follicular dendritic cells

Summary

Summary: Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.

Top Publications

  1. Tsunoda R, Heinen E, Sugai N. Follicular dendritic cells in vitro modulate the expression of Fas and Bcl-2 on germinal center B cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2000;299:395-402 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are capable of regulating the susceptibility to apoptosis of GC B cells, we constructed a GC model ..
  2. Lee S, Choi K, Ahn H, Song K, Choe J, Lee I. TuJ1 (class III beta-tubulin) expression suggests dynamic redistribution of follicular dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:453-9 pubmed
    b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) play central roles in the B cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation into memory cells. Here, we show that TuJ1 (class III beta-tubulin) is expressed strongly in FDCs of human lymphoid tissue...
  3. Jonsson M, Skarstein K. Follicular dendritic cells confirm lymphoid organization in the minor salivary glands of primary Sjögren's syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37:515-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to explore immunophenotypic features of chronic inflammatory reactions in the minor salivary glands in patients with primary SS (pSS)...
  4. Cho W, Choi J, Park C, Yoon S, Jeoung D, Kim Y, et al. Expression of CD320 in human B cells in addition to follicular dendritic cells. BMB Rep. 2008;41:863-7 pubmed
    ..These finding indicate that CD320 is expressed in B cells in addition to FDC, and that its GC activity may be more complicated than previously thought...
  5. Hlavacek W, Percus J, Percus O, Perelson A, Wofsy C. Retention of antigen on follicular dendritic cells and B lymphocytes through complement-mediated multivalent ligand-receptor interactions: theory and application to HIV treatment. Math Biosci. 2002;176:185-202 pubmed
    In HIV-infected patients, large quantities of HIV are associated with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in lymphoid tissue...
  6. Kranich J, Krautler N, Heinen E, Polymenidou M, Bridel C, Schildknecht A, et al. Follicular dendritic cells control engulfment of apoptotic bodies by secreting Mfge8. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1293-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Lymphotoxin-deficient mice lacked FDCs and splenic Mfge8, and suffer from autoimmunity similar to Mfge8(-/-) mice. Hence, FDCs facilitate TBMphi-mediated corpse removal, and their malfunction may be involved in autoimmunity...
  7. Takemura S, Braun A, Crowson C, Kurtin P, Cofield R, O Fallon W, et al. Lymphoid neogenesis in rheumatoid synovitis. J Immunol. 2001;167:1072-80 pubmed
    ..4% of the patients. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) were exclusively present in tissues with GCs, suggesting that the recruitment or in situ ..
  8. Shlomchik M, Radebold K, Duclos N, Manuelidis L. Neuroinvasion by a Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent in the absence of B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9289-94 pubmed
    ..Subsequent studies indicated that B cells played an indirect role by promoting the development of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) that accumulate abnormal prion protein (PrP)...
  9. Riedel F, Back W, Gotte K, Hormann K. [Follicular dendritic reticulum cell sarcoma in a cervical lymph node]. HNO. 2001;49:837-41 pubmed
    b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) constitute an essential component of B cell follicles, normally serving as antigen-presenting cells and as cells regulating the germinal center reaction. FDC sarcoma is a very rare tumor...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Park C, Choi Y. How do follicular dendritic cells interact intimately with B cells in the germinal centre?. Immunology. 2005;114:2-10 pubmed
    ..b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are the stromal cells located in the germinal centre...
  2. Manuelidis L, Zaitsev I, Koni P, Lu Z, Flavell R, Fritch W. Follicular dendritic cells and dissemination of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Virol. 2000;74:8614-22 pubmed
    ..To determine how follicular dendritic cells (FDC) may act, we challenged lymphotoxin beta null and wild-type (wt) controls with a Creutzfeldt-Jakob ..
  3. Wu Y, El Shikh M, El Sayed R, Best A, Szakal A, Tew J. IL-6 produced by immune complex-activated follicular dendritic cells promotes germinal center reactions, IgG responses and somatic hypermutation. Int Immunol. 2009;21:745-56 pubmed publisher
    Reports that follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) produce IL-6 prompted the hypotheses that immune complexes (ICs) induce FDCs to produce IL-6 and that FDC-IL-6 promotes germinal center (GC) reactions, somatic hypermutation (SHM) and IgG ..
