overview of the Genitourinary Developmental Molecular Anatomy Project effort...
  4. Deville C, Both S, Hwang W, Tochner Z, Vapiwala N. Clinical toxicities and dosimetric parameters after whole-pelvis versus prostate-only intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess whether whole-pelvis (WP) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is associated with increased toxicity compared with prostate-only (PO) IMRT...
  5. Chiu H, Szucsik J, Georgas K, Jones J, Rumballe B, Tang D, et al. Comparative gene expression analysis of genital tubercle development reveals a putative appendicular Wnt7 network for the epidermal differentiation. Dev Biol. 2010;344:1071-87 pubmed publisher
    ..As several of these genes are known to be regulated by, or contain cis elements responsive to retinoic acid, estrogen, or androgen, this implicates this pathway in the later androgen-dependent development of the GT...
  6. Bohnenpoll T, Bettenhausen E, Weiss A, Foik A, Trowe M, Blank P, et al. Tbx18 expression demarcates multipotent precursor populations in the developing urogenital system but is exclusively required within the ureteric mesenchymal lineage to suppress a renal stromal fate. Dev Biol. 2013;380:25-36 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian urogenital system derives from multipotent progenitor cells of different germinal tissues...
  7. Khandekar M, Suzuki N, Lewton J, Yamamoto M, Engel J. Multiple, distant Gata2 enhancers specify temporally and tissue-specific patterning in the developing urogenital system. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10263-76 pubmed
    ..We found that the spatially and tissue-specific functions for Gata2 in the developing urogenital system are conferred by at least three separate regionally and temporally specific urogenital enhancer elements, ..
  8. Carroll T, Park J, Hayashi S, Majumdar A, McMahon A. Wnt9b plays a central role in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transitions underlying organogenesis of the mammalian urogenital system. Dev Cell. 2005;9:283-92 pubmed
    The vertebrate urogenital system forms due to inductive interactions between the Wolffian duct, its derivative the ureteric bud, and their adjacent mesenchymes...
  9. Montorsi F, Corbin J, Phillips S. Review of phosphodiesterases in the urogenital system: new directions for therapeutic intervention. J Sex Med. 2004;1:322-36 pubmed
    ..With the success of Phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 5 inhibitors (i.e., sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), PDEs are considered attractive targets for drug intervention in the urogenital tract...
  10. Lakshmanan G, Lieuw K, Lim K, Gu Y, Grosveld F, Engel J, et al. Localization of distant urogenital system-, central nervous system-, and endocardium-specific transcriptional regulatory elements in the GATA-3 locus. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:1558-68 pubmed
    ..of very distant transcriptional regulatory elements (putative central nervous system-, endocardium-, and urogenital system-specific enhancers)...
  11. Chen F, Liu K, Epstein J. Lbx2, a novel murine homeobox gene related to the Drosophila ladybird genes is expressed in the developing urogenital system, eye and brain. Mech Dev. 1999;84:181-4 pubmed
    ..From E14.5 to birth, Lbx2 expression is evident in the developing retinal neuroepithelium and the vibrissa...
  12. Ottolenghi C, Veitia R, Quintana Murci L, Torchard D, Scapoli L, Souleyreau Therville N, et al. The region on 9p associated with 46,XY sex reversal contains several transcripts expressed in the urogenital system and a novel doublesex-related domain. Genomics. 2000;64:170-8 pubmed
    ..an expression pattern specific to testis and kidney, consistent with a role in the development of the urogenital system. One of them, expressed in adult testis and human embryos aged 4-5 weeks, encodes a potential polypeptide ..
  13. Jurstrand M, Falk L, Fredlund H, Lindberg M, Olcen P, Andersson S, et al. Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 genotypes among sexually transmitted disease patients in Sweden. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3915-9 pubmed
    ..trachomatis strains. This omp1 genotyping method had a high reproducibility and could be used for epidemiological characterization of sexually transmitted Chlamydia infections...
  14. Jensen J, Borre M, Dohn B. Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:261-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that estimates of the prevalence of M. genitalium in various populations using MgPa PCR primers could be incorrectly low if the PCR primers are located in variable regions of the MgPa gene...
