exocrine glands

Summary

Summary: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.

Top Publications

  1. Spiegel C, Batista Pereira L, Bretas J, Eiras A, Hooper A, Peixoto A, et al. Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). J Med Entomol. 2011;48:489-95 pubmed
    ..Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females...
  2. Jászai J, Janich P, Farkas L, Fargeas C, Huttner W, Corbeil D. Differential expression of Prominin-1 (CD133) and Prominin-2 in major cephalic exocrine glands of adult mice. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;128:409-19 pubmed
    The major cephalic exocrine glands share many morphological and functional features and so can be simultaneously affected in certain autoimmune- and inherited disorders leading to glandular hypofunction...
  3. Vegliante F, Hasenfuss I. Morphology and diversity of exocrine glands in lepidopteran larvae. Annu Rev Entomol. 2012;57:187-204 pubmed publisher
    The morphology of 21 exocrine glands and 13 supposedly exocrine structures recorded for lepidopteran larvae is reviewed. The epitracheal glands, for which a double role (exocrine and endocrine) has been demonstrated, are examined as well...
  4. Choi J, Joo N, Krouse M, Wu J, Robbins R, Ianowski J, et al. Synergistic airway gland mucus secretion in response to vasoactive intestinal peptide and carbachol is lost in cystic fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3118-27 pubmed
    ..Loss of "housekeeping" gland mucus secretion in CF, in combination with demonstrated defects in surface epithelia, may play a role in the vulnerability of CF airways to bacterial infections...
  5. Srivastava A, Romanenko V, Gonzalez Begne M, Catalán M, Melvin J. A variant of the Ca2+-activated Cl channel Best3 is expressed in mouse exocrine glands. J Membr Biol. 2008;222:43-54 pubmed publisher
    Fluid secretion by exocrine glands requires the activation of an apical Ca2+-dependent Cl channel, the molecular identity of which is unknown...
  6. Ortiz G, Mathias M. Venom gland of Pachycondyla striata worker ants (Hymenoptera: Ponerinae). Ultrastructural characterization. Micron. 2006;37:243-8 pubmed
  7. Currie C, Poulsen M, Mendenhall J, Boomsma J, Billen J. Coevolved crypts and exocrine glands support mutualistic bacteria in fungus-growing ants. Science. 2006;311:81-3 pubmed
    ..we show that ants rear the antibiotic-producing bacteria in elaborate cuticular crypts, supported by unique exocrine glands, and that these structures have been highly modified across the ants' evolutionary history...
  8. Morgenstern D, Rohde B, King G, Tal T, Sher D, Zlotkin E. The tale of a resting gland: transcriptome of a replete venom gland from the scorpion Hottentotta judaicus. Toxicon. 2011;57:695-703 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore provides an important foundation for future studies into the dynamics of transcription in the venom glands of scorpions and other venomous animals...
  9. Ballard S, Spadafora D. Fluid secretion by submucosal glands of the tracheobronchial airways. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;159:271-7 pubmed
    ..Loss of CFTR function, which occurs in CF disease, reduces the capacity of glands to secrete fluid but not mucins. The possible links between the loss of fluid secretion capability and the complex airway pathology of CF are discussed...