  4. Demonceau C, Marshall A, Sales J, Heinen E. Investigation of close interactions between sympathetic neural fibres and the follicular dendritic cells network in the mouse spleen. Eur J Histochem. 2008;52:85-92 pubmed
    In this study, co-localization between sympathetic neural fibres and the follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) network was observed within the mouse spleen by confocal technology...
  5. Lindstedt M, Johansson Lindbom B, Borrebaeck C. Expression of CD137 (4-1BB) on human follicular dendritic cells. Scand J Immunol. 2003;57:305-10 pubmed
    b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are the antigen (Ag)-trapping accessory cells of the germinal centres (GCs), essential for the development of humoral immune responses and memory...
  6. Park C, Yoon S, Armitage R, Choi Y. Follicular dendritic cells produce IL-15 that enhances germinal center B cell proliferation in membrane-bound form. J Immunol. 2004;173:6676-83 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that IL-15 from FDC, in membrane-bound form, plays an important role in supporting GC-B cell proliferation, proposing a new target for immune modulation as well as treatment of B cell tumors of GC origin...
  7. Lee I, Cho W, Kim J, Park C, Choe J. Human follicular dendritic cells interact with T cells via expression and regulation of cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin E and I synthases. J Immunol. 2008;180:1390-7 pubmed
    ..We have previously demonstrated that human follicular dendritic cells (FDC) strongly express PGI synthase...
  8. Lefevre E, Hein W, Stamataki Z, Brackenbury L, Supple E, Hunt L, et al. Fibrinogen is localized on dark zone follicular dendritic cells in vivo and enhances the proliferation and survival of a centroblastic cell line in vitro. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;82:666-77 pubmed
    b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the germinal centers (GC) of secondary lymphoid organs increase the survival and proliferation of antigen-stimulated B cells and are pivotal for the affinity maturation of an antibody response and for ..
  9. Salomonsson S, Jonsson M, Skarstein K, Brokstad K, Hjelmstrom P, Wahren Herlenius M, et al. Cellular basis of ectopic germinal center formation and autoantibody production in the target organ of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:3187-201 pubmed
    ..To investigate functional properties of the germinal center (GC)-like structures observed in salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and to determine the frequency with which such structures develop...
  10. Leipsic J, McAdams H, Sporn T. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the mediastinum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:W554-6 pubmed
  11. Sukumar S, Conrad D, Szakal A, Tew J. Differential T cell-mediated regulation of CD23 (Fc epsilonRII) in B cells and follicular dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2006;176:4811-7 pubmed
    Differences in murine follicular dendritic cells (FDC)-CD23 expression under Th1 vs Th2 conditions prompted the hypothesis that T cells help regulate the phenotype of FDCs...
  12. Gil M, Park S, Chung Y, Park C. Interleukin-15 enhances proliferation and chemokine secretion of human follicular dendritic cells. Immunology. 2010;130:536-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are the stromal cells of the GC...
  13. El Shikh M, El Sayed R, Tew J, Szakal A. Follicular dendritic cells stimulated by collagen type I develop dendrites and networks in vitro. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:81-9 pubmed
    b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) reside in germinal centers in which their dendrites interdigitate and form non-mobile networks...
  14. Lee I, Ha K, Choe J. 3C8 antigen is a novel protein expressed by human follicular dendritic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:624-30 pubmed
    Although the pivotal role of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in humoral immune responses has been demonstrated, little is known at the molecular level of how FDCs contribute to the organogenesis, B cell differentiation, and regulation ..
  15. Allen C, Okada T, Tang H, Cyster J. Imaging of germinal center selection events during affinity maturation. Science. 2007;315:528-31 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these observations, we propose a model in which competition for T cell help plays a more dominant role in the selection of GC B cells than previously appreciated...
  16. Suzuki K, Grigorova I, Phan T, Kelly L, Cyster J. Visualizing B cell capture of cognate antigen from follicular dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1485-93 pubmed publisher
    The prominent display of opsonized antigen by follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) has long favored the view that they serve as antigen-presenting cells for B cells...
  17. Sun X, Chang K, Abruzzo L, Lai R, Younes A, Jones D. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in follicular dendritic cells: a shared feature of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma and Castleman's disease. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:835-40 pubmed
    ..These findings identify a differentially expressed growth regulatory receptor common to both FDC sarcoma and CD, identifying a target for possible therapy in unresectable or refractory cases...