  15. Marty M, Chapin R, Parks L, Thorsrud B. Development and maturation of the male reproductive system. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2003;68:125-36 pubmed
  16. Staack A, Donjacour A, Brody J, Cunha G, Carroll P. Mouse urogenital development: a practical approach. Differentiation. 2003;71:402-13 pubmed
  17. Mittaz L, Russell D, Wilson T, Brasted M, Tkalcevic J, Salamonsen L, et al. Adamts-1 is essential for the development and function of the urogenital system. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:1096-105 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a functional Adamts-1 is required for normal ovulation to occur, and hence the Adamts-1 gene plays an important role in female fertility, primarily during the tissue remodeling process of ovulation...
  18. Kreidberg J, Symons J. Integrins in kidney development, function, and disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2000;279:F233-42 pubmed
    ..diseased kidney and attempt to provide a hypothetical framework for understanding integrin function in the urogenital system. Since the last time this area was reviewed (Hamerski DA and Santoro S...
  19. Hoshino T, Shimizu R, Ohmori S, Nagano M, Pan X, Ohneda O, et al. Reduced BMP4 abundance in Gata2 hypomorphic mutant mice result in uropathies resembling human CAKUT. Genes Cells. 2008;13:159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments taken together implicate GATA-2 as a direct regulator of Bmp4 transcription. The pathophysiology described in Gata2 hypomorphic mutant animals resembles human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. ..
  20. Jiang Y, Su Y, Zhao Y, Pan C, Chen L. Golgi phosphoprotein3 overexpression is associated with poor survival in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:10615-24 pubmed
    ..Importantly, subgroup analysis suggested that overexpression of GOLPH3 correlated with shorter OS in urogenital system cancers (HR 4.258, 95% CI 1.81-4.91, P < 0.001). Moreover, publication bias was not significant (P > 0...
  21. Burgos F, Gomez V, Pascual J, Marcen R, Villafruela J, Correa C, et al. Pancreas islet transplantation in the genitourinary tract associated with renal transplantation: an experimental study. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:2585-7 pubmed
    ..The latter route may benefit from the immunoprivileged and special trophic conditions of the testis. For the first time, the feasibility of the bladder submucosa as an implantation site for pancreas islets was demonstrated. ..
  22. Gur S, Kadowitz P, Hellstrom W. Purinergic (P2) receptor control of lower genitourinary tract function and new avenues for drug action: an overview. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13:3236-44 pubmed
    ..Our advancing knowledge about purine agonists and their pharmacologic benefits in erectile, ejaculatory, urinary bladder and prostatic hyperplasia may service clinical problems in the near future. ..
  23. Morris K, St Laurent C, Hoeve R, Forsythe P, Suresh M, Mathison R, et al. Autonomic nervous system regulates secretion of anti-inflammatory prohormone SMR1 from rat salivary glands. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C514-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway may be conserved among mammals and may constitute an important anti-inflammatory and analgesic response to stress. ..
  24. Huang F, Rock J, Harfe B, Cheng T, Huang X, Jan Y, et al. Studies on expression and function of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21413-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The TMEM16A expression pattern established in this study thus provides a roadmap for the analyses of physiological functions of calcium-activated chloride channels that contain TMEM16A subunits. ..
  25. Rowell A, Sangster G, Caraway J, Walker P, Elmajian D, Heldmann M. Genitourinary imaging: part 1, congenital urinary anomalies and their management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;199:W545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the implications of common congenital urinary anomalies is the key to detecting associated anomalies, initiating therapy, and avoiding both complications and unnecessary intervention. ..
  26. Calleja Agius J, Brincat M. The urogenital system and the menopause. Climacteric. 2015;18 Suppl 1:18-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, clinicians should sensitively question and examine menopausal women, in order to correctly identify the pattern of changes in urogenital atrophy and manage them appropriately. ..
  27. Mauffrey C, Randhawa K, Lewis C, Brewster M, Dabke H. Cauda equina syndrome: an anatomically driven review. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2008;69:344-7 pubmed
    ..This article relates the anatomy of the nervous system of the bladder, rectum, anus and sexual organs to the signs and symptoms of cauda equina syndrome, and reviews the literature for the acute management of these patients. ..
