chorioallantoic membrane

Summary

Summary: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.

Top Publications

  1. Ho B, Wu Y, Hsu Y, Hsu L, Kuo Y, Chang K, et al. Effects of Monascus-fermented rice extract on malignant cell-associated neovascularization and intravasation determined using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. Integr Cancer Ther. 2010;9:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..intravasation into Matrigel grafts of SW620 cells from the upper to the lower layers in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of human Alu genomic DNA ..
  2. Liu X, Wang X, Horii A, Wang X, Qiao L, Zhang S, et al. In vivo studies on angiogenic activity of two designer self-assembling peptide scaffold hydrogels in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Nanoscale. 2012;4:2720-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and KLT (Ac-(RADA)(4)G(4)KLTWQELYQLKYKGI-CONH(2)) using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay...
  3. Baiguera S, Jungebluth P, Burns A, Mavilia C, Haag J, De Coppi P, et al. Tissue engineered human tracheas for in vivo implantation. Biomaterials. 2010;31:8931-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Durupt F, Koppers Lalic D, Balme B, Budel L, Terrier O, Lina B, et al. The chicken chorioallantoic membrane tumor assay as model for qualitative testing of oncolytic adenoviruses. Cancer Gene Ther. 2012;19:58-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the use of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) tumor model in studies on oncolytic adenoviral vectors...
  5. Verhoelst E, Bamelis F, De Ketelaere B, Trong N, De Baerdemaeker J, Saeys W, et al. The potential of spatially resolved spectroscopy for monitoring angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane. Biotechnol Prog. 2011;27:1785-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of development which may change under different incubation conditions is the angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)...
  6. Ribatti D, Ranieri G, Nico B, Benagiano V, Crivellato E. Tryptase and chymase are angiogenic in vivo in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:99-102 pubmed publisher
    ..we have investigated the capacity of tryptase and chymase to promote vasoproliferation in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), a well established in vivo assay to study angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis...
  7. Fortin S, Wei L, Moreau E, Lacroix J, Côté M, Petitclerc E, et al. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships of substituted phenyl 4-(2-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonates as new tubulin inhibitors mimicking combretastatin A-4. J Med Chem. 2011;54:4559-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Chick chorioallantoic membrane tumor assays show that compounds 36, 44, and 45 efficiently block angiogenesis and tumor growth at least ..
  8. Lugassy C, Torres Muñoz J, Kleinman H, Ghanem G, Vernon S, Barnhill R. Overexpression of malignancy-associated laminins and laminin receptors by angiotropic human melanoma cells in a chick chorioallantoic membrane model. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:1237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..migration of human green fluorescent protein (GFP) melanoma cells along vessels in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane model (CAM)...
  9. Debefve E, Pegaz B, Ballini J, van den Bergh H. Combination therapy using verteporfin and ranibizumab; optimizing the timing in the CAM model. Photochem Photobiol. 2009;85:1400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this preclinical study in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chicken embryo, we compare the vascular occlusion effects of verteporfin and ranibizumab as ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Nowak Sliwinska P, Ballini J, Wagnieres G, van den Bergh H. Processing of fluorescence angiograms for the quantification of vascular effects induced by anti-angiogenic agents in the CAM model. Microvasc Res. 2010;79:21-8 pubmed publisher
    The chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is widely used as an in vivo model to study the vascular effects of angiogenesis modulating agents...
  2. Nowak Sliwinska P, van Beijnum J, van Berkel M, van den Bergh H, Griffioen A. Vascular regrowth following photodynamic therapy in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Angiogenesis. 2010;13:281-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the sequence of the vascular events after Visudyne-PDT in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) at day 11 of development...
  3. Strojnik T, Kavalar R, Barone T, Plunkett R. Experimental model and immunohistochemical comparison of U87 human glioblastoma cell xenografts on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane and in rat brains. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:4851-60 pubmed
    ..gliomas, an animal glioma model was developed using the implantation of U87 human glioblastoma cells into chick chorioallantoic membrane. The immunohistochemical characteristics were studied and compared with an orthotopic rodent model.
