trimetazidine

Summary

Summary: A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.

Top Publications

  1. Cesar L, Mathias W, Armaganijan D, Gimenez V, Jallad S, Del Monaco M, et al. Trimetazidine to reverse ischemia in patients with class I or II angina: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography study. Coron Artery Dis. 2007;18:259-63 pubmed
    We sought to evaluate the effects of trimetazidine on ischemia induced by dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography in patients with class I or class II angina...
  2. Tritto I, Wang P, Kuppusamy P, Giraldez R, Zweier J, Ambrosio G. The anti-anginal drug trimetazidine reduces neutrophil-mediated cardiac reperfusion injury. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005;46:89-98 pubmed
    b>Trimetazidine has no hemodynamic/antithrombotic actions. Hence, its anti-ischemic properties have been mostly attributed to its metabolic effects. However, this issue is not completely elucidated...
  3. Marti Masso J, Marti I, Carrera N, Poza J, Lopez de Munain A. Trimetazidine induces parkinsonism, gait disorders and tremor. Therapie. 2005;60:419-22 pubmed
    To study the adverse effects of trimetazidine on motor functions. A retrospective study was carried out using electronic records to identify all patients seen between January 1990 and August 2003. A neurological out-patient clinic...
  4. Faure J, Petit I, Zhang K, Dutheil D, Doucet C, Favreau F, et al. Protective roles of polyethylene glycol and trimetazidine against cold ischemia and reperfusion injuries of pig kidney graft. Am J Transplant. 2004;4:495-504 pubmed
    ..Adding the anti-ischemic drug trimetazidine (TMZ) to the preservation solutions, particularly ECPEG, further improved the quality of the week-16 post-..
  5. Ikizler M, Erkasap N, Dernek S, Batmaz B, Kural T, Kaygisiz Z. Trimetazidine-induced enhancement of myocardial recovery during reperfusion: a comparative study in diabetic and non-diabetic rat hearts. Arch Med Res. 2006;37:700-8 pubmed
    ..b>Trimetazidine (TMZ), a well-studied anti-ischemic agent, has been demonstrated to be beneficial in treatment of coronary ..
  6. Dayanithi G, Desmadryl G, Travo C, Chabbert C, Sans A. Trimetazidine modulates AMPA/kainate receptors in rat vestibular ganglion neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;574:8-14 pubmed
    b>Trimetazidine (1[2,3,4-trimethoxy-benzyl] piperazine, 2 HCl) is an anti-ischemic agent frequently administered as a prophylactic treatment for episodes of angina pectoris and chorioretinal disturbances...
  7. Yukselen V, Karaoglu A, Yenisey C, Tuncyurek M, Ozutemiz O. Trimetazidine reduces the degree of fibrosis in alkali burns of the esophagus. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40:505-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of trimetazidine (TMZ), an antioxidant agent, on the prevention of stricture development after esophageal caustic injuries in rat. Thirty rats were divided into 3 equal groups...
  8. Onbasili A, Yeniceriglu Y, Agaoglu P, Karul A, Tekten T, Akar H, et al. Trimetazidine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy after coronary procedures. Heart. 2007;93:698-702 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine (TMZ) in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with high serum creatinine levels undergoing coronary angiography/angioplasty...
  9. Cau J, Favreau F, Tillement J, Lerman L, Hauet T, Goujon J. Trimetazidine reduces early and long-term effects of experimental renal warm ischemia: a dose effect study. J Vasc Surg. 2008;47:852-860 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-anginal medication trimetazidine (TMZ) is a drug, the protective effects of which have been already assessed during cold preservation and warm ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wu Q, Qi B, Liu Y, Cheng B, Liu L, Li Y, et al. Mechanisms underlying protective effects of trimetazidine on endothelial progenitor cells biological functions against H2O2-induced injury: involvement of antioxidation and Akt/eNOS signaling pathways. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;707:87-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Trimetazidine (TMZ) is a widely used drug exerting cardioprotective effects against ischemic heart disease through a number of mechanisms in conditions of oxidative stress...
  2. Ovide Bordeaux S, Bescond Jacquet A, Grynberg A. Cardiac mitochondrial alterations induced by insulin deficiency and hyperinsulinaemia in rats: targeting membrane homeostasis with trimetazidine. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:1061-70 pubmed
    The present study investigated the ability of trimetazidine (TMZ) to maintain cardiac mitochondrial function during the development of insulin deficiency and hyperinsulinaemia...
