bursa of fabricius

Summary

Summary: An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.

Top Publications

  1. Rautenschlein S, von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Haase C. A comparison of immune responses to infection with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) between specific-pathogen-free chickens infected at 12 and 28 days of age. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;115:251-60 pubmed
    ..Under these experimental conditions, age-related differences were found only for the cytokine patterns but interestingly this did not influence the outcome of the disease with IBDV-IM...
  2. Tarpey I, van Loon A, de Haas N, Davis P, Orbell S, Cavanagh D, et al. A recombinant turkey herpesvirus expressing chicken interleukin-2 increases the protection provided by in ovo vaccination with infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis virus. Vaccine. 2007;25:8529-35 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the co-delivery of IL-2/HVT with low doses of other vaccines in ovo may be one method to increase the number of vaccines that can be given safely and efficaciously via in ovo vaccination...
  3. Pike K, Baig E, Ratcliffe M. The avian B-cell receptor complex: distinct roles of Igalpha and Igbeta in B-cell development. Immunol Rev. 2004;197:10-25 pubmed
    The bursa of Fabricius has evolved in birds as a gut-associated site of B-cell lymphopoiesis that is segregated from the development of other hematopoietic lineages...
  4. Hsieh M, Wu C, Lin T. Priming with DNA vaccine and boosting with killed vaccine conferring protection of chickens against infectious bursal disease. Vaccine. 2007;25:5417-27 pubmed
  5. Williams A, Davison T. Enhanced immunopathology induced by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:4-14 pubmed
    ..The marked influx of T cells into the infected bursa indicates that cell-mediated immunity is likely to be important in the clearance of vvIBDV...
  6. Kim S, Sung H, Han J, Jackwood D, Kwon H. Protection against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus in chickens immunized with DNA vaccines. Vet Microbiol. 2004;101:39-51 pubmed
  7. Wang X, Jiang P, Deen S, Wu J, Liu X, Xu J. Efficacy of DNA vaccines against infectious bursal disease virus in chickens enhanced by coadministration with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Avian Dis. 2003;47:1305-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that coadministration of the constructed plasmid pcDNA3.1-VP2 or pCI-VP2 with CpG ODN or commercial attenuated IBD vaccine could protect chickens efficiently from direct vvIBDV challenge...
  8. Ciriaco E, Píñera P, Díaz Esnal B, Laurà R. Age-related changes in the avian primary lymphoid organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius). Microsc Res Tech. 2003;62:482-7 pubmed
    The avian primary lymphoid organs, the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius, undergo age-dependent changes leading in some cases to the complete atrophy of the organ...
  9. Sur E, Celik I. Effects of aflatoxin B1 on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid phosphatase of the chicken. Br Poult Sci. 2003;44:558-66 pubmed
    ..and effects of in ovo administration of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the embryonic development of the bursa of Fabricius were determined in fertilised chicken eggs by histological methods and histochemical demonstration of acid ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Neiman P, Grbiç J, Polony T, Kimmel R, Bowers S, Delrow J, et al. Functional genomic analysis reveals distinct neoplastic phenotypes associated with c-myb mutation in the bursa of Fabricius. Oncogene. 2003;22:1073-86 pubmed
    ..This functional genomic analysis uncovered several different pathways of lymphomagenesis by oncogenic transcription factors acting in a B-cell lineage...
  2. Chang H, Lin T, Wu C. DNA vaccination with plasmids containing various fragments of large segment genome of infectious bursal disease virus. Vaccine. 2003;21:507-13 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that inclusion of VP2 gene in the plasmid DNA is essential in achieving effective protection mediated by DNA vaccination against IBDV infection in chickens...
  3. Higgins S, Berghman L, Moore R, Caldwell D, Caldwell D, Tizard I, et al. In situ detection and quantification of bursa of fabricius cellular proliferation or apoptosis in normal or steroid-treated neonatal chicks. Poult Sci. 2002;81:1136-41 pubmed
    ..to be the mechanism for depletion of lymphocytes recognizing self-antigens following clonal expansion in the bursa of Fabricius. Although bursal apoptosis has previously been shown to increase following in vivo exposure to ..
  4. Rauf A, Khatri M, Murgia M, Saif Y. Expression of perforin-granzyme pathway genes in the bursa of infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:620-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and apoptotic proteins; high mobility proteins group (HMG) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) whereas expression of NK (natural killer) lysin was downregulated...
