submandibular gland

Summary

Summary: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Sato K, Gotoh C, Uchida H, Kawashima H, Yoshida M, Kitano Y, et al. Sialolipoma of the submandibular gland in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:408-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Three cases of submandibular gland sialolipoma have been previously reported in the English literature, all of which were in adults...
  2. Knox S, Lombaert I, Reed X, Vitale Cross L, Gutkind J, Hoffman M. Parasympathetic innervation maintains epithelial progenitor cells during salivary organogenesis. Science. 2010;329:1645-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism for epithelial progenitor cell maintenance may be targeted for organ repair or regeneration. ..
  3. Cong X, Zhang Y, Yang N, Li J, Ding C, Ding Q, et al. Occludin is required for TRPV1-modulated paracellular permeability in the submandibular gland. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..previously reported that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in rabbit submandibular gland promoted salivary secretion, partly by an increase in paracellular permeability...
  4. Beach T, Adler C, Dugger B, Serrano G, Hidalgo J, Henry Watson J, et al. Submandibular gland biopsy for the diagnosis of Parkinson disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013;72:130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..synucleinopathy is present in the submandibular glands of PD patients, we assessed the feasibility of submandibular gland biopsy for diagnosing PD...
  5. Saruta J, Iida M, Kondo Y, To M, Hayashi T, Hori M, et al. Chronic stress induces neurotrophin-3 in rat submandibular gland. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53:1085-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated whether NT-3 levels in the salivary gland and plasma were influenced by chronic stress...
  6. Azlina A, Javkhlan P, Hiroshima Y, Hasegawa T, Yao C, Akamatsu T, et al. Roles of lysosomal proteolytic systems in AQP5 degradation in the submandibular gland of rats following chorda tympani parasympathetic denervation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G1106-17 pubmed publisher
    Chorda tympani denervation (CTD) of rats was earlier shown to result in loss of submandibular gland (SMG) weight (at only 1 wk) and in continued reduction in aquaporin 5 (AQP5) protein expression (until 4 wk), without affecting its mRNA ..
  7. Kadoya Y, Yamashina S. Cellular dynamics of epithelial clefting during branching morphogenesis of the mouse submandibular gland. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1739-47 pubmed publisher
    We cultured the rudimental submandibular gland (SMG) of mice with a non-cell-permeable fluorescent tracer, and observed cell behavior during epithelial branching morphogenesis using confocal time-lapse microscopy...
  8. Daley W, Gervais E, Centanni S, Gulfo K, Nelson D, Larsen M. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity. Development. 2012;139:411-22 pubmed publisher
  9. Jaguar G, Lima E, Kowalski L, Pellizon A, Carvalho A, Alves F. Impact of submandibular gland excision on salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The surgery group was composed of 37 patients, who underwent submandibular gland resection, and the non-surgery group of 43 patients evaluated prior to radiation and/or chemotherapy ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Soltoff S, Hedden L. Isoproterenol and cAMP block ERK phosphorylation and enhance [Ca2+]i increases and oxygen consumption by muscarinic receptor stimulation in rat parotid and submandibular acinar cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13337-48 pubmed publisher
  2. Purwanti N, Azlina A, Karabasil M, Hasegawa T, Yao C, Akamatsu T, et al. Involvement of the IL-6/STAT3/Sca-1 system in proliferation of duct cells following duct ligation in the submandibular gland of mice. J Med Invest. 2009;56 Suppl:253-4 pubmed
    Ligation of the main excretory duct (MED) of the mouse submandibular gland (SMG) induced the expression of Sca-1, a stem cell marker...
  3. Ding C, Zhang Y, Peng X, Wang Y, Zhang L, Cong X, et al. Proteomic analysis of human transplanted submandibular gland in patients with epiphora after transplantation. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:2206-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Submandibular gland autotransplantation is effective for treating severe dry eye syndrome. However, more than 40% of patients show epiphora within 3-6 months after treatment...
  4. Onodera T, Sakai T, Hsu J, Matsumoto K, Chiorini J, Yamada K. Btbd7 regulates epithelial cell dynamics and branching morphogenesis. Science. 2010;329:562-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition experiments show that Btbd7 is required for branching of embryonic mammalian salivary glands and lungs. Hence, Btbd7 is a regulatory gene that promotes epithelial tissue remodeling and formation of branched organs. ..