  4. Nowak Sliwinska P, van Beijnum J, Casini A, Nazarov A, Wagnieres G, van den Bergh H, et al. Organometallic ruthenium(II) arene compounds with antiangiogenic activity. J Med Chem. 2011;54:3895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..RAPTA-T and DAPTA-C were also tested in vivo in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and found to inhibit CAM development...
  5. Noiman T, Buzhor E, Metsuyanim S, Harari Steinberg O, Morgenshtern C, Dekel B, et al. A rapid in vivo assay system for analyzing the organogenetic capacity of human kidney cells. Organogenesis. 2011;7:140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..here a rapid and humane assay for characterizing tubulogenic potency utilizing the well-established chorioallantoic membrane CAM) of the chick embryo...
  6. Chesnick I, Fowler C, Mason J, Potter K. Novel mineral contrast agent for magnetic resonance studies of bone implants grown on a chick chorioallantoic membrane. Magn Reson Imaging. 2011;29:1244-54 pubmed publisher
    ..studies, we present a novel test platform in which osteoblast-seeded scaffolds were implanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of a chick embryo...
  7. Isachenko V, Mallmann P, Petrunkina A, Rahimi G, Nawroth F, Hancke K, et al. Comparison of in vitro- and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)-culture systems for cryopreserved medulla-contained human ovarian tissue. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32549 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the two methods, culture in vitro and culture on embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of cryopreserved human ovarian medulla-contained and medulla-free cortex...
  8. Sys G, Van Bockstal M, Forsyth R, Balke M, Poffyn B, Uyttendaele D, et al. Tumor grafts derived from sarcoma patients retain tumor morphology, viability, and invasion potential and indicate disease outcomes in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. Cancer Lett. 2012;326:69-78 pubmed publisher
    The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to evaluate whether xenotransplanted sarcomas retain the histological characteristics and functional behavior of the original tumors...
  9. Isachenko V, Isachenko E, Mallmann P, Rahimi G. Increasing follicular and stromal cell proliferation in cryopreserved human ovarian tissue after long-term precooling prior to freezing: in vitro versus chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) xenotransplantation. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:2053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Group 3 was comprised of pieces frozen-thawed just after operation and then cultured for 5 days in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) culture system; and the pieces in Group 4 were cooled after operation to 5°C for 24 h, frozen-..
  10. Javerzat S, Franco M, Herbert J, Platonova N, Peille A, Pantesco V, et al. Correlating global gene regulation to angiogenesis in the developing chick extra-embryonic vascular system. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7856 pubmed publisher
    ..Determining genes, which drive vascular maturation is crucial for the identification of new therapeutic targets against pathological angiogenesis...
  11. Chiba A, Yui C, Hirano S. Liver reconstruction on the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. Arch Histol Cytol. 2010;73:45-53 pubmed
    The liver from a 6-day-old chick embryo was transplanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of a 9-day-old chick embryo to observe the process of liver regeneration histologically...
  12. Dehelean C, Feflea S, Ganta S, Amiji M. Anti-angiogenic effects of betulinic acid administered in nanoemulsion formulation using chorioallantoic membrane assay. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2011;7:317-24 pubmed
    ..nanoemulsion was studied for the effect on the angiogenic process by performing the in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay...
  13. Katrancioglu N, Karahan O, Kılıç A, Altun A, Katrancioglu O, Polat Z. Comparison of the antiangiogenic effects of heparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium, and tinzaparin sodium by using chorioallantoic membrane assay. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2012;23:218-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The antiangiogenic efficacies of UFH, enoxaparin, and tinzaparin were examined in vivo by using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Twenty fertilized eggs were used for each studied drug...
  14. Gabrielli M, Accili D. The chick chorioallantoic membrane: a model of molecular, structural, and functional adaptation to transepithelial ion transport and barrier function during embryonic development. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:940741 pubmed publisher
    The chick chorioallantoic membrane is a very simple extraembryonic membrane which serves multiple functions during embryo development; it is the site of exchange of respiratory gases, calcium transport from the eggshell, acid-base ..
  15. Kanashiro C, Santos T, Miglino M, Mess A, Carter A. Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:57 pubmed publisher
    ..We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast...
  16. Jedelská J, Strehlow B, Bakowsky U, Aigner A, Höbel S, Bette M, et al. The chorioallantoic membrane assay is a promising ex vivo model system for the study of vascular anomalies. In Vivo. 2013;27:701-5 pubmed
    The present feasibility study evaluated the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay established in cancer and angiogenesis research as a tool for the study of vascular anomalies (VAs) in the head and neck area, since the lack of appropriate ..