  3. Gambert S, Vergely C, Filomenko R, Moreau D, Bettaieb A, Opie L, et al. Adverse effects of free fatty acid associated with increased oxidative stress in postischemic isolated rat hearts. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;283:147-52 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the antianginal agent trimetazidine (TMZ), known to inhibit cardiac fatty acid oxidation, could hypothetically lessen the formation of reactive ..
  4. Domanski L, Sulikowski T, Safranow K, Pawlik A, Olszewska M, Chlubek D, et al. Effect of trimetazidine on the nucleotide profile in rat kidney with ischemia-reperfusion injury. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2006;27:320-7 pubmed
    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is often responsible for delayed graft function after transplantation. Trimetazidine (TMZ) is an antioxidant agent used to protect grafts from ischemia-reperfusion injury...
  5. Baumert H, Faure J, Zhang K, Petit I, Goujon J, Dutheil D, et al. Evidence for a mitochondrial impact of trimetazidine during cold ischemia and reperfusion. Pharmacology. 2004;71:25-37 pubmed
    ..UW), high-Na(+) version of UW (HEH) or Celsior (CEL) a newly developed high-Na(+) solution, with or without trimetazidine (TMZ)...
  6. Yoon J, Cho B, Park H, Kang S, Choi S, Jang H, et al. Differential effects of trimetazidine on vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell in response to carotid artery balloon injury in diabetic rats. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:126-33 pubmed publisher
    Treatment with trimetazidine (TMZ), 1-[2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl] piperazine, dihydrochloride, improves cardiac function and ameliorates endothelial dysfunction...
  7. Thrainsdottir I, von Bibra H, Malmberg K, Ryden L. Effects of trimetazidine on left ventricular function in patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004;44:101-8 pubmed
    Congestive heart failure and type 2 diabetes have a deleterious prognosis when combined. Trimetazidine, a metabolic agent with anti-ischemic properties, reduces fatty acid beta-oxidation via decreased 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme-A thiolase ..
  8. Morgan E, Young M, McElfresh T, Kung T, Hoit B, Chandler M, et al. Chronic treatment with trimetazidine reduces the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide in heart failure. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2006;20:503-5 pubmed
    b>Trimetazidine (TMZ) is effective for the treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy; however, little is known about the effect of TMZ in established injury-induced heart failure...
  9. Sulikowski T, Domanski L, Ciechanowski K, Adler G, Pawlik A, Safranow K, et al. Effect of trimetazidine on xanthine oxidoreductase expression in rat kidney with ischemia--reperfusion injury. Arch Med Res. 2008;39:459-62 pubmed publisher
    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is often responsible for delayed graft function after transplantation. Trimetazidine (TMZ) is an anti-ischemic and antioxidant agent used to protect grafts from I/R injury...
  10. Liu X, Gai Y, Liu F, Gao W, Zhang Y, Xu M, et al. Trimetazidine inhibits pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis through NADPH oxidase-ROS-CTGF pathway. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;88:150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-angina drug, also has benefits in non-ischaemic heart disease...
  11. Hauet T, Baumert H, Amor I, Gibelin H, Tallineau C, Eugene M, et al. Pharmacological limitation of damage to renal medulla after cold storage and transplantation by trimetazidine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;292:254-60 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the influence of trimetazidine (TMZ), a cytoprotective agent, on renal medullary damage after prolonged preservation and autotransplantation...
  12. Pascale C, Fornengo P, Epifani G, Bosio A, Giacometto F. Cardioprotection of trimetazidine and anthracycline-induced acute cardiotoxic effects. Lancet. 2002;359:1153-4 pubmed
  13. Fragasso G, Rosano G, Baek S, Sisakian H, Di Napoli P, Alberti L, et al. Effect of partial fatty acid oxidation inhibition with trimetazidine on mortality and morbidity in heart failure: results from an international multicentre retrospective cohort study. Int J Cardiol. 2013;163:320-325 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to retrospectively evaluate, in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the long term effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) on morbidity and mortality...
  14. Doucet C, Dutheil D, Petit I, Zhang K, Eugene M, Touchard G, et al. Influence of colloid, preservation medium and trimetazidine on renal medulla injury. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1673:105-14 pubmed
    ..of UW), ECPEG (high Na+ preservation solution with PEG) and ICPEG (a high K+ version of ECPEG) with or without trimetazidine (TMZ)...
  15. Dedkova E, Seidlmayer L, Blatter L. Mitochondria-mediated cardioprotection by trimetazidine in rabbit heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;59:41-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Trimetazidine (TMZ) is used successfully for treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy, however its therapeutic potential in heart failure (HF) remains to be established...