  5. Song C, Jung Y, Sung M, Kim K. Endoscopic resection of the submandibular gland via a hairline incision: a new surgical approach. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:970-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Submandibular gland excision is traditionally performed by the transcervical approach. To avoid or reduce visible scarring and nerve injury, diverse innovative surgical trials have been reported...
  6. Hayashi T, Koyama N, Gresik E, Kashimata M. Detection of EGF-dependent microRNAs of the fetal mouse submandibular gland at embryonic day 13. J Med Invest. 2009;56 Suppl:250-2 pubmed
    ..Comparing the three profiles revealed that several miRNAs were expressed specifically at each condition. These results suggested that these miRNAs were associated with regulating organogenesis, possibly including branching morphogenesis...
  7. Koyama N, Hayashi T, Gresik E, Kashimata M. Role of alpha 6 integrin subunit in branching morphogenesis of fetal mouse submandibular gland: investigation by mesenchyme-free epithelial culture system. J Med Invest. 2009;56 Suppl:247-9 pubmed
    The submandibular gland (SMG) of the fetal mouse is a well-studied model for the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions required for branching morphogenesis (BrM), which involves cleft formation and stalk elongation...
  8. Ding C, Li L, Su Y, Xiang R, Cong X, Yu H, et al. Adiponectin increases secretion of rat submandibular gland via adiponectin receptors-mediated AMPK signaling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63878 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that adiponectin functions as a promoter of salivary secretion in rat submandibular glands via activation of AdipoRs, AMPK, and paracellular permeability...
  9. Knox S, Lombaert I, Haddox C, Abrams S, Cotrim A, Wilson A, et al. Parasympathetic stimulation improves epithelial organ regeneration. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1494 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that neurturin will protect the parasympathetic nerves from damage and improve organ regeneration. This concept may be applicable for other organs where parasympathetic innervation influences their function. ..
  10. Tahara Y, Kuroda H, Saito K, Nakajima Y, Kubo Y, Ohnishi N, et al. In vivo monitoring of peripheral circadian clocks in the mouse. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1029-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Circadian oscillations were detected in the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland studied in about half of the SCN-lesioned, behaviorally arrhythmic mice...
  11. Rebustini I, Hayashi T, Reynolds A, Dillard M, Carpenter E, Hoffman M. miR-200c regulates FGFR-dependent epithelial proliferation via Vldlr during submandibular gland branching morphogenesis. Development. 2012;139:191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..We screened miRNAs expressed in the mouse developing submandibular gland (SMG) and found that miR-200c accumulates in the epithelial end buds...
  12. Mizumachi Kubono M, Watari I, Ishida Y, Ono T. Unilateral maxillary molar extraction influences AQP5 expression and distribution in the rat submandibular salivary gland. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:877-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the structural changes and alterations in the expression and distribution of AQP5 in the rat submandibular salivary gland (SMG) under occlusal hypofunction after unilateral molar extraction...
  13. Stoeckelhuber M, Scherer E, Janssen K, Slotta Huspenina J, Loeffelbein D, Rohleder N, et al. The human submandibular gland: immunohistochemical analysis of SNAREs and cytoskeletal proteins. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors investigated the secretory molecular machinery of acinar (serous) cells in the human submandibular gland by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence and found diverse proteins associated with exocytosis for ..
  14. Xiang B, Li X, Zhang F. Underlying protective mechanism of ?1-adrenoceptor activation against irradiation-induced damage in rat submandibular gland. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58:1238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying cytoprotective mechanism of ?1-adrenoceptor activation in rat submandibular glands after irradiation...
  15. Carvalho V, Silveira V, do Prado R, Carvalho Y. Effect of estrogen therapy, soy isoflavones, and the combination therapy on the submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. Pathol Res Pract. 2011;207:300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The estrogen therapy, soy isoflavone therapy, and the combination of both are effective in reducing the effects of ovariectomy on the salivary glands...
  16. Irie K, Ekuni D, Tomofuji T, Azuma T, Endo Y, Kasuyama K, et al. Occlusal disharmony induces BDNF level in rat submandibular gland. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:35-40 pubmed publisher
    brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is produced in rat submandibular gland, is one of the most abundant neurotrophins in the central nervous system. It is generally accepted that occlusal disharmony causes stress...