  28. Scoular A, Abu Rajab K, Winter A, Connell J, Hart G. The case for social marketing in gonorrhoea prevention: insights from sexual lifestyles in Glasgow genitourinary medicine clinic attendees. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:545-9 pubmed publisher
  29. Henderson R, Hoppe B, Marcus R, Mendenhall W, Nichols R, Li Z, et al. Urinary functional outcomes and toxicity five years after proton therapy for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer: results of two prospective trials. Acta Oncol. 2013;52:463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that PT provides a minimally toxic and effective treatment for low and intermediate prostate cancer patients, including those with significant pretreatment GU dysfunction (IPSS 15-25). ..
  30. Ambu R, Vinci L, Gerosa C, Fanni D, Obinu E, Faa A, et al. WT1 expression in the human fetus during development. Eur J Histochem. 2015;59:2499 pubmed publisher
    Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) is a transcription factor involved in the development of the urogenital system. The purpose of this study was to analyze the immunoreactivity for WT1 protein in different tissues and organs in human fetuses in early ..
  31. Zelin J, Garrett N, Saunders J, Warburton F, Anderson J, Moir K, et al. An evaluation of the performance of OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Test in a high-risk population attending genitourinary medicine clinics in East London, UK. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:665-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that simple, non-invasive antibody detection tests such as OraQuick can increase HIV testing and diagnosis in UK GU medicine and community settings. ..
  32. Davies B, Kirchhoff C. Adhesion-GPCRs in the male reproductive tract. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;706:179-88 pubmed
    ..This chapter summarizes recent data concerning this receptor and other family members in the male reproductive system. ..
  33. Gharsallah H, Frikha Gargouri O, Sellami H, Besbes F, Znazen A, Hammami A. Chlamydia trachomatis genovar distribution in clinical urogenital specimens from Tunisian patients: high prevalence of C. trachomatis genovar E and mixed infections. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:333 pubmed publisher
    ..04). In conclusion, we have reported a high prevalence of genovar E and of mixed infections in our study population. Such data could have implications for the control and vaccine development of C. trachomatis in Tunisia. ..
  34. Wang R, Wang N, Cui G, Chen Y, Zhong H, Tang J. The impact of NudCD1 on renal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018;22:671-677 pubmed publisher
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant tumor in the urogenital system. Its easily metastatic characteristics greatly reduce the postoperative survival rate...
  35. Sashidharan P, Mullan H, Lazaro N, Challenor R, Theobald N. Survey of non-consultant career grade doctors in genitourinary medicine and sexual health departments 2005. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17:856 pubmed
  36. Comiter C. Local renin-angiotensin systems in the genitourinary tract. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012;385:13-26 pubmed publisher
  37. Belanger G, Verlee G. Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Male Pelvic, Inguinal, and Testicular Pain. Surg Clin North Am. 2016;96:593-613 pubmed publisher
    ..This article provides insight into the medical and surgical management of subacute and chronic pelvic, inguinal, and scrotal pain. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment options of each are discussed. ..
  38. McGraw L, Clark A, Wolfner M. Post-mating gene expression profiles of female Drosophila melanogaster in response to time and to four male accessory gland proteins. Genetics. 2008;179:1395-408 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Acp29AB and Acp62F modulated a large number of transcriptional changes shortly after mating. ..
  39. Aizer A, Anderson N, Oh S, Yu J, McKeon A, Decker R, et al. The impact of pretreatment prostate volume on severe acute genitourinary toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer. ..
  40. Arase S, Ishii K, Igarashi K, Aisaki K, Yoshio Y, Matsushima A, et al. Endocrine disrupter bisphenol A increases in situ estrogen production in the mouse urogenital sinus. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:734-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that BPA might interact with in situ steroidogenesis by altering tissue components, such as the accumulation of aromatase-expressing mesenchymal cells, in particular organs. ..
  41. Karlsson S. Histopathology and histomorphometry of the urogenital tract in 15-month old male and female rats treated neonatally with SERMs and estrogens. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2006;58:1-12 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the vas deferens is a main target organ following neonatal administration of SERMs and estrogens. In addition, female rats were significantly more susceptible to SERM treatment than to treatment with estrogens. ..