  5. Gao Y, Sun F, Hou L, Gao H, Qi X, Liu D, et al. [Screening proteins interacting with infectious bursa disease virus Gt VP2 from cDNA library of B lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2011;27:561-5 pubmed
    To screen the interactive proteins with IBDV Gt VP2 protein from cDNA library of B Lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius. The expression cDNA library plasmids was transformed to the yeast competent cells, which have the bait plasmid-Gt ..
  6. St Paul M, Paolucci S, Read L, Sharif S. Characterization of responses elicited by Toll-like receptor agonists in cells of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;149:237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to elucidate the responses mounted by cells of the bursa of Fabricius to treatment with the TLR 3, 4 and 21 ligands, poly I:C, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG ..
  7. Lee R, Gillet G, Burnside J, Thomas S, Neiman P. Role of Nr13 in regulation of programmed cell death in the bursa of Fabricius. Genes Dev. 1999;13:718-28 pubmed
    Apoptotic cell death is developmentally regulated in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Although apoptosis is low in the embryonic bursa, cell death increases markedly after hatching...
  8. Li D, Geng Z, Zhu H, Wang C, Miao D, Chen P. Immunomodulatory activities of a new pentapeptide (Bursopentin) from the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Amino Acids. 2011;40:505-15 pubmed publisher
    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is a central immune organ in birds, and some peptides from chicken BF have demonstrated important immune functions. Here, a new 626...
  9. Roh H, Sung H, Kwon H. Effects of DDA, CpG-ODN, and plasmid-encoded chicken IFN-gamma on protective immunity by a DNA vaccine against IBDV in chickens. J Vet Sci. 2006;7:361-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DDA actually compromises the protection against the IBDV by DNA vaccine, and CpG-ODN and IFN-gamma had no significant effect...
  10. Ribatti D, Crivellato E, Vacca A. The contribution of Bruce Glick to the definition of the role played by the bursa of Fabricius in the development of the B cell lineage. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;145:1-4 pubmed
    In 1956, Bruce Glick and Timothy Chang reported that the bursa of Fabricius plays an important role in antibody production...
  11. Saberi A, Nakahara M, Sale J, Kikuchi K, Arakawa H, Buerstedde J, et al. The 9-1-1 DNA clamp is required for immunoglobulin gene conversion. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the roles of Rad9 and Rad17 may be confined to a subset of homologous recombination reactions initiated by replication-stalling lesions rather than those associated with double-strand break repair...
  12. Ratcliffe M. Antibodies, immunoglobulin genes and the bursa of Fabricius in chicken B cell development. Dev Comp Immunol. 2006;30:101-18 pubmed
    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for the normal development of B lymphocytes in birds...
  13. Khatri M, Palmquist J, Cha R, Sharma J. Infection and activation of bursal macrophages by virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Virus Res. 2005;113:44-50 pubmed
    ..These data suggested that B cells may not be the sole targets for the virus; macrophages and possibly other cells may serve as host for IBDV...
  14. Peng X, Cui Y, Cui W, Deng J, Cui H, Yang F. The cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of bursa of Fabricius induced by low selenium in chickens. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;139:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the effects of low selenium (Se) on immune function by determining cell cycle and apoptosis of bursa of Fabricius. One hundred twenty 1-day-old avian broilers were randomly assigned to two groups of 60 each and were fed on ..
  15. Abdel Alim G, Saif Y. Detection and persistence of infectious bursal disease virus in specific-pathogen-free and commercial broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 2001;45:646-54 pubmed
    ..This prompted us to investigate the persistence of IBDV or its RNA in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of inoculated and vaccinated SPF chicks and of inoculated and vaccinated commercial broiler chicks that ..
  16. Abdrakhmanov I, Lodygin D, Geroth P, Arakawa H, Law A, Plachy J, et al. A large database of chicken bursal ESTs as a resource for the analysis of vertebrate gene function. Genome Res. 2000;10:2062-9 pubmed
    Chicken B cells create their immunoglobulin repertoire within the Bursa of Fabricius by gene conversion...
  17. Eldaghayes I, Rothwell L, Williams A, Withers D, Balu S, Davison F, et al. Infectious bursal disease virus: strains that differ in virulence differentially modulate the innate immune response to infection in the chicken bursa. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:83-91 pubmed
    ..This suggests that both viruses modulate the host immune response, although probably by using different mechanisms...