  18. Díaz de Liaño A, Garde C, Artieda C, Yarnoz C, Flores L, Ortiz H. Intra-abdominal follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Clin Transl Oncol. 2006;8:837-8 pubmed
    ..Eighteen months after surgery a recurrence at the liver pedicle was detected by a CT-scan and fully resected; in order to prevent another disease relapse postoperative radiotherapy was given...
  19. Glaysher B, Mabbott N. Isolated lymphoid follicle maturation induces the development of follicular dendritic cells. Immunology. 2007;120:336-44 pubmed
    ..in addition to B-lymphocyte-containing germinal centres, mature ILFs also possessed large networks of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). These features were not detected within immature ILFs...
  20. Mohan J, Brown K, Farquhar C, Bruce M, Mabbott N. Scrapie transmission following exposure through the skin is dependent on follicular dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues. J Dermatol Sci. 2004;35:101-11 pubmed
    ..Following peripheral exposure, PrP(Sc) usually accumulates on follicular dendritic cells (FDCS) in lymphoid tissues before neuroinvasion...
  21. Aydar Y, Balogh P, Tew J, Szakal A. Altered regulation of Fc gamma RII on aged follicular dendritic cells correlates with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif signaling in B cells and reduced germinal center formation. J Immunol. 2003;171:5975-87 pubmed
    Aging is associated with reduced trapping of Ag in the form of in immune complexes (ICs) by follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). We postulated that this defect was due to altered regulation of IC trapping receptors...
  22. Sapino A, Cassoni P, Ferrero E, Bongiovanni M, Righi L, Fortunati N, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha is a novel marker expressed by follicular dendritic cells in lymph nodes and tumor-associated lymphoid infiltrates. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:1313-20 pubmed
    ..cells and by double immunostaining were found to express both CD21 and CD23, which is characteristic of follicular dendritic cells. Finally, we assessed the effects of Tamoxifen treatment by comparing the numbers of ER-positive ..
  23. Marshall A, Du Q, Draves K, Shikishima Y, Hayglass K, Clark E. FDC-SP, a novel secreted protein expressed by follicular dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2002;169:2381-9 pubmed
    ..Together our data identify FDC-SP as a unique secreted peptide with a distinctive expression pattern within the immune system and the ability to specifically bind to activated B cells...
  24. Bagdi E, Krenacs L, Krenacs T, Miller K, Isaacson P. Follicular dendritic cells in reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissues: a reevaluation of staining patterns of CD21, CD23, and CD35 antibodies in paraffin sections after wet heat-induced epitope retrieval. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2001;9:117-24 pubmed
    Structural alterations in the meshwork of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are frequently found in malignant lymphomas. Formaldehyde fixation and paraffin embedding, however, have long prevented consistent detection of FDCs...
  25. Aguzzi A, Krautler N. Characterizing follicular dendritic cells: A progress report. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2134-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet half a century since the first description of follicular dendritic cells (FDC), their function and their histogenesis remain largely mysterious...
  26. Bajenoff M, Germain R. B-cell follicle development remodels the conduit system and allows soluble antigen delivery to follicular dendritic cells. Blood. 2009;114:4989-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In adults, the residual follicular conduits transport soluble antigen to deep regions, where follicular dendritic cells are abundant and appear to replace the fibroblastic reticular cells that enwrap conduits in the T zone...
  27. Marsee D, Pinkus G, Hornick J. Podoplanin (D2-40) is a highly effective marker of follicular dendritic cells. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2009;17:102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mesotheliomas, and other tumor types and is also expressed in a variety of normal cells including follicular dendritic cells (FDCs)...
  28. Lee J, Kong S, Wu Z, Wu Q, Choe J, Cho H, et al. Class II beta-tubulin is a novel marker for human tonsillar M cells and follicular dendritic cells. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39:533-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these genes, we here describe class II beta-tubulin as a new marker for human tonsillar M cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), and present its usefulness for diagnosis of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas (AILTs).
  29. Youd M, Ferguson A, Corley R. Synergistic roles of IgM and complement in antigen trapping and follicular localization. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:2328-37 pubmed
    ..Ag localizes on follicular dendritic cells (FDC) within 16 h after injection of immune complexes (IC) containing pentameric but not monomeric IgM...
