Summary: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.

Top Publications

  1. Layer P, Robitzki A, Rothermel A, Willbold E. Of layers and spheres: the reaggregate approach in tissue engineering. Trends Neurosci. 2002;25:131-4 pubmed
    ..By revealing constraints of layered tissue formation, such retinal spheres could be instrumental for regenerative medicine, including stem cell-based tissue engineering...
  2. Bates R, Mercurio A. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of human colonic organoids. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1790-800 pubmed
    ..These results establish a novel role for the stroma in influencing EMT in colon carcinoma, and they identify a selective advantage to the stromal presence of infiltrating leukocytes in regulating malignant tumor progression...
  3. Bates R, Goldsmith J, Bachelder R, Brown C, Shibuya M, Oettgen P, et al. Flt-1-dependent survival characterizes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colonic organoids. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1721-7 pubmed
    ..A role for Flt-1 in cell survival is unprecedented and has significant implications for Flt-1 function in tumor progression, as well as in other biological processes, including angiogenesis and development...
  4. Chiu L, Iyer R, King J, Radisic M. Biphasic electrical field stimulation aids in tissue engineering of multicell-type cardiac organoids. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011;17:1465-77 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of monophasic or biphasic electrical field stimulation on structure and function of engineered cardiac organoids based on enriched cardiomyocytes (CM) and (2) to determine if electrical field stimulation will enhance ..
  5. Gracz A, Ramalingam S, Magness S. Sox9 expression marks a subset of CD24-expressing small intestine epithelial stem cells that form organoids in vitro. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;298:G590-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox9(EGFPlo) cells generate "organoids" in a recently defined culture system that mimics the native IESC niche...
  6. Kuratnik A, Giardina C. Intestinal organoids as tissue surrogates for toxicological and pharmacological studies. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85:1721-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cell culture protocols have allowed for the derivation of multi-cellular structures dubbed intestinal "organoids" from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), and adult intestinal stem cells (..
  7. Koo B, Stange D, Sato T, Karthaus W, Farin H, Huch M, et al. Controlled gene expression in primary Lgr5 organoid cultures. Nat Methods. 2011;9:81-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here a method based on Cre recombinase-inducible retrovirus vectors that allows the conditional manipulation of gene expression in primary mouse organoid culture systems. ..
  8. Iyer R, Chui J, Radisic M. Spatiotemporal tracking of cells in tissue-engineered cardiac organoids. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2009;3:196-207 pubmed publisher
    ..sequentially (pre-culture) or simultaneously (tri-culture) in Matrigel-coated microchannels and allowed to form organoids, as in our previous studies...
  9. Saito R, Ishii Y, Ito R, Nagatsuma K, Tanaka K, Saito M, et al. Transplantation of liver organoids in the omentum and kidney. Artif Organs. 2011;35:80-3 pubmed publisher
    Liver organoids were reconstructed by mouse-immortalized hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells (sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic stellate cells) in a radial-flow bioreactor (RFB)...

More Information


  1. Giese C, Lubitz A, Demmler C, Reuschel J, Bergner K, Marx U. Immunological substance testing on human lymphatic micro-organoids in vitro. J Biotechnol. 2010;148:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The construction of tissue-like structures in vitro, so-called "micro-organoids", can overcome these limitations. Key structures of secondary lymphatic organs, e.g...
  2. Avansino J, Chen D, Hoagland V, Woolman J, Stelzner M. Orthotopic transplantation of intestinal mucosal organoids in rodents. Surgery. 2006;140:423-34 pubmed
    Orthotopic transplantation of intestinal mucosal organoids that contain putative mucosal stem cells serves as an important step toward implementing intestinal gene therapy and treatment for malabsorption syndromes in animals and humans...
  3. Petersen N, Reimann F, Bartfeld S, Farin H, Ringnalda F, Vries R, et al. Generation of L cells in mouse and human small intestine organoids. Diabetes. 2014;63:410-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes. ..