  17. Takes R, Robbins K, Woolgar J, Rinaldo A, Silver C, Olofsson J, et al. Questionable necessity to remove the submandibular gland in neck dissection. Head Neck. 2011;33:743-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Metastasis to the submandibular gland itself is extremely rare and if removal of the lymph nodes of sublevel IB is imperative, it seems feasible ..
  18. Passafaro D, Reina S, Sterin Borda L, Borda E. Cholinergic autoantibodies from primary Sjögren's syndrome modulate submandibular gland Na+/K+-ATPase activity via prostaglandin E2 and cyclic AMP. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The IgG from patients with pSS has two effects on the submandibular gland. On the one hand, it may act as an inducer of the proinflammatory molecule (PGE(2)) that, in turn, inhibits ..
  19. Shi L, Cong X, Zhang Y, Ding C, Ding Q, Fu F, et al. Carbachol improves secretion in the early phase after rabbit submandibular gland transplantation. Oral Dis. 2010;16:351-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the changes in the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway with submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation and whether carbachol improves secretion in transplanted SMGs.
  20. Del Tredici K, Hawkes C, Ghebremedhin E, Braak H. Lewy pathology in the submandibular gland of individuals with incidental Lewy body disease and sporadic Parkinson's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;119:703-13 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective autopsy-based study of the human submandibular gland, one of the three major salivary glands, together with anatomically related peripheral structures (cervical superior ganglion, cervical sympathetic trunk, vagal nerve ..
  21. Daley W, Kohn J, Larsen M. A focal adhesion protein-based mechanochemical checkpoint regulates cleft progression during branching morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2069-83 pubmed publisher
  22. Cong X, Zhang Y, Shi L, Yang N, Ding C, Li J, et al. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 increases expression and permeability of tight junction in normal and hyposecretory submandibular gland. Lab Invest. 2012;92:753-68 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated that a functional transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) expresses in submandibular gland (SMG). However, association of TRPV1-induced saliva secretion with TJ remains unknown...
  23. Dhiwakar M, Ronen O, Malone J, Rao K, Bell S, Phillips R, et al. Feasibility of submandibular gland preservation in neck dissection: A prospective anatomic-pathologic study. Head Neck. 2011;33:603-9 pubmed publisher
    The submandibular gland is commonly removed during neck dissection involving sublevel IB. However, removal reduces basal salivary secretion and therapeutic options for minimizing xerostomia...
  24. Pan P, Käyrä K, Leinonen J, Nissinen M, Parkkila S, Rajaniemi H. Gene expression profiling in the submandibular gland, stomach, and duodenum of CAVI-deficient mice. Transgenic Res. 2011;20:675-98 pubmed publisher
    ..We also examined transcriptomic responses to CAVI deficiency in the submandibular gland, stomach, and duodenum of Car6 (-/-) mice...
  25. Ge X, Yu G, Fu J, Wu D, Zhang X, Wang Y, et al. An experimental study of the management of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca with autologous reduced-sized submandibular gland transplantation. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;50:562-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, transplantation of a reduced submandibular glands is feasible in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca...
  26. Silver N, Proctor G, Arno M, Carpenter G. Activation of mTOR coincides with autophagy during ligation-induced atrophy in the rat submandibular gland. Cell Death Dis. 2010;1:e14 pubmed publisher
    ..During severe atrophy of the rat submandibular gland caused by excretory duct ligation, the majority of acinar cells disappear through apoptosis, whereas ductal ..
  27. Mozaffari M, Abdelsayed R, Zakhary I, El Salanty M, Liu J, Wimborne H, et al. Submandibular gland and caries susceptibility in the obese Zucker rat. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40:194-200 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that obesity upregulates inflammatory markers in the submandibular gland in association with derangements of its architecture and pre-disposition to caries in obese Zucker rats (..
  28. Kopeć T, Wierzbicka M, Szyfter W. [A proposal for the classification of chronic sialadenitis of the major salivary glands with current diagnostic and treatment schedule]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2011;65:188-93 pubmed publisher
  29. Hayashi T, Koyama N, Azuma Y, Kashimata M. Mesenchymal miR-21 regulates branching morphogenesis in murine submandibular gland in vitro. Dev Biol. 2011;352:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that branching morphogenesis is regulated by miR-21 through gene expression related to ECM degradation in the mesenchyme...