  16. Jayle C, Favreau F, Zhang K, Doucet C, Goujon J, Hebrard W, et al. Comparison of protective effects of trimetazidine against experimental warm ischemia of different durations: early and long-term effects in a pig kidney model. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F1082-93 pubmed
    ..b>Trimetazidine (TMZ) is an anti-ischemic drug...
  17. Zaouali M, Boncompagni E, Reiter R, Bejaoui M, Freitas I, Pantazi E, et al. AMPK involvement in endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy modulation after fatty liver graft preservation: a role for melatonin and trimetazidine cocktail. J Pineal Res. 2013;55:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluated the combined effect of melatonin and trimetazidine as additives to IGL-1 solution in the modulation of ER stress and autophagy in steatotic liver grafts through ..
  18. Ruiz Meana M. [Trimetazidine, oxidative stress, and cell injury during myocardial reperfusion]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2005;58:895-7 pubmed
  19. Syrkin A, Artiukhina E, Kanorskii S, Chuntyzheva M. [Antiischemic efficacy of trimetazidine in patients with intermittent claudication and effort angina]. Kardiologiia. 2003;43:49-52 pubmed
    ..Patients of group 1 (n=21) were given simvastatin (10-20 mg/day), clopidogrel (75 mg/day) and trimetazidine (60 mg/day) for 6 months, those of group 2 - simvastatin and clopidogrel also for 6 months...
  20. Manchanda S. Treatment of stable angina with low dose diltiazem in combination with the metabolic agent trimetazidine. Int J Cardiol. 2003;88:83-9 pubmed
    ..This study investigates the efficacy and acceptability of low dose diltiazem in combination with trimetazidine for the treatment of stable angina...
  21. Fragasso G, Perseghin G, De Cobelli F, Esposito A, Palloshi A, Lattuada G, et al. Effects of metabolic modulation by trimetazidine on left ventricular function and phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate ratio in patients with heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2006;27:942-8 pubmed
    The addition of trimetazidine to standard treatment has been shown to improve left ventricular (LV) function in patients with heart failure...
  22. Gunes Y, Guntekin U, Tuncer M, Sahin M. Improved left and right ventricular functions with trimetazidine in patients with heart failure: a tissue Doppler study. Heart Vessels. 2009;24:277-82 pubmed publisher
    Downregulation of glucose and fatty acid oxidation occurs in heart failure (HF). Trimetazidine reduces fatty acid oxidation and increases glucose oxidation...
  23. Belhani D, Fanton L, Vaillant F, Descotes J, Manati W, Tabib A, et al. Cardiac lesions induced by testosterone: protective effects of dexrazoxane and trimetazidine. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2009;9:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..a prototypic anabolic steroid abused by athletes, and to provide evidence for the protective effects of trimetazidine and dexrazoxane that are used as antianginal and cardioprotective drugs, respectively...
  24. Serarslan Y, Bal R, Altug M, Kontas T, Keles O, Unal D, et al. Effects of trimetazidine on crush injury of the sciatic nerve in rats: a biochemical and stereological study. Brain Res. 2009;1247:11-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Trimetazidine (TMZ) is an anti-ischemic agent which has been used for years as an effective anti-anginal agent in cardiac patients...
  25. Fragasso G, Piatti Md P, Monti L, Palloshi A, Setola E, Puccetti P, et al. Short- and long-term beneficial effects of trimetazidine in patients with diabetes and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J. 2003;146:E18 pubmed
    b>Trimetazidine (TMZ) has been shown to partially inhibit free fatty acid oxidation by shifting substrate utilization from fatty acid to glucose...
  26. Faure J, Jayle C, Dutheil D, Eugene M, Zhang K, Goujon J, et al. Evidence for protective roles of polyethylene glycol plus high sodium solution and trimetazidine against consequences of renal medulla ischaemia during cold preservation and reperfusion in a pig kidney model. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004;19:1742-51 pubmed
    ..and renal medulla osmolite excretion during use of various preservation solutions, and to clarify the role of trimetazidine (TMZ) in limiting renal dysfunction...
  27. De la Cruz Rodríguez L, Araujo C, Posleman S, Rey M. Attenuation of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity: trimetazidine versus N-acetyl cysteine. J Appl Toxicol. 2010;30:343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To find a drug capable of protecting the nephron we assayed a cardioprotector (trimetazidine, TMZ) and a hepatoprotector (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC)...