  18. Rautenschlein S, Yeh H, Sharma J. Comparative immunopathogenesis of mild, intermediate, and virulent strains of classic infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Dis. 2003;47:66-78 pubmed
    ..05) and the most vigorous lesions in the bursa of Fabricius with the highest possible lesion score of 4 at 3 days PI (P < 0.05)...
  19. Harrison L, Brown C, Afonso C, Zhang J, Susta L. Early occurrence of apoptosis in lymphoid tissues from chickens infected with strains of Newcastle disease virus of varying virulence. J Comp Pathol. 2011;145:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..apoptosis, was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissues (spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius) from 4-week-old chickens infected with NDV strains of varying virulence 2 days previously...
  20. Liu X, Feng X, Zhou B, Cao R, Li X, Ma Z, et al. Isolation, modulatory functions on murine B cell development and antigen-specific immune responses of BP11, a novel peptide from the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Peptides. 2012;35:107-13 pubmed publisher
    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is the central humoral immune organ unique to birds which plays important roles in B lymphocyte differentiation...
  21. Baaten B, Staines K, Smith L, Skinner H, Davison T, Butter C. Early replication in pulmonary B cells after infection with Marek's disease herpesvirus by the respiratory route. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:431-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Together the data described here demonstrate the role of pulmonary B cells as the primary and predominant target cells and their importance for MDV pathogenesis...
  22. Arakawa H, Buerstedde J. Immunoglobulin gene conversion: insights from bursal B cells and the DT40 cell line. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:458-64 pubmed
    ..their immunoglobulin (Ig) light and heavy chain genes by pseudogene templated gene conversion within the bursa of Fabricius. Although Ig gene conversion was initially believed to occur only in birds, it is now clear that most farm ..
  23. Bautista D, Elankumaran S, Heckert R. Effect of a variant infectious bursal disease virus (E/Del) on Salmonella typhimurium infection in commercial broiler chickens. Avian Dis. 2004;48:361-9 pubmed
  24. Kumar S, Ahi Y, Salunkhe S, Koul M, Tiwari A, Gupta P, et al. Effective protection by high efficiency bicistronic DNA vaccine against infectious bursal disease virus expressing VP2 protein and chicken IL-2. Vaccine. 2009;27:864-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus affects the lymphoid tissues of chickens, mainly the B cells of bursa of Fabricius, leading to severe and prolonged immunosuppression...
  25. Withers D, Davison T, Young J. Developmentally programmed expression of AID in chicken B cells. Dev Comp Immunol. 2005;29:651-62 pubmed
    ..Expression was also detected at earlier stages, implying either that expression of AID is not the only controlling factor for gene conversion, or that gene conversion can precede the formation of bursal follicles...
  26. Neiman P, Ruddell A, Jasoni C, Loring G, Thomas S, Brandvold K, et al. Analysis of gene expression during myc oncogene-induced lymphomagenesis in the bursa of Fabricius. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6378-83 pubmed
    ..In follicles of the chicken bursa of Fabricius, myc induction of B-cell neoplasia requires a target cell population present during early bursal development ..
  27. Hsieh M, Wu C, Lin T. The effect of co-administration of DNA carrying chicken interferon-gamma gene on protection of chickens against infectious bursal disease by DNA-mediated vaccination. Vaccine. 2006;24:6955-65 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that co-administration of plasmid encoding chicken IFN-gamma gene with plasmid encoding a large segment gene of the IBDV did not enhance immune response and protection against challenge by IBDV...
  28. Siatskas C, Boyd R. Regulation of chicken haemopoiesis by cytokines. Dev Comp Immunol. 2000;24:37-59 pubmed
  29. Petkov D, Linnemann E, Kapczynski D, Sellers H. Identification and characterization of two distinct bursal B-cell subpopulations following infectious bursal disease virus infection of White Leghorn chickens. Avian Dis. 2009;53:347-55 pubmed
    ..bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus which primarily infects IgM B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius. Flow cytometric analysis was used to phenotype B-cell populations in the bursa and spleen following IBDV ..