  4. Sato T, Stange D, Ferrante M, Vries R, van Es J, van den Brink S, et al. Long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from human colon, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:1762-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We have adapted the culture conditions to grow similar epithelial organoids from mouse colon and human small intestine and colon.
  5. Sato T, Vries R, Snippert H, van de Wetering M, Barker N, Stange D, et al. Single Lgr5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche. Nature. 2009;459:262-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Single sorted Lgr5(+) stem cells can also initiate these cryptvillus organoids. Tracing experiments indicate that the Lgr5(+) stem-cell hierarchy is maintained in organoids...
  6. Xinaris C, Benedetti V, Rizzo P, Abbate M, Corna D, Azzollini N, et al. In vivo maturation of functional renal organoids formed from embryonic cell suspensions. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:1857-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we constructed renal organoids from single-cell suspensions derived from E11...
  7. Huch M, Dorrell C, Boj S, van Es J, Li V, van de Wetering M, et al. In vitro expansion of single Lgr5+ liver stem cells induced by Wnt-driven regeneration. Nature. 2013;494:247-50 pubmed publisher
    ..culture system allows long-term clonal expansion of single Lgr5(+) stem cells into transplantable organoids (budding cysts) that retain many characteristics of the original epithelial architecture...
  8. Finkbeiner S, Zeng X, Utama B, Atmar R, Shroyer N, Estes M. Stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids as an infection model for rotaviruses. MBio. 2012;3:e00159-12 pubmed publisher
    Directed differentiation of stem cell lines into intestine-like tissue called induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs) is now possible (J. R. Spence, C. N. Mayhew, S. A. Rankin, M. F. Kuhar, J. E. Vallance, K. Tolle, E. E. Hoskins, V...
  9. Dekkers J, Wiegerinck C, de Jonge H, Bronsveld I, Janssens H, de Winter de Groot K, et al. A functional CFTR assay using primary cystic fibrosis intestinal organoids. Nat Med. 2013;19:939-45 pubmed publisher
    We recently established conditions allowing for long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from intestine, recapitulating essential features of the in vivo tissue architecture...
  10. Iyer R, Odedra D, Chiu L, Vunjak Novakovic G, Radisic M. Vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by nonmyocytes modulates Connexin-43 levels in cardiac organoids. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1771-83 pubmed publisher
    ..of endothelial cells (ECs), fibroblasts (FBs), and cardiomyocytes (CMs) resulted in elongated, beating cardiac organoids. We hypothesized that the expression of Cx43 and contractile function are mediated by vascular endothelial ..
  11. Lancaster M, Knoblich J. Organogenesis in a dish: modeling development and disease using organoid technologies. Science. 2014;345:1247125 pubmed publisher
    ..Such stem cell-derived three-dimensional cultures are called organoids. Because organoids can be grown from human stem cells and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, ..
  12. Tauro B, Greening D, Mathias R, Mathivanan S, Ji H, Simpson R. Two distinct populations of exosomes are released from LIM1863 colon carcinoma cell-derived organoids. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:587-98 pubmed publisher
    ..using anti-A33- and anti-EpCAM-coupled magnetic beads, of two distinct populations of exosomes released from organoids derived from human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1863...
  13. Buske P, Przybilla J, Loeffler M, Sachs N, Sato T, Clevers H, et al. On the biomechanics of stem cell niche formation in the gut--modelling growing organoids. FEBS J. 2012;279:3475-87 pubmed publisher establishing long-term intestinal culture, demonstrating that cells expressing the Lgr5 gene can give rise to organoids with crypt-like domains similar to those found in vivo...
  14. Lancaster M, Renner M, Martin C, Wenzel D, Bicknell L, Hurles M, et al. Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly. Nature. 2013;501:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..have developed a human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system, termed cerebral organoids, that develop various discrete, although interdependent, brain regions...