  30. Mitsui R, Fujita Yoshigaki J, Narita T, Matsuki Fukushima M, Satoh K, Qi B, et al. Maintenance of paracellular barrier function by insulin-like growth factor-I in submandibular gland cells. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:963-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that IGF-I contributes to the maintenance not only of the cell number of salivary gland cells but also of their paracellular barrier function via the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins...
  31. Ebrahim A, Loock J, Afrogheh A, Hille J. Is it oncologically safe to leave the ipsilateral submandibular gland during neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma?. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:837-40 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the incidence of metastasis to the submandibular gland in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  32. Purwanti N, Karabasil M, Matsuo S, Chen G, Javkhlan P, Azlina A, et al. Induction of Sca-1 via activation of STAT3 system in the duct cells of the mouse submandibular gland by ligation of the main excretory duct. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301:G814-24 pubmed publisher
    ..step that takes place immediately after tissue injury and is linked to tissue regeneration, we employed the submandibular gland (SMG), which was injured by ligation of its main excretory duct (MED)...
  33. Purwanti N, Tsuji D, Azlina A, Karabasil M, Javkhlan P, Hasegawa T, et al. Induction of Sca-1 in the duct cells of the mouse submandibular gland by obstruction of the main excretory duct. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40:651-8 pubmed publisher
    The effect of ligation of the main excretory duct (MED) of the mouse submandibular gland (SMG) on the expression of Sca-1, a stem cell antigen, was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry...
  34. Lombaert I, Knox S, Hoffman M. Salivary gland progenitor cell biology provides a rationale for therapeutic salivary gland regeneration. Oral Dis. 2011;17:445-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we will discuss the developmental mechanisms that influence progenitor cell biology and the implications for salivary gland regeneration...
  35. Zheng C, Cotrim A, Rowzee A, Swaim W, Sowers A, Mitchell J, et al. Prevention of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction following hKGF gene delivery to murine submandibular glands. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:2842-51 pubmed publisher
    ..hKGF gene transfer prevents salivary hypofunction caused by either single or fractionated radiation dosing in mice. The findings suggest a potential clinical application. ..
  36. Saarilahti K, Kouri M, Collan J, Kangasmäki A, Atula T, Joensuu H, et al. Erratum to "Sparing of the submandibular glands by intensity modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer" [Radiother. Oncol. 78 (2006) 270-275]. Radiother Oncol. 2006;80:107-8 pubmed
  37. Zinzen K, Hand A, Yankova M, Ball W, Mirels L. Molecular cloning and characterization of the neonatal rat and mouse submandibular gland protein SMGC. Gene. 2004;334:23-33 pubmed
    ..a major secretory product and a marker of the type I (terminal tubule) cells of the neonatal rat and mouse submandibular gland. SMGC is expressed in the submandibular gland at high levels through postnatal day 20, but in the adult is ..
  38. Madan A, Kramer B. Immunolocalization of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) during embryonic development of the rat submandibular gland. SADJ. 2005;60:58, 60-1 pubmed
    ..elucidate the spatial and temporal expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the developing rat submandibular gland. Submandibular glands were removed from foetal rats on days E14.5, 15.5, 16.5, 18.5 and 19.5...
  39. Rosignoli F, Roca V, Meiss R, Leceta J, Gomariz R, Perez Leiros C. Defective signalling in salivary glands precedes the autoimmune response in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of sialadenitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;142:411-8 pubmed
    ..Our data support a disease model for sialadenitis in NOD mice in which the early stages are characterized by defective neurotransmitter-mediated signalling in major salivary glands that precedes the autoimmune response...
  40. Saruta J, Tsukinoki K, Sasaguri K, Ishii H, Yasuda M, Osamura Y, et al. Expression and localization of chromogranin A gene and protein in human submandibular gland. Cells Tissues Organs. 2005;180:237-44 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the expression and localization of CgA in the human submandibular gland (HSG) using various methods...
  41. Murakami M, Murdiastuti K, Hosoi K, Hill A. AQP and the control of fluid transport in a salivary gland. J Membr Biol. 2006;210:91-103 pubmed
    Experiments were performed with the perfused rat submandibular gland in vitro to investigate the nature of the coupling between transported salt and water by varying the osmolarity of the source bath and observing the changes in ..
