sweat glands

Summary

Summary: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.

Top Publications

  1. Glaser D. Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by chemodenervation of sweat glands using botulinum toxin type A. J Drugs Dermatol. 2004;3:627-31 pubmed
    ..characterized by excessive underarm sweating that is thought to result from localized hyperstimulation of sweat glands by cholinergic sympathetic nerve fibers...
  2. Inoue R, Sohara E, Rai T, Satoh T, Yokozeki H, Sasaki S, et al. Immunolocalization and translocation of aquaporin-5 water channel in sweat glands. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;70:26-33 pubmed publisher
    Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a member of the water channel protein family. Although AQP5 was shown to be present in sweat glands, the presence or absence of regulated intracellular translocation of AQP5 in sweat glands remained to be determined.
  3. Abreu Velez A, Howard M, Hashimoto K, Hashimoto T. Autoantibodies to sweat glands detected by different methods in serum and in tissue from patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus. Arch Dermatol Res. 2009;301:711-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and on previous histopathological studies on the skin of these patients that showed abnormalities in their sweat glands, and the presence of mercuric selenides and iodines by autometallography assay, we decided to investigate ..
  4. Bechara F, Sand M, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K. Immunohistochemical differentiation and localization analysis of sweat glands in the adult human axilla. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:1124-5; author reply 1125-6 pubmed
  5. Donadio V, Montagna P, Nolano M, Cortelli P, Misciali C, Pierangeli G, et al. Generalised anhidrosis: different lesion sites demonstrated by microneurography and skin biopsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005;76:588-91 pubmed
    ..anhidrosis (GA) shows a uniform clinical picture whether the pathogenesis involves intrinsic abnormalities of sweat glands or postganglionic sympathetic cholinergic nerve dysfunction...
  6. Nolano M, Crisci C, Santoro L, Barbieri F, Casale R, Kennedy W, et al. Absent innervation of skin and sweat glands in congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis. Clin Neurophysiol. 2000;111:1596-601 pubmed
    ..A case of a 10-year-old girl with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is reported...
  7. Fu X, Sun T, Li X, Sheng Z. Morphological and distribution characteristics of sweat glands in hypertrophic scar and their possible effects on sweat gland regeneration. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:186-91 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to reveal the morphological and distributional characteristics of the sweat glands in normal skin and hypertrophic scar obtained from children and adults, and to study the possible interfering ..
  8. Schittek B, Hipfel R, Sauer B, Bauer J, Kalbacher H, Stevanovic S, et al. Dermcidin: a novel human antibiotic peptide secreted by sweat glands. Nat Immunol. 2001;2:1133-7 pubmed
    ..This protein was specifically and constitutively expressed in the sweat glands, secreted into the sweat and transported to the epidermal surface...
  9. Provitera V, Nolano M, Caporaso G, Stancanelli A, Santoro L, Kennedy W. Evaluation of sudomotor function in diabetes using the dynamic sweat test. Neurology. 2010;74:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We devised a dynamic sweat test (DST) that measures at the same time sweat gland density, distribution of active glands, and sweat rate, and applied it to the evaluation of sudomotor function in diabetes...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ma L, Huang Y, Deng Y, Tian J, Rao Z, Che H, et al. Topiramate reduced sweat secretion and aquaporin-5 expression in sweat glands of mice. Life Sci. 2007;80:2461-8 pubmed
    ..of carbonic anhydrase (CA) II and aquaporin-5 (AQP5), total CA activity, as well as on tissue morphology of sweat glands in mice...
  2. Shafirstein G, Moros E. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: the effect of sweat glands. Phys Med Biol. 2011;56:1329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This research represents a significant step towards higher spatial resolution numerical modelling of the skin and shows that microstructures can play a significant role in mm-wave absorption and induced temperature distributions...
  3. Atoji Y, Yamamoto Y, Suzuki Y. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog. Anat Rec. 1998;252:403-12 pubmed
    Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog are not connected morphologically with the lobules of the circumanal glands...