  30. Lötscher M, Recher M, Hunziker L, Klein M. Immunologically induced, complement-dependent up-regulation of the prion protein in the mouse spleen: follicular dendritic cells versus capsule and trabeculae. J Immunol. 2003;170:6040-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our observations may provide important clues for a physiological function of the prion protein and allow a new view on the role of complement and PrP in peripheral prion pathogenesis...
  31. Garin A, Meyer Hermann M, Contie M, Figge M, Buatois V, Gunzer M, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by follicular dendritic cells is pivotal for germinal center onset and affinity maturation. Immunity. 2010;33:84-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Within GCs, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are key players in driving these events via direct interaction with GC B cells...
  32. Pasparakis M, Kousteni S, Peschon J, Kollias G. Tumor necrosis factor and the p55TNF receptor are required for optimal development of the marginal sinus and for migration of follicular dendritic cell precursors into splenic follicles. Cell Immunol. 2000;201:33-41 pubmed
  33. Ohba K, Ryo A, Dewan M, Nishi M, Naito T, Qi X, et al. Follicular dendritic cells activate HIV-1 replication in monocytes/macrophages through a juxtacrine mechanism mediated by P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. J Immunol. 2009;183:524-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are located in the lymphoid follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues and play a pivotal role in the selection of memory B lymphocytes within the germinal center, a major site for HIV-1 infection...
  34. Bloom S, Lemley A, Muscarella D. Potentiation of apoptosis by heat stress plus pesticide exposure in stress resistant human B-lymphoma cells and its attenuation through interaction with follicular dendritic cells: role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling. Toxicol Sci. 2006;89:214-23 pubmed
    ..increases in the levels of Bcl-2 protein as well as survival signals generated through B-cell binding to follicular dendritic cells (FDC)...
  35. Karrer U, Lopez Macias C, Oxenius A, Odermatt B, Bachmann M, Kalinke U, et al. Antiviral B cell memory in the absence of mature follicular dendritic cell networks and classical germinal centers in TNFR1-/- mice. J Immunol. 2000;164:768-78 pubmed
    TNFR1-/- mice have been shown to lack networks of mature follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and they do not form germinal centers. With nonreplicating Ags, IgG titers were inefficiently induced and not maintained...
  36. Kosco Vilbois M. Are follicular dendritic cells really good for nothing?. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3:764-9 pubmed
    b>Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which reside in the primary B-cell follicles and germinal centres of lymphoid tissues, can sequester antigen in the form of immune complexes and are thought to be pivotal to the germinal-centre reaction ..
  37. Thurlings R, Wijbrandts C, Mebius R, Cantaert T, Dinant H, van der Pouw Kraan T, et al. Synovial lymphoid neogenesis does not define a specific clinical rheumatoid arthritis phenotype. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:1582-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the relationship between lymphoid neogenesis in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and characteristics of inflammation and disease severity...
  38. Aydar Y, Sukumar S, Szakal A, Tew J. The influence of immune complex-bearing follicular dendritic cells on the IgM response, Ig class switching, and production of high affinity IgG. J Immunol. 2005;174:5358-66 pubmed
    It is believed that Ag in immune complexes (ICs) on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) selects high affinity B cells and promotes affinity maturation...
  39. Anderson S, Hannum L, Shlomchik M. Memory B cell survival and function in the absence of secreted antibody and immune complexes on follicular dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2006;176:4515-9 pubmed
    Ag, in the form of immune complexes retained on follicular dendritic cells, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of B cell memory...
  40. Mabbott N, Young J, McConnell I, Bruce M. Follicular dendritic cell dedifferentiation by treatment with an inhibitor of the lymphotoxin pathway dramatically reduces scrapie susceptibility. J Virol. 2003;77:6845-54 pubmed
    ..Studies of mouse scrapie models have shown that mature follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), expressing the host prion protein (PrP(c)), are critical for replication of infection in ..
  41. Thacker T, Zhou X, Estes J, Jiang Y, Keele B, Elton T, et al. Follicular dendritic cells and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription in CD4+ T cells. J Virol. 2009;83:150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of infection in secondary lymphoid tissues and in particular within the germinal centers (GCs), where follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are adjacent to CD4(+) T cells...