  42. Zheng C, Goldsmith C, Mineshiba F, Chiorini J, Kerr A, Wenk M, et al. Toxicity and biodistribution of a first-generation recombinant adenoviral vector, encoding aquaporin-1, after retroductal delivery to a single rat submandibular gland. Hum Gene Ther. 2006;17:1122-33 pubmed
    ..AdhAQP1 (2x108-2x1011 particles) was delivered to a single submandibular gland by retroductal cannulation...
  43. Enoki N, Kiyoshima T, Sakai T, Kobayashi I, Takahashi K, Terada Y, et al. Age-dependent changes in cell proliferation and cell death in the periodontal tissue and the submandibular gland in mice: a comparison with other tissues and organs. J Mol Histol. 2007;38:321-32 pubmed
    ..the age-dependent changes in the number of BrdU- and TUNEL-positive cells in murine gingival tissue and submandibular gland, and compared the findings with those in other tissues and organs...
  44. Tatsuishi Y, Hirota M, Kishi T, Adachi M, Fukui T, Mitsudo K, et al. Human salivary gland stem/progenitor cells remain dormant even after irradiation. Int J Mol Med. 2009;24:361-6 pubmed
    ..promotes single-cell colony formation with low density culture of irradiated and non-irradiated adult human submandibular gland cells using serum-free medium following serum-supplemented medium...
  45. Patel V, Likar K, Zisman Rozen S, Cowherd S, Lassiter K, Sher I, et al. Specific heparan sulfate structures modulate FGF10-mediated submandibular gland epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9308-17 pubmed publisher
  46. Cotroneo E, Proctor G, Paterson K, Carpenter G. Early markers of regeneration following ductal ligation in rat submandibular gland. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;332:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that morphological markers of regeneration appear as early as 3 days following ligation removal...
  47. Yao C, Karabasil M, Purwanti N, Li X, Akamatsu T, Kanamori N, et al. Tissue kallikrein mK13 is a candidate processing enzyme for the precursor of interleukin-1beta in the submandibular gland of mice. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7968-76 pubmed
    ..5- and 20-kDa interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) proteins were detected in the submandibular gland (SMG) of mice...
  48. Kasamatsu A, Uzawa K, Nakashima D, Kouzu Y, Endo Y, Koike H, et al. A proteomics approach to characterizing human submandibular gland cell lines by fluorescent two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis. Int J Mol Med. 2006;17:253-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the proteins are associated with characterization of the salivary gland...
  49. Kawedia J, Jiang M, Kulkarni A, Waechter H, Matlin K, Pauletti G, et al. The protein kinase A pathway contributes to Hg2+-induced alterations in phosphorylation and subcellular distribution of occludin associated with increased tight junction permeability of salivary epithelial cell monolayers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;326:829-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutically, this could be explored for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of dry mouth, Sjögren's syndrome, and possibly other disorders of fluid transport...
  50. Tobin G, Ryberg A, Gentle S, Edwards A. Distribution and function of muscarinic receptor subtypes in the ovine submandibular gland. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:1215-23 pubmed
    ..secretory response to parasympathetic stimulation but have little effect on the vasodilatation in the ovine submandibular gland. Increased transmitter release caused by blockade of neuronal inhibitory receptors of the M4 subtype would ..
  51. Adriaansen J, Perez P, Goldsmith C, Zheng C, Baum B. Differential sorting of human parathyroid hormone after transduction of mouse and rat salivary glands. Hum Gene Ther. 2008;19:1021-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Confocal microscopy showed hPTH in the glands, localized basolaterally in mice and apically in rats. Submandibular gland transduction was effective and the produced hPTH was biologically active in vivo...
  52. Abdollahi M, Fooladian F, Emami B, Zafari K, Bahreini Moghadam A. Protection by sildenafil and theophylline of lead acetate-induced oxidative stress in rat submandibular gland and saliva. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003;22:587-92 pubmed
    ..After 2 hours and under general anaesthesia, the submandibular gland ducts were cannulated intraorally using microcannula, and pure saliva was collected for 30 min using ..
  53. Jaskoll T, Leo T, Witcher D, Ormestad M, Astorga J, Bringas P, et al. Sonic hedgehog signaling plays an essential role during embryonic salivary gland epithelial branching morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:722-32 pubmed