  15. Schwank G, Koo B, Sasselli V, Dekkers J, Heo I, Demircan T, et al. Functional repair of CFTR by CRISPR/Cas9 in intestinal stem cell organoids of cystic fibrosis patients. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..stem cells can be expanded in culture over long time periods as genetically and phenotypically stable epithelial organoids. Increased cAMP levels induce rapid swelling of such organoids by opening the cystic fibrosis transmembrane ..
  16. Michalopoulos G, Bowen W, Mule K, Stolz D. Histological organization in hepatocyte organoid cultures. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:1877-87 pubmed
  17. Ewald A, Huebner R, Palsdottir H, Lee J, Perez M, Jorgens D, et al. Mammary collective cell migration involves transient loss of epithelial features and individual cell migration within the epithelium. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2638-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that reductions in polarity and adhesion during breast cancer progression might reflect partial recapitulation of a normal developmental program. ..
  18. Sheridan J, Blackburn C. Generation of tissue organoids by compaction reaggregation. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1092:143-51 pubmed publisher
    Cellular reaggregation methods are commonly used to generate tissue organoids for use in biological studies...
  19. Merenda A, Andersson Rolf A, Mustata R, Li T, Kim H, Koo B. A Protocol for Multiple Gene Knockout in Mouse Small Intestinal Organoids Using a CRISPR-concatemer. J Vis Exp. 2017;: pubmed publisher order to create multi-gene knockouts following a single round of transfection in mouse small intestinal organoids. Our strategy allows for the concatemerization of up to four individual gRNAs into a single vector by performing ..
  20. Ke X, Yan R, Sun Z, Cheng Y, Meltzer A, Lu N, et al. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma-Derived Extracellular Vesicle MicroRNAs Induce a Neoplastic Phenotype in Gastric Organoids. Neoplasia. 2017;19:941-949 pubmed publisher
    ..been no reports describing the effects of cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) on three-dimensional organoids. In this study, we delineated the proneoplastic effects of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC)-derived EVs on ..
  21. Schwalie P, Ordóñez Morán P, Huelsken J, Deplancke B. Cross-Tissue Identification of Somatic Stem and Progenitor Cells Using a Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing Derived Gene Signature. Stem Cells. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..and tumorigenesis, as well as novel ones, such as Lcp1 and Vgll4 that we functionally validate in intestinal organoids. We show how this approach enables the identification of stem-like cells in still ambiguous systems such as the ..
  22. Lou Y, Leung A. Next generation organoids for biomedical research and applications. Biotechnol Adv. 2018;36:132-149 pubmed publisher
    b>Organoids are in vitro cultures of miniature fetal or adult organ-like structures. Their potentials for use in tissue and organ replacement, disease modeling, toxicology studies, and drug discovery are tremendous...
  23. Didié M, Christalla P, Rubart M, Muppala V, Döker S, Unsöld B, et al. Parthenogenetic stem cells for tissue-engineered heart repair. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:1285-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrate pluripotency, with unrestricted cardiogenicity in PSCs, and introduce this unique cell type as an attractive source for tissue-engineered heart repair. ..
  24. Kunze C, Börner K, Kienle E, Orschmann T, Rusha E, Schneider M, et al. Synthetic AAV/CRISPR vectors for blocking HIV-1 expression in persistently infected astrocytes. Glia. 2018;66:413-427 pubmed publisher
    ..efficiencies with single brain cell populations, including primary human brain cells, as well as human brain organoids demonstrated that AAV9P1 targeted terminally differentiated human astrocytes much more efficiently than neurons...
  25. Astashkina A, Mann B, Prestwich G, Grainger D. A 3-D organoid kidney culture model engineered for high-throughput nephrotoxicity assays. Biomaterials. 2012;33:4700-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This biomimetic primary kidney model has broad applicability to high-throughput drug and biomarker nephrotoxicity screening, as well as more mechanistic drug toxicology, pharmacology, and metabolism studies. ..