  30. Korte J, Frohlich T, Kohn M, Kaspers B, Arnold G, Härtle S. 2D DIGE analysis of the bursa of Fabricius reveals characteristic proteome profiles for different stages of chicken B-cell development. Proteomics. 2013;13:119-33 pubmed publisher
    ..to human and mice where B-cells develop in the bone marrow, chicken B-cells develop in defined stages in the bursa of Fabricius, a gut associated lymphoid tissue...
  31. Abdul Careem M, Hunter B, Lee L, Fairbrother J, Haghighi H, Read L, et al. Host responses in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens infected with virulent Marek's disease virus. Virology. 2008;379:256-65 pubmed publisher
    The bursa of Fabricius serves as an important tissue in the process of Marek's disease virus (MDV) pathogenesis, since B cells of the bursa harbor the cytolytic phase of MDV replication cycle...
  32. Cui H, Jing F, Xi P. Pathology of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius in zinc-deficient ducklings. Avian Pathol. 2003;32:259-64 pubmed
    The weight and growth index of bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen were significantly reduced (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in zinc (Zn)-deficient ducks (Zn 22.9 mg/kg diet) when compared with normal ducks...
  33. Rautenschlein S, Yeh H, Njenga M, Sharma J. Role of intrabursal T cells in infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection: T cells promote viral clearance but delay follicular recovery. Arch Virol. 2002;147:285-304 pubmed
    ..The target organ of IBDV, the bursa of Fabricius, of Tx-CsA-birds had a significantly higher antigen load than the one of T cell-intact birds (P < 0.05)...
  34. Neiman P, Kimmel R, Icreverzi A, Elsaesser K, Bowers S, Burnside J, et al. Genomic instability during Myc-induced lymphomagenesis in the bursa of Fabricius. Oncogene. 2006;25:6325-35 pubmed
    ..Palindromic loci in TF and tumors, however, were expressed, many at high levels, suggesting an abundance of RNA species with long double-stranded segments generated during tumorigenesis...
  35. Withers D, Young J, Davison T. Infectious bursal disease virus-induced immunosuppression in the chick is associated with the presence of undifferentiated follicles in the recovering bursa. Viral Immunol. 2005;18:127-37 pubmed
    ..Most severe depletion occurs in the bursa of Fabricius, where the immunoglobulin repertoire is developed by gene conversion...
  36. Chrzastek K, Madej J, Mytnik E, Wieliczko A. The influence of antibiotics on B-cell number, percentage, and distribution in the bursa of Fabricius of newly hatched chicks. Poult Sci. 2011;90:2723-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Poultry humoral immunity depends on the normal functioning of the bursa of Fabricius and the B lymphocytes that mature in that gland...
  37. Liew P, Zulkifli I, Hair Bejo M, Omar A, Israf D. Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein 70 expression, resistance to infectious bursal disease, and growth in male broiler chickens subjected to heat stress. Poult Sci. 2003;82:1879-85 pubmed
    ..We concluded that FRHT could improve weight gain and resistance to IBD in male broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. The improved heat tolerance and disease resistance in FRHT birds could be attributed to better HSP 70 response...
  38. Goitsuka R, Fujimura Y, Mamada H, Umeda A, Morimura T, Uetsuka K, et al. BASH, a novel signaling molecule preferentially expressed in B cells of the bursa of Fabricius. J Immunol. 1998;161:5804-8 pubmed
    The bursa of Fabricius is a gut-associated lymphoid organ that is essential for the generation of a diversified B cell repertoire in the chicken. We describe here a novel gene preferentially expressed in bursal B cells...
  39. McCarthy F, Cooksey A, Wang N, Bridges S, Pharr G, Burgess S. Modeling a whole organ using proteomics: the avian bursa of Fabricius. Proteomics. 2006;6:2759-71 pubmed
    ..Here we used the chicken bursa of Fabricius, a common experimental system for B cell function, to model organ function from proteomics data...
  40. Peng X, Cui Y, Cui W, Deng J, Cui H. The decrease of relative weight, lesions, and apoptosis of bursa of fabricius induced by excess dietary selenium in chickens. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2009;131:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of excess dietary sodium selenite on immune function by determining morphological changes and apoptosis of bursa of Fabricius. Three hundred 1-day-old Avian broilers were fed on a basic diet (0...