  28. Morin D, Hauet T, Spedding M, Tillement J. Mitochondria as target for antiischemic drugs. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2001;49:151-74 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the pharmacological strategies which are currently developed and the potential mitochondrial targets which could be involved in the protection of cells. ..
  29. Di Napoli P, Taccardi A, Barsotti A. Long term cardioprotective action of trimetazidine and potential effect on the inflammatory process in patients with ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Heart. 2005;91:161-5 pubmed
    To investigate the long term effects of trimetazidine in patients with dilated ischaemic cardiomyopathy...
  30. Krishnaiah Y, Karthikeyan R, Gouri Sankar V, Satyanarayana V. Three-layer guar gum matrix tablet formulations for oral controlled delivery of highly soluble trimetazidine dihydrochloride. J Control Release. 2002;81:45-56 pubmed
    ..b>Trimetazidine dihydrochloride was chosen as a model drug because of its high water solubility...
  31. Iskesen I, Saribulbul O, Cerrahoglu M, Var A, Nazli Y, Sirin H. Trimetazidine reduces oxidative stress in cardiac surgery. Circ J. 2006;70:1169-73 pubmed
    b>Trimetazidine is an anti-ischemic agent that is used to treat angina and it has cardioprotective effects without inducing any significant hemodynamic changes...
  32. Ben Mosbah I, Casillas Ramirez A, Xaus C, Serafin A, Rosello Catafau J, Peralta C. Trimetazidine: is it a promising drug for use in steatotic grafts?. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:908-14 pubmed
    ..The present study evaluates the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on an isolated perfused liver model...
  33. Khan M, Meduru S, Mostafa M, Khan S, Hideg K, Kuppusamy P. Trimetazidine, administered at the onset of reperfusion, ameliorates myocardial dysfunction and injury by activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt signaling. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;333:421-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Trimetazidine [1-(2,3,4-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine; TMZ] is an anti-ischemic cardiac drug; however, its efficacy and mechanism of cardioprotection upon reperfusion are largely unknown...
  34. Park K, Park W, Kim M, Park D, Park J, Kim H, et al. Effects of trimetazidine on endothelial dysfunction after sheath injury of radial artery. Am J Cardiol. 2010;105:1723-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on the functional recovery of the radial artery in patients who underwent TRCAG with flow-mediated ..
  35. Fragasso G, Palloshi A, Puccetti P, Silipigni C, Rossodivita A, Pala M, et al. A randomized clinical trial of trimetazidine, a partial free fatty acid oxidation inhibitor, in patients with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:992-8 pubmed
    This study sought to assess whether the long-term addition of trimetazidine to conventional treatment could improve functional class, exercise tolerance, and left ventricular function in patients with heart failure (HF)...
  36. Minners J, van den Bos E, Yellon D, Schwalb H, Opie L, Sack M. Dinitrophenol, cyclosporin A, and trimetazidine modulate preconditioning in the isolated rat heart: support for a mitochondrial role in cardioprotection. Cardiovasc Res. 2000;47:68-73 pubmed
    ..The anti-ischemic drug trimetazidine, known to attenuate CSA-induced disruption in mitochondrial function, and the mitoK(ATP) channel blocker 5-..
  37. Masmoudi K, Masson H, Gras V, Andrejak M. Extrapyramidal adverse drug reactions associated with trimetazidine: a series of 21 cases. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2012;26:198-203 pubmed publisher
    Over the last few years, a number of cases of extrapyramidal disorders associated with trimetazidine (TMZ) use has been reported. Here, we report on a series of 21 cases...
  38. Monti L, Setola E, Fragasso G, Camisasca R, Lucotti P, Galluccio E, et al. Metabolic and endothelial effects of trimetazidine on forearm skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E54-E59 pubmed
    ..Fifteen patients were randomly allocated in a double-blind cross-over parallel study with trimetazidine (20 mg tid) or placebo lasting 15 days...
  39. Cera M, Salerno A, Fragasso G, Montanaro C, Gardini C, Marinosci G, et al. Beneficial electrophysiological effects of trimetazidine in patients with postischemic chronic heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010;15:24-30 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to assess whether trimetazidine (TMZ) could affect dispersion of atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization...
  40. Zhou X, Li C, Xu W, Chen J. Trimetazidine protects against smoking-induced left ventricular remodeling via attenuating oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40424 pubmed publisher
    b>Trimetazidine, a piperazine derivative used as an anti-anginal agent, improves myocardial glucose utilization through inhibition of fatty acid metabolism...