  26. Puschmann E, Selden C, BUTLER S, Fuller B. Liquidus Tracking: Large scale preservation of encapsulated 3-D cell cultures using a vitrification machine. Cryobiology. 2017;76:65-73 pubmed publisher
    Currently, cryo-banking of multicellular structures such as organoids, especially in large volumes at clinical scale >1 L, remains elusive for reasons such as insufficient dehydration and cryoprotectant additive (CPA1) ..
  27. Lu A, Barnstable C. Generation of Photoreceptor Precursors from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells. Stem Cell Rev. 2018;14:247-261 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, 3D organoids improved expression of photoreceptor genes and region-specific architecture but required more technical ..
  28. Ivanov D, Grabowska A. In Vitro Tissue Microarrays for Quick and Efficient Spheroid Characterization. SLAS Discov. 2017;:2472555217740576 pubmed publisher
    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro microphysiological cultures, such as spheroids and organoids, promise increased patient relevance and therapeutic predictivity compared with reductionist cell monolayers...
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  30. Yeung K, Klug P, Lessin L. Alcohol-induced vacuolization in bone marrow cells: ultrastructure and mechanism of formation. Blood Cells. 1988;13:487-502 pubmed
    ..The critical alcohol concentration for vacuolization was 62.5 mg/dl. The proportion of cells developing vacuoles appeared to correlate with the concentration of alcohol particularly above levels of 250 mg/dl. ..
  31. Funatsu K, Nakazawa K. Novel hybrid artificial liver using hepatocyte organoids. Int J Artif Organs. 2002;25:77-82 pubmed
  32. Angelov D, Arnhold S, Andressen C, Grabsch H, Puschmann M, Hescheler J, et al. Temporospatial relationships between macroglia and microglia during in vitro differentiation of murine stem cells. Dev Neurosci. 1998;20:42-51 pubmed
  33. Jaspers C, Penninckx M. Glutathione metabolism in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evidence that gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase is a vacuolar enzyme. Biochimie. 1984;66:71-4 pubmed
    ..Yeast beta-glutamyltranspeptidase could be implicated in the exchanges of amino acids between the cytoplasm and the vacuolar sap. ..
  34. Zhang D, Tan M, Zhong W, Xia M, Huang P, Jiang X. Human intestinal organoids express histo-blood group antigens, bind norovirus VLPs, and support limited norovirus replication. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12621 pubmed publisher
    Through pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technology, human intestinal organoids (HIOs) with remarkably similarity to the fetal intestine in cellular composition, architecture, and absorptive/secretory functions have been successfully ..
  35. Green L, Patel Z, Murray D, Rightnar S, Burell C, Gridley D, et al. Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation. J Radiat Res. 2002;43 Suppl:S213-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation. ..
  36. Auluck A, Mudera V, Hunt N, Lewis M. A three-dimensional in vitro model system to study the adaptation of craniofacial skeletal muscle following mechanostimulation. Eur J Oral Sci. 2005;113:218-24 pubmed
    ..5%. Thus, MMP-2 expression, and hence extracellular matrix remodelling, is up-regulated in response to strain and is dependent upon the amount and type of strain to which the muscle is subjected. ..
  37. Ackland M, Michalczyk A, Whitehead R. PMC42, a novel model for the differentiated human breast. Exp Cell Res. 2001;263:14-22 pubmed
    ..We have induced PMC42 cells to form hollow organoids in culture, similar to in vivo breast structures, using a combination of hormones including estrogen, ..
  38. Bae B, Walsh C. Neuroscience. What are mini-brains?. Science. 2013;342:200-1 pubmed publisher
  39. Hirokawa Y, Yip K, Tan C, Burgess A. Colonic myofibroblast cell line stimulates colonoid formation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;306:G547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt3A and R-spondin could promote cell survival and formation of spheroids (colonospheres) or some advanced organoids with well-developed crypts (colonoids)...
  40. Yanagi Y, Nakayama K, Taguchi T, Enosawa S, Tamura T, Yoshimaru K, et al. In vivo and ex vivo methods of growing a liver bud through tissue connection. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14085 pubmed publisher
    ..These achievements conclusively show both in vivo and ex vivo methods for growing in vitro-generated liver buds. These methods provide a new approach for in vitro-generated liver organoids transplantation.