  42. Coyne K, Maw R, Rooney G, Cohen C. Mentoring in genitourinary medicine. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17:795-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss the principles and benefits of mentoring, different models that can be used, and potential difficulties. We also present the results of a survey that demonstrated widespread interest in mentoring within GU medicine. ..
  43. Calleja Agius J, Brincat M. Urogenital atrophy. Climacteric. 2009;12:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, clinicians should sensitively question and examine menopausal women, in order to correctly identify the pattern of changes in urogenital atrophy and manage them appropriately. ..
  44. Godmann M, Kosan C, Behr R. Krüppel-like factor 4 is widely expressed in the mouse male and female reproductive tract and responds as an immediate early gene to activation of the protein kinase A in TM4 Sertoli cells. Reproduction. 2010;139:771-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Klf4 is an immediate early gene in TM4 cells and its expression in several epithelia of the male and female reproductive tract suggests an important role of Klf4 in mouse reproductive functions. ..
  45. Möbius N, Brenneisen W, Schaeffer A, Henrich B. Protocol for the rapid detection of the urogenital tract mollicutes and Chlamydia with concomitant LGV-(sub)typing. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;903:235-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The present protocol focuses on the step-by-step description for the establishment of these TaqMan multiplex qPCRs. ..
  46. Kantaputra P, Kapoor S, Verma P, Kaewgahya M, Kawasaki K, Ohazama A, et al. Al-Awadi-Raas-Rothschild syndrome with dental anomalies and a novel WNT7A mutation. Eur J Med Genet. 2017;60:695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Normal intelligence and malformations of urogenital system are frequent findings...
  47. De Martino S, de Barbeyrac B, Piemont Y, Barthel C, Monteil H, Jaulhac B. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA using MagNA Pure DNA extraction and Cobas Amplicor CT/NG amplification. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:576-9 pubmed
    ..Using 200 microL of sample in the automated extraction process lowered the detection limit without raising the inhibition rate. Furthermore, the automated extraction method halved the hands-on time required for the procedure. ..
  48. Lawton C, Bae K, Pilepich M, Hanks G, Shipley W. Long-term treatment sequelae after external beam irradiation with or without hormonal manipulation for adenocarcinoma of the prostate: analysis of radiation therapy oncology group studies 85-31, 86-10, and 92-02. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;70:437-41 pubmed
  49. Touboul C, Picone O, Levaillant J, Boithias C, Frydman R, Boulvain M, et al. Clinical application of fetal urine production rate in unexplained polyhydramnios. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009;34:521-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Children with prenatal unexplained polyhydramnios and HFUPR above the 95(th) centile should nevertheless receive detailed pediatric follow-up. ..
  50. Delbes G, Chan D, Pakarinen P, Trasler J, Hales B, Robaire B. Impact of the chemotherapy cocktail used to treat testicular cancer on the gene expression profile of germ cells from male Brown-Norway rats. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, BEP exposure triggers an oxidative stress response in round spermatids and induces many pathways that may lead to the survival of damaged cells and production of abnormal sperm. ..
  51. Najibi S, Tannast M, Latini J. Civilian gunshot wounds to the genitourinary tract: incidence, anatomic distribution, associated injuries, and outcomes. Urology. 2010;76:977-81; discussion 981 pubmed publisher
    ..Most injuries (90%) were managed surgically. Mortality is usually the result of associated nongenitourinary injuries. A high index of suspicion for injuries affecting other organs is necessary in managing GU GSW trauma patients. ..
  52. Fritsch H, Richter E, Adam N. Molecular characteristics and alterations during early development of the human vagina. J Anat. 2012;220:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study is one of the first to provide up-to-date molecular correlates for human vaginal development that can be compared with the results of cell biological studies in rodents. ..
  53. Petrova M, van den Broek M, Balzarini J, Vanderleyden J, Lebeer S. Vaginal microbiota and its role in HIV transmission and infection. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2013;37:762-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, genetically engineered lactobacilli show promise as new microbicidal agents against HIV. ..
  54. Tsuchiya B, Sato Y, Kameya T, Okayasu I, Mukai K. Differential expression of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in normal human tissues. Arch Histol Cytol. 2006;69:135-45 pubmed
    ..The method presented here should prove useful for the further investigation of the N-cadherin expression and function in several disease conditions on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues. ..