  4. Zancanaro C, Merigo F, Crescimanno C, Orlandini S, Osculati A. Immunohistochemical evidence suggests intrinsic regulatory activity of human eccrine sweat glands. J Anat. 1999;194 ( Pt 3):433-44 pubmed
    Immunohistochemistry of normal eccrine sweat glands was performed on paraffin sections of human skin...
  5. Macefield V, Wallin B. The discharge behaviour of single sympathetic neurones supplying human sweat glands. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1996;61:277-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the discharge of human sudomotor neurones is modulated by baroreceptor input...
  6. Srivastava A, Durmowicz M, Hartung A, Hudson J, Ouzts L, Donovan D, et al. Ectodysplasin-A1 is sufficient to rescue both hair growth and sweat glands in Tabby mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:2973-81 pubmed
    ..orthologous gene in mice produces the tabby phenotype, suggesting its vital role in the development of hair, sweat glands and teeth...
  7. Rao M, Jaszczak E, Landis S. Innervation of footpads of normal and mutant mice lacking sweat glands. J Comp Neurol. 1994;346:613-25 pubmed
    ..The sympathetic fibers associated with sweat glands contain acetylcholinesterase and immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide...
  8. Fu X, Li J, Sun X, Sun T, Sheng Z. Epidermal stem cells are the source of sweat glands in human fetal skin: evidence of synergetic development of stem cells, sweat glands, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases. Wound Repair Regen. 2005;13:102-8 pubmed
    The development of sweat glands is a complex biological process, and the extent of cellular trafficking between epidermal stem cells and the development of sweat glands is uncertain...
  9. Urso C, Bondi R, Paglierani M, Salvadori A, Anichini C, Giannini A. Carcinomas of sweat glands: report of 60 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001;125:498-505 pubmed
    ..Several aspects of sweat gland carcinomas (incidence, classification, diagnosis, and behavior) have not been definitively clarified and need to be studied further...
  10. Wollina U, Köstler E, Schönlebe J, Haroske G. Tumescent suction curettage versus minimal skin resection with subcutaneous curettage of sweat glands in axillary hyperhidrosis. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:709-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Axillary hyperhidrosis is a common problem with a strong negative impact on professional and social life. Various types of surgical procedures have been developed for its treatment...
  11. Tian H, Habecker B, Guidry G, Gurtan A, Rios M, Roffler Tarlov S, et al. Catecholamines are required for the acquisition of secretory responsiveness by sweat glands. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7362-9 pubmed
    The sympathetic innervation of sweat glands undergoes a developmental change in transmitter phenotype from catecholaminergic to cholinergic...
  12. Reddy M, Sun D, Quinton P. Apical heterotrimeric g-proteins activate CFTR in the native sweat duct. J Membr Biol. 2001;179:51-61 pubmed
    ..We conclude that heterotrimeric G-proteins are present in the apical membrane of the native human sweat duct which may help regulate salt absorption by controlling CFTR G(Cl) activity...
  13. Hilz M, Axelrod F, Bickel A, Stemper B, Brys M, Wendelschafer Crabb G, et al. Assessing function and pathology in familial dysautonomia: assessment of temperature perception, sweating and cutaneous innervation. Brain. 2004;127:2090-8 pubmed
    ..There was also severe nerve loss from the subepidermal neural plexus (SNP) and deep dermis. The few sweat glands present within the biopsies had had reduced innervation density...
  14. Song Y, Sonawane N, Verkman A. Localization of aquaporin-5 in sweat glands and functional analysis using knockout mice. J Physiol. 2002;541:561-8 pubmed
    ..specific antibodies revealed strong expression of AQP5 at the luminal membrane of secretory epithelial cells in sweat glands in mouse paw skin...
  15. Johnson J, O Shaughnessy K, Kim S. Microwave thermolysis of sweat glands. Lasers Surg Med. 2012;44:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..report presents a technical overview of a new noninvasive, microwave-based device for creating thermolysis of sweat glands. The fundamental principles of operation of the device are presented, as well as the design and optimization of ..