  41. Matsuzawa Ishimoto Y, Shono Y, Gómez L, Hubbard Lucey V, Cammer M, Neil J, et al. Autophagy protein ATG16L1 prevents necroptosis in the intestinal epithelium. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3687-3705 pubmed publisher
    ..Intestinal organoids lacking ATG16L1 reproduced this loss in Paneth cells and displayed TNF?-mediated necroptosis, a form of ..
  42. Afaq F, Zaid M, Khan N, Dreher M, Mukhtar H. Protective effect of pomegranate-derived products on UVB-mediated damage in human reconstituted skin. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:553-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that all three pomegranate-derived products may be useful against UVB-induced damage to human skin. ..
  43. Islam M, Griffith M, Merrett K. Fabrication of a human recombinant collagen-based corneal substitute using carbodiimide chemistry. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1014:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting collagen-based scaffold possesses properties comparable to that of the human cornea and is thus suitable for use as a corneal substitute. ..
  44. Zimmermann W, Schneiderbanger K, Schubert P, Didié M, Münzel F, Heubach J, et al. Tissue engineering of a differentiated cardiac muscle construct. Circ Res. 2002;90:223-30 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that EHTs represent highly differentiated cardiac tissue constructs, making EHTs a promising material for in vitro studies of cardiac function and tissue replacement therapy. ..
  45. Yang Y, Opara E, Liu Y, Atala A, Zhao W. Microencapsulation of porcine thyroid cell organoids within a polymer microcapsule construct. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242:286-296 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy could potentially enable implantation of the microcapsule organoids containing allogeneic or xenogeneic thyroid cells to secret hormones over time without the need for ..
  46. Fong E, Harrington D, Farach Carson M, Yu H. Heralding a new paradigm in 3D tumor modeling. Biomaterials. 2016;108:197-213 pubmed publisher
    ..lines are beginning to be replaced by primary tumor cell sources, in the form of patient-derived xenografts and organoids cultures...
  47. Lu Y, Zhang G, Shen C, Uygun K, Yarmush M, Meng Q. A novel 3D liver organoid system for elucidation of hepatic glucose metabolism. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2012;109:595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..of culturing cells within a hollow fiber reactor, hepatocytes were observed to self-assemble into 3D spherical organoids with preservation of tight junctions and display increased liver-specific functions...
  48. Zhou J, O Connor M, Ho V. The Potential for Gut Organoid Derived Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Replacement Therapy. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Intriguingly, these stem cell-derived gut organoids appear to contain functional ICC, although their frequency and functional properties are yet to be fully ..
  49. Cheng J, Baumhueter S, Cacalano G, Carver Moore K, Thibodeaux H, Thomas R, et al. Hematopoietic defects in mice lacking the sialomucin CD34. Blood. 1996;87:479-90 pubmed
    ..However, the hematopoietic sites of adult CD34-deficient mice may still have a significant reservoir of progenitor cells that allows for normal recovery after nonmyeloablative peripheral cell depletion...
  50. Baert Y, De Kock J, Alves Lopes J, Soder O, Stukenborg J, Goossens E. Primary Human Testicular Cells Self-Organize into Organoids with Testicular Properties. Stem Cell Reports. 2017;8:30-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that primary human testicular cells are able to self-organize into human testicular organoids (TOs), i.e., multi-cellular tissue surrogates, either with or without support of a biological scaffold...
  51. Wang Y, Dong J, Li D, Lai L, Siwko S, Li Y, et al. Lgr4 regulates mammary gland development and stem cell activity through the pluripotency transcription factor Sox2. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1921-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Sox2 overexpression restored the in vivo mammary regeneration potential of Lgr4(-/-) mammary stem cells. Therefore, Lgr4 activates Sox2 to regulate mammary development and stem cell functions via Wnt/?-catenin/Lef1. ..