  55. Baraitser P, Pearce V, Walsh N, Cooper R, Brown K, Holmes J, et al. Look who's taking notes in your clinic: mystery shoppers as evaluators in sexual health services. Health Expect. 2008;11:54-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Professional patient programmes provide an opportunity for regular cycles of user feedback to monitor quality improvement. ..
  56. Palacios S. Managing urogenital atrophy. Maturitas. 2009;63:315-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Oestrogen given systemically or locally in all dosage regimens is effective, but topical vaginal application alone is preferred if systemic treatment is not needed. Treatment is long term and may be required for many years. ..
  57. Amakasu K, Suzuki K, Suzuki H. The unilateral urogenital anomalies (UUA) rat: a new mutant strain associated with unilateral renal agenesis, cryptorchidism, and malformations of reproductive organs restricted to the left side. Comp Med. 2009;59:249-56 pubmed
  58. Saremi F, Knoll A, Bendavid O, Schultze Haakh H, Narula N, Sarlati F. Characterization of genitourinary lesions with diffusion-weighted imaging. Radiographics. 2009;29:1295-317 pubmed publisher
    ..0 T is currently under investigation in an effort to determine the efficacy of the routine inclusion of diffusion-weighted imaging sequences in 3.0-T body MR imaging protocols. ..
  59. Capobianco G, Donolo E, Borghero G, Dessole F, Cherchi P, Dessole S. Effects of intravaginal estriol and pelvic floor rehabilitation on urogenital aging in postmenopausal women. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:397-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that combination therapy with estriol plus pelvic floor rehabilitation was effective and should be considered as a first-line treatment for symptoms of urogenital aging in postmenopausal women. ..
  60. Schwartsburd P, Agababov R, Vainshtein M. Gender difference in calcification diseases: is it the result of gender-specific ways of nano-bacterial expansion?. Med Hypotheses. 2013;81:911-2 pubmed publisher
    Gender difference has been reported for frequency of the calcification diseases in urogenital system: according to published statistics data, they are more numerous in males...
  61. Xiong Y, Qiu X, Shi W, Yu H, Zhang X. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of modified Bazhengsan in a rat model of chronic bacterial prostatitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;198:73-80 pubmed publisher
    Bazhengsan is a commonly used traditional Chinese prescription for the treatment of the urogenital system diseases for thousands of years, which decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare ..
  62. Rheubert J, Cook H, Siegel D, Trauth S. Histology of the Urogenital System in the American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), with Emphasis on Male Reproductive Morphology. Zoolog Sci. 2017;34:445-451 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have revealed variations in the urogenital system morphology of amphibians. Recently, the urogenital system of salamanders was reviewed and terminology was synonymized across taxa...
  63. Menshutkin V, Natochin I. [Coupled evolution of digestive, respiratory, circulatory, and excretory systems: a model investigation]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007;43:279-85 pubmed
    ..Interrelation of these factors under conditions of adaptation to changing environmental conditions determines peculiarities of evolution of each physiological system in an individual. ..
  64. Kachnic L, Tsai H, Coen J, Blaszkowsky L, Hartshorn K, Kwak E, et al. Dose-painted intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: a multi-institutional report of acute toxicity and response to therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemoradiation for anal cancer yields effective tumor control, but is associated with significant acute toxicity. We report our multi-institutional experience using dose-painted IMRT (DP-IMRT)...
  65. Servaes S, Epelman M. The current state of imaging pediatric genitourinary anomalies and abnormalities. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2013;42:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews normal anatomy and congenital malformations of the genitourinary system. ..
  66. Yalcinkaya T, Sittadjody S, Opara E. Scientific principles of regenerative medicine and their application in the female reproductive system. Maturitas. 2014;77:12-9 pubmed publisher
  67. Fersino S, Fiorentino A, Giaj Levra N, Mazzola R, Ricchetti F, DI Paola G, et al. Impact of Ialuril Soft Gels in reducing urinary toxicity during radical hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer: a preliminary experience. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2016;68:9-13 pubmed
    ..5 to 4.5, respectively. At statistical analysis (Fisher's exact text) Ialuril Soft Gels was associated with IPSS improvement (P=0.03). Ialuril Soft Gels seems to have a beneficial role in reducing GU toxicity without worsening the IPSS. ..