  16. Petschnik A, Klatte J, Evers L, Kruse C, Paus R, Danner S. Phenotypic indications that human sweat glands are a rich source of nestin-positive stem cell populations. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162:380-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that the expression of nestin, a progenitor/stem cell marker protein, is localized in different mesenchymal compartments in human skin including the sweat gland stroma...
  17. Nishiyama T, Sugenoya J, Matsumoto T, Iwase S, Mano T. Irregular activation of individual sweat glands in human sole observed by a videomicroscopy. Auton Neurosci. 2001;88:117-26 pubmed
    Sweat secretion from individual sweat glands on the human sole was observed in four male subjects by using a videomicroscope and correlated with sudomotor neural activity recorded from the tibial nerve by means of microneurography...
  18. Del Sorbo F, Brancati F, De Joanna G, Valente E, Lauria G, Albanese A. Primary focal hyperhidrosis in a new family not linked to known loci. Dermatology. 2011;223:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary focal hyperhidrosis (PFH) is a disabling disorder. A first locus has been mapped in families with only palmar involvement, raising the question whether other unknown genes are responsible for more diffuse phenotypes...
  19. Sjödin A, Guo D, Hofer P, Henriksson R, Hedman H. Mammaglobin in normal human sweat glands and human sweat gland tumors. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:428-9 pubmed
  20. Reddy M, Quinton P. Effect of anion transport blockers on CFTR in the human sweat duct. J Membr Biol. 2002;189:15-25 pubmed
    ..All the inhibitors studied primarily blocked CFTR from the cytoplasmic side and all inhibition appeared to be independent of metabolic and phosphorylation processes...
  21. Nejsum L, Praetorius J, Nielsen S. NKCC1 and NHE1 are abundantly expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane of secretory coil cells in rat, mouse, and human sweat glands. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C333-40 pubmed
    In isolated sweat glands, bumetanide inhibits sweat secretion...
  22. Beer G, Baumüller S, Zech N, Wyss P, Strasser D, Varga Z, et al. Immunohistochemical differentiation and localization analysis of sweat glands in the adult human axilla. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;117:2043-9 pubmed
    ..A third type of sweat glands, the "apoeccrine" glands, were recently identified...
  23. Luo K, Chao C, Chen Y, Huang C, Yang N, Kan H, et al. Quantitation of sudomotor innervation in skin biopsies of patients with diabetic neuropathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011;70:930-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the sweat gland innervation index (SGII), defined as the area of nerve fibers normalized to the area of sweat glands. This approach reduced the variations in measurements of sweat gland areas compared to the commonly used method ..
  24. Huang S, Xu Y, Wu C, Sha D, Fu X. In vitro constitution and in vivo implantation of engineered skin constructs with sweat glands. Biomaterials. 2010;31:5520-5 pubmed publisher
    Despite the rapid development of engineered skin, such skin still lacks skin appendages. Sweat glands, one of the skin appendages, play key roles in the maintenance of homeostasis and temperature regulation...
  25. Diem P, Laederach Hofmann K, Navarro X, Mueller B, Kennedy W, Robertson R. Diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy: a multivariate approach. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003;33:693-7 pubmed
    ..In the diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) various autonomic tests are used. We took a novel statistical approach to find a combination of autonomic tests that best separates normal controls from patients with DAN...
  26. Kreyden O, Scheidegger E. Anatomy of the sweat glands, pharmacology of botulinum toxin, and distinctive syndromes associated with hyperhidrosis. Clin Dermatol. 2004;22:40-4 pubmed
    ..The total number of sweat glands is somewhere between 2 and 4 million and only about 5% are active at the same time, indicating the enormous ..
  27. Biedermann T, Pontiggia L, Böttcher Haberzeth S, Tharakan S, Braziulis E, Schiestl C, et al. Human eccrine sweat gland cells can reconstitute a stratified epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1996-2009 pubmed publisher
    Eccrine sweat glands are generally considered to be a possible epidermal stem cell source. Here we compared the multilayered epithelia formed by epidermal keratinocytes and those formed by eccrine sweat gland cells...