  52. Cruz Acuña R, Quirós M, Farkas A, Dedhia P, Huang S, Siuda D, et al. Synthetic hydrogels for human intestinal organoid generation and colonic wound repair. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:1326-1335 pubmed publisher
    In vitro differentiation of human intestinal organoids (HIOs) from pluripotent stem cells is an unparalleled system for creating complex, multicellular three-dimensional structures capable of giving rise to tissue analogous to native ..
  53. Louvard D, Sigaux F, Robine S. The power of one. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4:130fs7 pubmed publisher
    ..A single mouse Lgr5-positive colon stem cell can be expanded into a three-dimensional organoid that, after transplant, contributes to the repair of injured colon epithelia in a mouse model of colitis. ..
  54. Baptista P, Siddiqui M, Lozier G, Rodriguez S, Atala A, Soker S. The use of whole organ decellularization for the generation of a vascularized liver organoid. Hepatology. 2011;53:604-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells engrafted in their putative native locations within the decellularized organ and displayed typical endothelial, hepatic, and biliary epithelial markers, thus creating a liver-like tissue in vitro...
  55. Soto Gutierrez A, Navarro Alvarez N, Yagi H, Nahmias Y, Yarmush M, Kobayashi N. Engineering of an hepatic organoid to develop liver assist devices. Cell Transplant. 2010;19:815-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The novelty of the culture's sinusoid-like organization and function strongly support the integration of liver nonparenchymal units into hepatocyte coculture-based LADs as a potential destination therapy for liver failure...
  56. Al Hajj M, Clarke M. Self-renewal and solid tumor stem cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:7274-82 pubmed
    ..This suggests that agents that target the defective self-renewal pathways in cancer cells might lead to improved outcomes in the treatment of these diseases...
  57. Sei Y, Lu X, Liou A, Zhao X, Wank S. A stem cell marker-expressing subset of enteroendocrine cells resides at the crypt base in the small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;300:G345-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these cells expressed multiple endocrine hormones. Tracking of GFP+ cells in the organoids from CCK-GFP mice indicated that GFP+ cells were first observed around the +4 position, some of which localized ..
  58. Lee P, Hwang J, Mead L, Ip M. Functional role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in mammary epithelial cell development. J Cell Physiol. 2001;188:75-88 pubmed
    ..Finally, these drugs were found to enhance MMP secretion from MEC, although the activity of the secreted MMPs was inhibited as long as the drug was present...
  59. Fonseca K, Rodrigues P, Olsson I, Saraiva M. Experimental study of tuberculosis: From animal models to complex cell systems and organoids. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006421 pubmed publisher
    ..We highlight the most recent advances in developing in vitro 3D models and introduce the potential of lung organoids as a new tool to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
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    ..Double-immune labeling revealed that invertase and PM ATPase colocalized in secretory vesicles. These results strengthen the view that secretion and plasma membrane assembly are biosynthetically coupled in yeast...
  61. Sivasubramaiyan K, Totey S, Bhat V, Totey S, Deb K. Y-27632 enhances differentiation of blastocyst like cystic human embryoid bodies to endocrinologically active trophoblast cells on a biomimetic platform. J Biomed Sci. 2009;16:88 pubmed publisher
    ..Response of EBs to a compound may vary temporally, and determination of their right stage is crucial for applications in directed-differentiation or drug-screening...
  62. Dye B, Hill D, Ferguson M, Tsai Y, Nagy M, Dyal R, et al. In vitro generation of human pluripotent stem cell derived lung organoids. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher the step-wise differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) (embryonic and induced) into lung organoids. By manipulating developmental signaling pathways hPSCs generate ventral-anterior foregut spheroids, which are ..
  63. Longworth D, Monahan Earley R, Dvorak A, Weller P. Brugia malayi: arachidonic acid uptake into lipid bodies of adult parasites. Exp Parasitol. 1988;65:251-7 pubmed
    ..The dominant incorporation of arachidonate into lipid bodies of a nematode establishes that lipid bodies are a site of arachidonic acid accumulation in nonmammalian, as well as mammalian, cells...