  41. Francois A, Chevalier C, Delmas B, Eterradossi N, Toquin D, Rivallan G, et al. Avian adenovirus CELO recombinants expressing VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus induce protection against bursal disease in chickens. Vaccine. 2004;22:2351-60 pubmed
    ..After challenge, the weight ratio Bursa of Fabricius/body was about 2.5 per thousand, a value similar to that obtained with the commercial Bur706 vaccine...
  42. Coletti M, Del Rossi E, Franciosini M, Passamonti F, Tacconi G, Marini C. Efficacy and safety of an infectious bursal disease virus intermediate vaccine in ovo. Avian Dis. 2001;45:1036-43 pubmed
    ..In commercial chickens, immunoresponse to NDV vaccination was not influenced by in ovo vaccination...
  43. Li Y, Handberg K, Kabell S, Kusk M, Zhang M, Jørgensen P. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology. Res Vet Sci. 2007;82:126-33 pubmed
    ..virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye...
  44. Kozuka Y, Nasu T, Murakami T, Yasuda M. Comparative studies on the secondary lymphoid tissue areas in the chicken bursa of Fabricius and calf ileal Peyer's patch. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:190-7 pubmed publisher
    The chicken bursa of Fabricius and calf ileal Peyer's patch are thought to be the primary lymphoid organs of B cell development...
  45. Cui W, Cui H, Peng X, Fang J, Zuo Z, Liu X, et al. Dietary vanadium induces lymphocyte apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius of broilers. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;146:59-67 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius induced by different levels of dietary vanadium...
  46. Lu Z, Qin A, Qian K, Chen X, Jin W, Zhu Y, et al. Proteomic analysis of the host response in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus. Virus Res. 2010;153:250-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we identified differentially expressed proteins in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens infected with the highly virulent MDV strain RB1B, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis on ..
  47. Liu X, Zhou B, Cao R, Feng X, Li X, Chen P. Comparison of immunomodulatory functions of three peptides from the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Regul Pept. 2013;186:57-61 pubmed publisher
    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is the acknowledged central humoral immune organ unique to birds which plays important roles in B cell development and antibody production...
  48. Rodríguez Méndez A, Luna Acosta J, Carranza M, Harvey S, Aramburo C, Luna M. Growth hormone expression in stromal and non-stromal cells in the bursa of Fabricius during bursal development and involution: Causal relationships?. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;167:297-307 pubmed publisher
    Growth hormone (GH) is expressed in the chicken bursa of Fabricius (BF), an organ that undergoes three distinct developmental stages: rapid growth (late embryogenesis until 6-8 weeks of age [w]), plateaued growth (between 10 and 15w), and ..
  49. Stoute S, Jackwood D, Sommer Wagner S, Cooper G, Anderson M, Woolcock P, et al. The diagnosis of very virulent infectious bursal disease in California pullets. Avian Dis. 2009;53:321-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first occurrence of vvIBDV reported from birds in the United States...
  50. Hulse D, Romero C. Partial protection against infectious bursal disease virus through DNA-mediated vaccination with the VP2 capsid protein and chicken IL-2 genes. Vaccine. 2004;22:1249-59 pubmed
    ..It was also found that immunological tolerance may have been induced in one of the chicken experiments by vaccination with plasmid DNA...
  51. Fonfria J, Moreno J, Gomez del Moral M, Alonso L, Zapata A. The diffusely-infiltrated lymphoid tissue of the bursa of Fabricius of Sturnus unicolor. Histological organization and functional significance. Histol Histopathol. 1994;9:333-8 pubmed
    In the present study we confirm and extend previous reports about the existence of a T-dependent area in the bursa of Fabricius of some birds, analyzing ultrastructurally the cell content of the so-called diffusely-infiltrated lymphoid ..
  52. Veromaa T, Vainio O, Eerola E, Toivanen P. Monoclonal antibodies against chicken Bu-1a and Bu-1b alloantigens. Hybridoma. 1988;7:41-8 pubmed
    ..MAbs against both allelic Bu-1 antigens are beneficial tools e.g. in typing of chicken lines and in studies on chicken B cell differentiation...
  53. Neiman P, Thomas S, Loring G. Induction of apoptosis during normal and neoplastic B-cell development in the bursa of Fabricius. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:5857-61 pubmed
    ..A programmed cell death pathway can be activated during normal B-cell development in the bursa, and alterations in the expression of this pathway accompany neoplastic change in this system...