  17. Dehelean C, Feflea S, Gheorgheosu D, Ganta S, Cimpean A, Muntean D, et al. Anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer evaluation of betulin nanoemulsion in chicken chorioallantoic membrane and skin carcinoma in Balb/c mice. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2013;9:577-89 pubmed
    ..effects of betulin administered as nanoemulsion (NE) in two experimental models: (i) the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay for the study of anti-angiogenic effects and (ii) the two-stage model of skin carcinoma ..
  18. Sinning M, Letelier R, Rosas C, Fuenzalida M, Lemus D. Angiogenic potential of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with high-grade gliomas measured with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM). Biol Res. 2012;45:135-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a pro-angiogenic potential in the CSF of patients with high-grade gliomas...
  19. Wang X, Zhang N, Huo Q, Yang Q. Anti-angiogenic and antitumor activities of Huaier aqueous extract. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:1167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In ex vivo experiments, new vessel growth was suppressed as shown by chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rat aortic ring assays in the presence of Huaier extract...
  20. Abdelkader H, Ismail S, Hussein A, Wu Z, Al Kassas R, Alany R. Conjunctival and corneal tolerability assessment of ocular naltrexone niosomes and their ingredients on the hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane and excised bovine cornea models. Int J Pharm. 2012;432:1-10 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed at combining the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM), bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) test and histological examination of excised corneas to evaluate the conjunctival and corneal toxicity of ..
  21. Lim S, Nowak Sliwinska P, Kamarulzaman F, van den Bergh H, Wagnieres G, Lee H. The neovessel occlusion efficacy of 15-hydroxypurpurin-7-lactone dimethyl ester induced with photodynamic therapy. Photochem Photobiol. 2010;86:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..of a semi-synthesized analogue 15(1)-hydroxypurpurin-7-lactone dimethyl ester or G2, in terms of chick chorioallantoic membrane blood vessel occlusion was evaluated in reference to verteporfin...
  22. Lim S, Thivierge C, Nowak Sliwinska P, Han J, van den Bergh H, Wagnieres G, et al. In vitro and in vivo photocytotoxicity of boron dipyrromethene derivatives for photodynamic therapy. J Med Chem. 2010;53:2865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 5 also extensively occluded the vasculature of the chick chorioallantoic membrane. Iodinated BODIPY structures such as compound 5 may have potential as new photodynamic therapy agents for ..
  23. Ribatti D. Chicken chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis model. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;843:47-57 pubmed publisher
    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an extraembryonic membrane which serves as a gas exchange surface and its function is supported by a dense capillary network...
  24. Marquardt C, Matuschek E, Bölke E, Gerber P, Peiper M, V Seydlitz Kurzbach J, et al. Evaluation of the tissue toxicity of antiseptics by the hen's egg test on the chorioallantoic membrane (HETCAM). Eur J Med Res. 2010;15:204-9 pubmed
    ..Whereas local antiseptics in general have a positive effect on wound healing an uncritical use may impair wound healing due to toxic side effects...
  25. Li Y, Duan C, Liu J, Xu Y. Pro-angiogenic actions of Salvianolic acids on in vitro cultured endothelial progenitor cells and chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;131:562-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we aimed to demonstrate the pro-angiogenic effects of Salvianolic acids (SAs) to treat illnesses such as ischemic cardiovascular diseases, the main active components of aqueous extract of SM...
  26. Su L, Rao K, Guo F, Li X, Ahmed A, Ni Y, et al. In ovo leptin administration inhibits chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis in female chicken embryos through the STAT3-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2012;43:26-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that leptin affects embryonic growth through modifying chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis, we injected 0...
  27. Xu Y, Pan R, Chang Q, Qin M, Liu Y, Tang J. [Experimental study of Solanum nigrum on inhibiting angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008;33:549-52 pubmed
    ..To study the inhibitory effect of Solanum nigrum on angiogenesis...
  28. Natale D, Starovic M, Cross J. Phenotypic analysis of the mouse placenta. Methods Mol Med. 2006;121:275-93 pubmed
    ..This chapter provides a basic outline of the strategies for the general identification and then the subsequent detailed investigation of placental phenotypes...