  41. Kota S, Kota S, Jammula S, Panda S, Modi K. Effect of diabetes on alteration of metabolism in cardiac myocytes: therapeutic implications. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011;13:1155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Trimetazidine acts a metabolic switch, favoring glucose over free fatty acids as the substrate for metabolism in cardiac ..
  42. Hauet T, Goujon J, Vandewalle A, Baumert H, Lacoste L, Tillement J, et al. Trimetazidine reduces renal dysfunction by limiting the cold ischemia/reperfusion injury in autotransplanted pig kidneys. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000;11:138-48 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the effects of adding trimetazidine (TMZ) to the perfusate of cold-stored kidneys on the function of reperfused autotransplanted pig kidney...
  43. Baltalarli A, Coskun E, Ortac R, Onem G, Goksin I, Sirin B. Protective effects of trimetazidine in transient spinal cord ischemia. Res Exp Med (Berl). 2000;200:43-51 pubmed
    The neuroprotective effect of trimetazidine (TMZ) was tested prospectively in a rabbit spinal cord ischemia model. Ischemia was induced by clamping the aorta just distal to the left renal artery and proximal aortic bifurcation for 20 min...
  44. Silveira Filho L, Petrucci O, Carmo M, Oliveira P, Vilarinho K, Vieira R, et al. Trimetazidine as cardioplegia addictive without pre-treatment does not improve myocardial protection: study in a swine working heart model. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23:224-34 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to verify in an isolated working heart swine model if the acute administration of trimetazidine to cardioplegia, without pre-treatment improves heart performance...
  45. Palaniswamy C, Mellana W, Selvaraj D, Mohan D. Metabolic modulation: a new therapeutic target in treatment of heart failure. Am J Ther. 2011;18:e197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the role of 4 metabolic modulators drugs that could potentially be used for heart failure therapy: trimetazidine, ranolazine, perhexiline, and etomoxir.
  46. Albengres E, Le Louet H, D Athis P, Tillement J. S15176 and S16950 interaction with Cyclosporin A antiproliferative effect on cultured human lymphocytes. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2001;15:41-6 pubmed
    S15176 and S16950 are trimetazidine derivatives that antagonize more strongly than the parent drug mitochondrial toxicity, which leads to cellular hypoxia and nephrotoxicity in kidneys experimentally exposed to cyclosporin A...
  47. Ibrahim T, El Mawardy R, El Serafy A, El Fekky E. Trimetazidine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in chronic kidney disease. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2017;18:315-319 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Trimetazidine has been described as a cellular anti-ischemic agent...
  48. Banach M, Rysz J, Goch A, Mikhailidis D, Rosano G. The role of trimetazidine after acute myocardial infarction. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2008;6:282-91 pubmed
    quot;Metabolic treatment" involves the use of drugs to improve cardiomyocyte function. Trimetazidine is the most investigated drugs in this group...
  49. Fung J, Szeto C, Yu C. Preventing contrast nephropathy in catheter laboratory. Heart. 2007;93:654-5 pubmed
  50. Sentex E, Héliès Toussaint C, Rousseau D, Lucien A, Ferrary E, Grynberg A. Influence of trimetazidine on the synthesis of complex lipids in the heart and other target organs. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2001;15:255-64 pubmed
    b>Trimetazidine exerts antianginal properties at the cellular level, without haemodynamic effect in clinical and experimental conditions...
  51. Zhao P, Zhang J, Yin X, Maharaj P, Narraindoo S, Cui L, et al. The effect of trimetazidine on cardiac function in diabetic patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Life Sci. 2013;92:633-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Trimetazidine is an anti-ischemic metabolic agent which improves myocardial glucose utilization...
  52. Amber K, Hadi N, Muhammad Baqir B, Jamil D, Al Aubaidy H. Trimetazidine attenuates the acute inflammatory response induced by Novolimus eluting bioresorbable coronary scaffold implantation. Int J Cardiol. 2016;220:514-9 pubmed publisher
    ..inflammatory response in Novolimus bioresorbable coronary scaffold implantation after a course treatment with trimetazidine (35mg tablet/twice daily for 4days). This was a randomized single blind study...
  53. Dumestre Toulet V, Cirimele V, Gromb S, Belooussoff T, Lavault D, Ludes B, et al. Last performance with VIAGRA: post-mortem identification of sildenafil and its metabolites in biological specimens including hair sample. Forensic Sci Int. 2002;126:71-6 pubmed
    ..A pillbox was found in the room with several tablets of verapamil (Isoptine), trimetazidine (Vastarel), yohimbine and bromazepam (Lexomil)...