  28. Zeeuwen P, Van Vlijmen Willems I, Jansen B, Sotiropoulou G, Curfs J, Meis J, et al. Cystatin M/E expression is restricted to differentiated epidermal keratinocytes and sweat glands: a new skin-specific proteinase inhibitor that is a target for cross-linking by transglutaminase. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:693-701 pubmed
    ..of normal human skin, the stratum granulosum/spinosum of psoriatic skin, and the secretory coils of eccrine sweat glands. Low expression levels were found in the nasal cavity...
  29. Claass A, Sommer M, de Jonge H, Kalin N, Tummler B. Applicability of different antibodies for immunohistochemical localization of CFTR in sweat glands from healthy controls and from patients with cystic fibrosis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000;48:831-7 pubmed
    ..b>Sweat glands carry the basic defect underlying CF and are not affected by tissue destruction and inflammation...
  30. Nejsum L, Kwon T, Jensen U, Fumagalli O, Frøkiaer J, Krane C, et al. Functional requirement of aquaporin-5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:511-6 pubmed
    The distribution and function of aquaporins (AQPs) have not previously been defined in sweat glands. In this study, AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 mRNA were demonstrated in rat paw by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, but AQP2 and AQP4 were not...
  31. Lu C, Polak L, Rocha A, Pasolli H, Chen S, Sharma N, et al. Identification of stem cell populations in sweat glands and ducts reveals roles in homeostasis and wound repair. Cell. 2012;150:136-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Sweat glands are abundant in the body and essential for thermoregulation. Like mammary glands, they originate from epidermal progenitors...
  32. Gibbons C, Illigens B, Wang N, Freeman R. Quantification of sudomotor innervation: a comparison of three methods. Muscle Nerve. 2010;42:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that sudomotor fibers can be rapidly and reproducibly quantified, and results correlate well with physical exam findings...
  33. Pan C, Tseng T, Lin Y, Chiang M, Lin W, Hsieh S. Cutaneous innervation in Guillain-Barré syndrome: pathology and clinical correlations. Brain. 2003;126:386-97 pubmed
    ..Patho logically, sudomotor innervation of the skin was reduced in five of 17 (29.4%) GBS patients in whom sweat glands could be recognized...
  34. Gibbons C, Illigens B, Wang N, Freeman R. Quantification of sweat gland innervation: a clinical-pathologic correlation. Neurology. 2009;72:1479-86 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate a novel method to quantify the density of nerve fibers innervating sweat glands in healthy control and diabetic subjects, to compare the results to an unbiased stereologic technique, and to identify the relationship to ..
  35. Emelianov V, Bechara F, Glaser R, Langan E, Taungjaruwinai W, Schroder J, et al. Immunohistological pointers to a possible role for excessive cathelicidin (LL-37) expression by apocrine sweat glands in the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:1023-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The cause of follicular occlusion, a key early event in the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, remains unknown...
  36. Sato K, Sato F. Effect of VIP on sweat secretion and cAMP accumulation in isolated simian eccrine glands. Am J Physiol. 1987;253:R935-41 pubmed
    Although vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-immunoreactive nerves have been identified around the eccrine sweat glands, their functional significance is unknown...
  37. Kunimoto M, Kirnö K, Elam M, Karlsson T, Wallin B. Neuro-effector characteristics of sweat glands in the human hand activated by irregular stimuli. Acta Physiol Scand. 1992;146:261-9 pubmed
  38. Siepmann T, Penzlin A, Illigens B. [Autonomic neuropathies]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2013;138:1465-9 pubmed publisher
  39. Dietz J, Kaercher T, Schneider A, Zimmermann T, Huttner K, Johnson R, et al. Early respiratory and ocular involvement in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Eur J Pediatr. 2013;172:1023-31 pubmed publisher
    ..ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED; ectodysplasin deficiency) has been classically described as affecting hair, sweat glands, and dentition...
  40. Kurotaki T, Narayama K, Arai Y, Arai S, Oyamada T, Yoshikawa H, et al. Langerhans cells within the follicular epithelium and the intradermal sweat duct in equine insect hypersensitivity "Kasen". J Vet Med Sci. 2002;64:539-41 pubmed
    ..LCs observed within the FE and ISD in the "Kasen" skin lesions might express the particular stage corresponded to recognize, intake and process the antigens which permeate them...