  42. Kairouz S, Hashash J, Kabbara W, McHayleh W, Tabbara I. Dendritic cell neoplasms: an overview. Am J Hematol. 2007;82:924-8 pubmed
    ..Histopathology 2002;59:161-167). In this article, a concise overview regarding the pathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of follicular dendritic, interdigitating dendritic, and Langerhans' cell tumors is presented...
  43. Pauly S, Broll K, Wittmann M, Giegerich G, Schwarz H. CD137 is expressed by follicular dendritic cells and costimulates B lymphocyte activation in germinal centers. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:35-42 pubmed
    ..CD137 had no effect on resting cells. Further, we show that CD137 is expressed in vivo by follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in germinal centers...
  44. Bai L, Kwang W, Chiang I, Chen P. Follicular dendritic cell tumor of the liver associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2006;36:249-53 pubmed
    ..inflammatory pseudotumors in terms of histology, they should be regarded as a clonal proliferation of follicular dendritic cells. In contrast to follicular dendritic cell tumors in extrahepatic areas, hepatic follicular dendritic ..
  45. Wang Y, Wang J, Sun Y, Wu Q, Fu Y. Complementary effects of TNF and lymphotoxin on the formation of germinal center and follicular dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2001;166:330-7 pubmed
    The formation of germinal centers (GC) around follicular dendritic cells (FDC) is a critical step in the humoral immune responses that depends on the cooperative effects of B cells and T cells...
  46. El Shikh M, El Sayed R, Wu Y, Szakal A, Tew J. TLR4 on follicular dendritic cells: an activation pathway that promotes accessory activity. J Immunol. 2007;179:4444-50 pubmed
    Microbial molecular patterns engage TLRs and activate dendritic cells and other accessory cells. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) exist in resting and activated states, but are activated in germinal centers, where they provide accessory ..
  47. Nakajima T, Amanuma R, Ueki Maruyama K, Oda T, Honda T, Ito H, et al. CXCL13 expression and follicular dendritic cells in relation to B-cell infiltration in periodontal disease tissues. J Periodontal Res. 2008;43:635-41 pubmed publisher
    B lymphocyte is the dominant infiltrating cell type in periodontitis lesions. CXCL13, produced by follicular dendritic cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts, is crucial for B-cell trafficking...
  48. Roozendaal R, Carroll M. Complement receptors CD21 and CD35 in humoral immunity. Immunol Rev. 2007;219:157-66 pubmed
    ..and CD35, which recognize activated products of C3 and C4, are predominantly expressed on B cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in the mouse...
  49. Thielen C, Antoine N, Melot F, Cesbron J, Heinen E, Tsunoda R. Human FDC express PrPc in vivo and in vitro. Dev Immunol. 2001;8:259-66 pubmed
    ..Several studies suggest that follicular dendritic cells (FDC) could be the site of PrPres retention and amplification...
  50. Yoon S, Zhang X, Berner P, Blom B, Choi Y. Notch ligands expressed by follicular dendritic cells protect germinal center B cells from apoptosis. J Immunol. 2009;183:352-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Notch ligands, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) and Jagged 1 (Jg1), are expressed by follicular dendritic cells (FDC) but not by B cells in the GC, while GC-B cells express the Notch receptors, Notch1 and Notch2...
  51. Taylor G, Smeeton I. Cytologic demonstration of "dysplastic" follicular dendritic cells in a case of hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease. Diagn Cytopathol. 2000;22:230-4 pubmed
    Large atypical follicular dendritic cells, considered dysplastic by some authors, were first described in association with Castleman's disease in 1991, but until now there has been no cytologic account regarding these cells...
  52. Sasaki K, Doh ura K, Ironside J, Mabbott N, Iwaki T. Clusterin expression in follicular dendritic cells associated with prion protein accumulation. J Pathol. 2006;209:484-91 pubmed
    ..Within the lymphoid tissues, abnormal PrP accumulation occurs on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs)...
  53. Sukumar S, Szakal A, Tew J. Isolation of functionally active murine follicular dendritic cells. J Immunol Methods. 2006;313:81-95 pubmed
    Biochemical, genetic, and immunological studies of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) have been hampered by difficulty in obtaining adequate numbers of purified cells in a functional state...