  29. Zuluaga M, Mailhos C, Robinson G, Shima D, Gurny R, Lange N. Synergies of VEGF inhibition and photodynamic therapy in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:1767-72 pubmed
    ..Experimental evidence that the combined use of both treatment options may improve therapeutic outcome is presented...
  30. Tavaszi J, Budai P. Toxicity study of agrochemicals on chorioallantoic membrane of the egg. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:101-5 pubmed
    ..The potential irritancy of compounds may be detected by observing adverse changes which occur in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the egg after to test chemicals...
  31. Lugassy C, Kleinman H, Vernon S, Welch D, Barnhill R. C16 laminin peptide increases angiotropic extravascular migration of human melanoma cells in a shell-less chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:780-2 pubmed
    ..Recent experimental studies strongly suggest a correlation of angiotropism of melanoma cells with EVMM. Angiotropic melanoma cells are linked to the endothelium by an amorphous matrix confirmed to contain laminin...
  32. Berube M, Deschambeault A, Boucher M, Germain L, Petitclerc E, Guérin S. MMP-2 expression in uveal melanoma: differential activation status dictated by the cellular environment. Mol Vis. 2005;11:1101-11 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the expression and activity of MMP-2 in uveal melanoma cell lines grown either in vitro on plastic culture plates or in vivo as tumors produced in chick embryos...
  33. Parsons Wingerter P, Chandrasekharan U, McKay T, Radhakrishnan K, DiCorleto P, Albarran B, et al. A VEGF165-induced phenotypic switch from increased vessel density to increased vessel diameter and increased endothelial NOS activity. Microvasc Res. 2006;72:91-100 pubmed
    ..By fractal-based, multiparametric branching analysis of 2D vascular pattern in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), we report that vessel density increased maximally at lower VEGF concentrations, but that vessel ..
  34. Pegaz B, Debefve E, Ballini J, Konan Kouakou Y, van den Bergh H. Effect of nanoparticle size on the extravasation and the photothrombic activity of meso(p-tetracarboxyphenyl)porphyrin. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2006;85:216-22 pubmed
    ..These preclinical tests were carried out in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chicken's embryo...
  35. Olsson A, Johansson I, Akerud H, Einarsson B, Christofferson R, Sasaki T, et al. The minimal active domain of endostatin is a heparin-binding motif that mediates inhibition of tumor vascularization. Cancer Res. 2004;64:9012-7 pubmed
    ..two sites, we show that inhibition of fibroblast growth factor-2-induced angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane requires both heparin-binding sites...
  36. Chin W, Lau W, Bhuvaneswari R, Heng P, Olivo M. Chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone as a fluorescent marker for fluorescence diagnosis of human bladder cancer implanted on the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. Cancer Lett. 2007;245:127-33 pubmed
    ..Ce6-PVP) for the detection of human bladder cancer cells (MGH) implanted on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model...
  37. Balciūniene N, Tamasauskas A, Valanciūte A, Deltuva V, Vaitiekaitis G, Gudinaviciene I, et al. Histology of human glioblastoma transplanted on chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Medicina (Kaunas). 2009;45:123-31 pubmed
    ..A lot of experimental models are used to evaluate various properties of glioblastoma. Chicken chorioallantoic membrane model is one of them. OBJECTIVE...
  38. Stieger S, Caskey C, Adamson R, Qin S, Curry F, Wisner E, et al. Enhancement of vascular permeability with low-frequency contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the chorioallantoic membrane model. Radiology. 2007;243:112-21 pubmed
    ..the effect of low-frequency contrast material-enhanced ultrasound on the vascular endothelium and to determine the parameters and techniques required to deliver a therapeutic agent by using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model.
  39. Torio Padron N, Borges J, Momeni A, Mueller M, Tegtmeier F, Stark G. Implantation of VEGF transfected preadipocytes improves vascularization of fibrin implants on the cylinder chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2007;16:155-62 pubmed
    ..In vivo investigations to determine the vascularization of the implants were performed on the cylinder chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)...