  64. Quadrato G, Nguyen T, Macosko E, Sherwood J, Min Yang S, Berger D, et al. Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids. Nature. 2017;545:48-53 pubmed publisher
    In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease...
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  66. Kerr Conte J, Pattou F, Lecomte Houcke M, Xia Y, Boilly B, Proye C, et al. Ductal cyst formation in collagen-embedded adult human islet preparations. A means to the reproduction of nesidioblastosis in vitro. Diabetes. 1996;45:1108-14 pubmed
    ..3D culture may permit the identification of matrix and media constituents promoting the neogenesis of islets and may be the means to increase the mass of endocrine tissue obtained from adult cadaveric pancreases for transplantation...
  67. Gröger M, Rennert K, Giszas B, Weiß E, Dinger J, Funke H, et al. Monocyte-induced recovery of inflammation-associated hepatocellular dysfunction in a biochip-based human liver model. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21868 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that this human liver organoid model is a valuable tool to investigate sepsis-related liver dysfunction and subsequent immune cell-related tissue repair/remodeling processes. ..
  68. Saito M, Matsuura T, Masaki T, Maehashi H, Shimizu K, Hataba Y, et al. Reconstruction of liver organoid using a bioreactor. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:1881-8 pubmed
    ..To develop the effective technology for reconstruction of a liver organ in vitro using a bio-artificial liver...
  69. Sharma P, Templin T, Grabham P. Short term effects of gamma radiation on endothelial barrier function: uncoupling of PECAM-1. Microvasc Res. 2013;86:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the association of cell adhesion molecules with vasculopathies, such an effect has the potential to be clinically relevant to the longer-term effects of radiotherapy...
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  71. Bray L, George K, Suzuki S, Chirila T, Harkin D. Fabrication of a corneal-limbal tissue substitute using silk fibroin. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;1014:165-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This tissue substitute is currently being evaluated as a tool for reconstructing the corneal limbus and corneal epithelium...
  72. Devarasetty M, Forsythe S, Shupe T, Soker S, Bishop C, Atala A, et al. Optical Tracking and Digital Quantification of Beating Behavior in Bioengineered Human Cardiac Organoids. Biosensors (Basel). 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..a simple sensing system based on software code that optically analyzes video capture files of beating cardiac organoids, translates these files in representations of moving pixels, and quantifies pixel movement activity over time to ..
  73. Dommes V, Baumgart C, Kunau W. Degradation of unsaturated fatty acids in peroxisomes. Existence of a 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase pathway. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:8259-62 pubmed
    ..4. From these results it is concluded that peroxisomes have the enzymatic apparatus necessary for the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids...
  74. Shimokawa M, Ohta Y, Nishikori S, Matano M, Takano A, Fujii M, et al. Visualization and targeting of LGR5+ human colon cancer stem cells. Nature. 2017;545:187-192 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective ablation of LGR5+ CSCs in LGR5-iCaspase9 knock-in organoids leads to tumour regression, followed by tumour regrowth driven by re-emerging LGR5+ CSCs...
  75. Yoshizaki H, Ogiso H, Okazaki T, Kiyokawa E. Comparative lipid analysis in the normal and cancerous organoids of MDCK cells. J Biochem. 2016;159:573-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these results should be useful to investigate the cell-type- and structure-specific lipid metabolism. ..
  76. Neo B, Patel D, Kandhi S, Wolin M. Roles for cytosolic NADPH redox in regulating pulmonary artery relaxation by thiol oxidation-elicited subunit dimerization of protein kinase G1?. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305:H330-43 pubmed publisher
    ..NADPH regulation of PKG dimerization may contribute to vascular responses to hypoxia that are associated with changes in NADPH redox. ..
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    ..The mode of action of the +Ay gene was not determined, but evidence from this study and others indicate that the effects of +Ay gene action occur over a wide range of time in early cleavage and implantation...
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