  68. Andersson K, Gratzke C. Pharmacology of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in the lower urinary tract and central nervous system. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2007;4:368-78 pubmed
  69. Wong G, Palazzi Churas K, Jarrard D, Paolone D, Graf A, Hedican S, et al. Salvage hypofractionated radiotherapy for biochemically recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;70:449-55 pubmed
    ..Additional follow-up is required to better document the biochemical control, but these results suggest that hypofractionation is a well-tolerated approach for salvage radiotherapy. ..
  70. Yono M, Yoshida M, Yamamoto Y, Imanishi A, Fukagawa A, Latifpour J, et al. Molecular mechanisms regulating urogenital expression of nitric oxide synthase in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sci. 2009;85:334-8 pubmed publisher
  71. Pavelka T, Houcek P, Hora M, Hlavácová J, Linhart M. [Urogenital trauma associated with pelvic ring fractures]. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2010;77:18-23 pubmed
    ..A prerequisite for a successful therapeutic outcome is a good cooperation of the orthopaedic surgeon and urologist. Key words: pelvic ring fractures, urogenital injury. ..
  72. Cumming G, Currie H, Moncur R, Lee A. Web-based survey on the effect of digital storytelling on empowering women to seek help for urogenital atrophy. Menopause Int. 2010;16:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Using digital stories for health promotion is a new area for research. Our data provide preliminary evidence that women can feel more empowered to seek help for urogenital atrophy using digital storytelling. ..
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    ..However, a median 5-year PSA-PFS follow-up is required before providing a solid recommendation. This preliminary information supports continued use. ..
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    ..Therefore, this pictorial essay gives examples of the radiological presentation of genitourinary trauma and describes technical details of the diagnostic imaging modalities used. ..
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    ..56%. This is the first prospective, multi-institutional trial of computed tomography-based HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. The technique and doses used in the present study resulted in acceptable levels of AEs. ..
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    ..1-38.7), respectively. Results on tumor control and late toxicity of EBRT combined with PDR are good and comparable to results obtained with EBRT combined with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer. ..
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    ..Thus, the ABCG2 expressing side population demonstrates multipotency and self-renewal properties indicating stem cells are within this population. ..
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    ..Although some increases in acute and late toxicity rates were observed with even a minor dose escalation from 75.6 to 81.0 Gy, notably no increases in final late GI or GU toxicity rates were observed. ..
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    ..5 dpc, the ductus epididymis at 17.5 dpc, and the seminal vesicle at 8 weeks. These data suggest that Spink3 may play important roles in proliferation and/or differentiation of various cell types during development. ..
  84. Aicken C, Cassell J, Estcourt C, Keane F, Brook G, Rait G, et al. Rationale and development of a survey tool for describing and auditing the composition of, and flows between, specialist and community clinical services for sexually transmitted infections. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:30 pubmed publisher
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    ..This institutional SIB-IMRT protocol using daily image guidance as a precondition for smaller safety margins allows dose escalation to the prostate without increasing acute toxicity. ..
  86. Shamloul R. The potential role of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide system in male sexual dysfunctions. J Sex Med. 2009;6:324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The HO/CO system may have an important role in many male sexual functions. Extensive research is needed to precisely delineate the extent to which the HO/CO system plays in the physiology and pathophysiology of male sexual dysfunctions. ..
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    ..Virilization of the Wolffian ducts occurred during an early but short-lived window of sensitivity. This study provides the first clear evidence that under physiological conditions virilization can be mediated by circulating androgen. ..
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    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that TGF? overexpression in mouse urogenital organs alone may not be responsible for tumor formation and epithelial hyperplasia, but is involved in bladder outlet obstruction. ..
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    ..This article explores the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system, with reference to the production and excretion of urine. It also provides an overview of urinary tract infection. ..
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    ..Ovotestes did not prove to be a good indicator of estrogen exposure at this late stage of juvenile darter development. ..
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    ..These include sex-determining genes, timing of events, dependence on germ cells, spatial organization of stromal cells, steroidogenic cells types, and other aspects. ..
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    ..Manipulation of gene expression in this cell line could be an important new in vitro tool for the discovery of new human sex-determining genes...