  41. Reddy M, Stutts M. Status of fluid and electrolyte absorption in cystic fibrosis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013;3:a009555 pubmed publisher
    ..The contrast of these tissue-specific changes in CF tissues is illustrative of how salt and fluid absorption is differentially regulated to accomplish tissue-specific physiological objectives...
  42. Takeda H, Kondo S. Immunohistochemical study of angiotensin receptors in normal human sweat glands and eccrine poroma. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144:1189-92 pubmed
    Angiotensin II exerts its actions through its specific receptors. However, expression of these receptors has not been determined in sweat glands.
  43. McMullen R, Gillece T, Lu G, Laura D, Chen S. Influence of various environmental parameters on sweat gland activity. J Cosmet Sci. 2013;64:243-60 pubmed
    ..to the replica and gravimetric techniques, we also measured flux density to determine the onset of firing of sweat glands to ensure that our environmental preconditioning step (30 min in the environmental room) brought subjects to ..
  44. Vinik A, Nevoret M, Casellini C, Parson H. Neurovascular function and sudorimetry in health and disease. Curr Diab Rep. 2013;13:517-32 pubmed publisher
    ..control of sweating is intimately linked to the autonomic nervous system via sympathetic C fibers, and sweat glands are richly endowed with a neuropeptidergic innervation...
  45. Fernandez Flores A, Valerdiz S. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia associated with hidradenoma papilliferum. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012;34:e31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclin D-1 was expressed in the parabasal layer. Immunohistochemistry of the squamous proliferation was negative for human papillomavirus...
  46. Darvin M, Fluhr J, Caspers P, van der Pool A, Richter H, Patzelt A, et al. In vivo distribution of carotenoids in different anatomical locations of human skin: comparative assessment with two different Raman spectroscopy methods. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:1060-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the antioxidants cannot be produced by the human organism. Thus, they have to be incorporated by food and beverages...
  47. Habecker B, Klein M, Sundgren N, Li W, Woodward W. Developmental regulation of neurotransmitter phenotype through tetrahydrobiopterin. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9445-52 pubmed
    During development, sympathetic neurons innervating rodent sweat glands undergo a target-induced change in neurotransmitter phenotype from noradrenergic to cholinergic...
  48. Xu Y, Huang S, Ma K, Fu X, Han W, Sheng Z. Promising new potential for mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly: sweat gland cell-like differentiative capacity. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2012;6:645-54 pubmed publisher
    ..whether hUC-MSCs could be induced to differentiate into sweat gland cell-like cells, that would be potential in sweat glands restoration after injury...
  49. Rosen W, Li Y. Sudoriferous cyst of the orbit. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17:73-5 pubmed
    ..A case of sudoriferous cyst of the orbit in an adult patient is reported. This unusual cyst in the orbit has heretofore been reported only in congenital cases...
  50. Alekseev S, Ziskin M. Distortion of millimeter-wave absorption in biological media due to presence of thermocouples and other objects. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2001;48:1013-9 pubmed
    ..The maximal value of SAR was more than three times higher than the overall average SAR value in the skin. Sweat ducts produced a smaller disturbance of the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) field...
  51. Lugassy J, Itin P, Ishida Yamamoto A, Holland K, Huson S, Geiger D, et al. Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome and dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis: two allelic ectodermal dysplasias caused by dominant mutations in KRT14. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;79:724-30 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that KRT14 plays an important role during ontogenesis of dermatoglyphics and sweat glands. Among other functions, the N-terminal part of keratin molecules has been shown to confer protection against ..
  52. Widdess Walsh P, Prayson R, Cohen B, Lachhwani D. A 12-year-old girl with seizures and dementia. Brain Pathol. 2007;17:464-5, 474 pubmed
  53. Welch G, Foote K, Hansen C, Mack G. Nonselective NOS inhibition blunts the sweat response to exercise in a warm environment. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:796-803 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We conclude that local production of nitric oxide in the skin or around the sweat gland augments local SR and cutaneous dilation during exercise in the heat...