  40. Martinez Madrid B, Donnez J, Van Eyck A, Veiga Lopez A, Dolmans M, Van Langendonckt A. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model: a useful tool to study short-term transplantation of cryopreserved human ovarian tissue. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:285-92 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model for the study of short-term transplantation of frozen human ovarian tissue.
  41. Juhasz Böss I, Hofele A, Lattrich C, Buchholz S, Ortmann O, Malik E. Matrix metalloproteinase messenger RNA expression in human endometriosis grafts cultured on a chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:40-5 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (MMP-1/MMP-2) in human endometrial explants in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane model (CAM) of endometriosis.
  42. Brand M, Lamandé N, Larger E, Corvol P, Gasc J. Angiotensinogen impairs angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007;85:451-60 pubmed
    ..inhibits in vitro endothelial cell proliferation, and is antiangiogenic in ovo in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay...
  43. Lewis J, Destito G, Zijlstra A, Gonzalez M, Quigley J, Manchester M, et al. Viral nanoparticles as tools for intravital vascular imaging. Nat Med. 2006;12:354-60 pubmed
  44. Chin W, Heng P, Olivo M. Chlorin e6 - polyvinylpyrrolidone mediated photosensitization is effective against human non-small cell lung carcinoma compared to small cell lung carcinoma xenografts. BMC Pharmacol. 2007;7:15 pubmed
    ..The present study evaluated the potential use of chlorin e6 - polyvinylpyrrolidone (Ce6-PVP) as a multimodality photosensitizer for fluorescence detection and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on NSCLC and SCLC xenografts...
  45. Mangieri D, Nico B, Benagiano V, De Giorgis M, Vacca A, Ribatti D. Angiogenic activity of multiple myeloma endothelial cells in vivo in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay is associated to a down-regulation in the expression of endogenous endostatin. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:1023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of the angiogenic response induced by multiple myeloma endothelial cells (MMEC) by using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  46. Nap A, Dunselman G, de Goeij A, Evers J, Groothuis P. Inhibiting MMP activity prevents the development of endometriosis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:2180-7 pubmed
    ..Transplantation of endometrium onto the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) results in endometriosis-like lesion formation, a process that requires extensive tissue ..
  47. Reizis A, Hammel I, Ar A. Regional and developmental variations of blood vessel morphometry in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:2483-8 pubmed
    ..for oxygen, which diffuses in from the environment via pores in the hard, calcified eggshell to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), the respiratory organ, which is rich in blood vessels...
  48. Saw C, Heng P, Liew C. Chick chorioallantoic membrane as an in situ biological membrane for pharmaceutical formulation development: a review. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2008;34:1168-77 pubmed
    ..The use of chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was one of the proposed alternatives to the Draize rabbit ocular irritation test with several ..
  49. Slodownik D, Grinberg I, Spira R, Skornik Y, Goldstein R. The human skin/chick chorioallantoic membrane model accurately predicts the potency of cosmetic allergens. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:409-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the chick egg has been extensively used for the growth of normal and transformed mammalian ..
  50. Tartis M, McCallan J, Lum A, Labell R, Stieger S, Matsunaga T, et al. Therapeutic effects of paclitaxel-containing ultrasound contrast agents. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2006;32:1771-80 pubmed
    ..Lastly, ultrasound and molecular targeting are combined to deliver a model drug to the endothelium and interstitium of chorioallantoic membrane vasculature in vivo.
  51. Xia C, Meng Q, Cao Z, Shi X, Jiang B. Regulation of angiogenesis and tumor growth by p110 alpha and AKT1 via VEGF expression. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:56-66 pubmed
    ..This work provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of human cancer induced by the activation of PI3K signaling...
  52. BROWN M, Staniszewska I, Del Valle L, Tuszynski G, Marcinkiewicz C. Angiostatic activity of obtustatin as alpha1beta1 integrin inhibitor in experimental melanoma growth. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Summarizing, we present studies of low molecular weight disintegrin, obtustatin as a potential therapeutic compound for treatment of melanoma that contain a high level of vascularization...
  53. Painter D, Moore M. Steroid hormone metabolism by the chorioallantoic placenta of the mountain spiny lizard Sceloporus jarrovi as a possible mechanism for buffering maternal-fetal hormone exchange. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2005;78:364-72 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that placental hormone metabolism may be critical to the successful evolution of placentation...