More Information

Publications62

  1. de Oliveira L, da Costa Prudente A, Zaher H. Unusual labial glands in snakes of the genus Geophis Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes: Dipsadinae). J Morphol. 2014;275:87-99 pubmed publisher
  2. Billen J. Occurrence and structural organization of the exocrine glands in the legs of ants. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2009;38:2-15 pubmed publisher
    ..function and hence the presence of muscle fibres, ant legs are also endowed with an astonishing variety of exocrine glands. This paper reviews the presence and structural variety of the 20 different glands that have so far been ..
  3. Lee A, Chu G, Iwakoshi N, Glimcher L. XBP-1 is required for biogenesis of cellular secretory machinery of exocrine glands. EMBO J. 2005;24:4368-80 pubmed
    ..These data lead us to propose that XBP-1 is both necessary and sufficient for the full biogenesis of the secretory machinery in exocrine cells...
  4. Cho H, Joo N, Wine J. Mucus secretion from individual submucosal glands of the ferret trachea. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L124-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide parametric data for comparison with fluid secretion from glands in ferrets lacking CFTR...
  5. Minami R, Wakabayashi M, Sugimori S, Taniguchi K, Kokuryo A, Imano T, et al. The homeodomain protein defective proventriculus is essential for male accessory gland development to enhance fecundity in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32302 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide the first evidence that secondary cells are crucial for male fecundity, and also that Dve activity is required for survival of the secondary cells. These findings provide new insights into a mechanism of fertility/fecundity...
  6. Joo N, Irokawa T, Robbins R, Wine J. Hyposecretion, not hyperabsorption, is the basic defect of cystic fibrosis airway glands. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7392-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that CF glands do not display excessive, ENaC-mediated fluid absorption, leaving defective, anion-mediated fluid secretion as the most likely mechanism for defective mucus secretion from CF glands...
  7. Ishimaru N, Arakaki R, Yoshida S, Yamada A, Noji S, Hayashi Y. Expression of the retinoblastoma protein RbAp48 in exocrine glands leads to Sjögren's syndrome-like autoimmune exocrinopathy. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2915-27 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that retinoblastoma-associated protein 48 (RbAp48) induces tissue-specific apoptosis in the exocrine glands depending on the level of estrogen deficiency...
  8. Ianowski J, Choi J, Wine J, Hanrahan J. Mucus secretion by single tracheal submucosal glands from normal and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice. J Physiol. 2007;580:301-14 pubmed
    ..These results clarify the mechanisms of murine submucosal gland secretion and reveal a novel defect in local regulation of glands lacking CFTR which may also compromise airway defence in CF patients...
  9. Gelfman C, Vogel P, Issa T, Turner C, Lee W, Kornfeld S, et al. Mice lacking alpha/beta subunits of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase exhibit growth retardation, retinal degeneration, and secretory cell lesions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5221-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, retinal function and overall disease were assessed in mice lacking GNPTAB, the gene mutated in patients with ML II...
  10. Joo N, Cho H, Khansaheb M, Wine J. Hyposecretion of fluid from tracheal submucosal glands of CFTR-deficient pigs. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are a step toward determining whether gland secretory defects contribute to CF airway disease...
  11. Lee R, Foskett J. cAMP-activated Ca2+ signaling is required for CFTR-mediated serous cell fluid secretion in porcine and human airways. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3137-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify important molecular mechanisms of cAMP-dependent secretion, including a requirement for Ca2+ signaling, and suggest new therapeutic approaches to correct defective submucosal gland secretion in CF...
  12. Wine J, Joo N. Submucosal glands and airway defense. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2004;1:47-53 pubmed
    ..Thus, understanding of lung pathology in each disease may require that an improved understanding of gland structure and function be added to our rapidly growing understanding of surface epithelia...
  13. Choi J, Khansaheb M, Joo N, Krouse M, Robbins R, Weill D, et al. Substance P stimulates human airway submucosal gland secretion mainly via a CFTR-dependent process. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1189-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in CF, the reduced ability of mucosal irritants to stimulate airway gland secretion via SubP may be another factor that predisposes the airways to infections...
  14. Song Y, Salinas D, Nielson D, Verkman A. Hyperacidity of secreted fluid from submucosal glands in early cystic fibrosis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C741-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for intrinsic hyperacidity in CF gland fluid secretions, which may contribute to CF airway pathology...
  15. do Amaral J, Caetano F. The intramandibular gland of leaf-cutting ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel 1908). Micron. 2006;37:154-60 pubmed
    The eusociality developed in Hymenoptera and Isoptera is driven by an efficient interaction between exocrine glands and jointed appendages, both in close interaction with the environment...
  16. Kimoto H, Haga S, Sato K, Touhara K. Sex-specific peptides from exocrine glands stimulate mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Nature. 2005;437:898-901 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that mice respond to sex-specific peptides released from exocrine glands through the vomeronasal system during direct contact.
  17. Schwartz E, Diego Garcia E, Rodriguez de la Vega R, Possani L. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the Mexican scorpion Hadrurus gertschi (Arachnida: Scorpiones). BMC Genomics. 2007;8:119 pubmed
    ..To gain insights into the scorpion venom gland biology, we have decided to perform a transcriptomic analysis by constructing a cDNA library and conducting a random sequencing screening of the transcripts...
  18. Lapinskas E, Palmer J, Ricardo S, Hertzog P, Hammacher A, Pritchard M. A major site of expression of the ets transcription factor Elf5 is epithelia of exocrine glands. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;122:521-6 pubmed
    ..We show for the first time that Elf5 is primarily expressed in epithelial cells and is likely to be an epithelial-specific protein. The antiserum should prove useful in further analysis of the expression and function of Elf5...
  19. Joo N, Saenz Y, Krouse M, Wine J. Mucus secretion from single submucosal glands of pig. Stimulation by carbachol and vasoactive intestinal peptide. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28167-75 pubmed
    ..1 pH units after bumetanide. The strong secretory response to vasoactive intestinal peptide, the acidity of [cAMP](i)-stimulated mucus, and its inhibition by bumetanide were unexpected...
  20. Salinas D, Haggie P, Thiagarajah J, Song Y, Rosbe K, Finkbeiner W, et al. Submucosal gland dysfunction as a primary defect in cystic fibrosis. FASEB J. 2005;19:431-3 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that defective airway submucosal gland function is an early, primary defect in CF. Therapies directed at normalizing gland fluid secretion early in CF may thus reduce lung disease...
  21. Verkman A, Song Y, Thiagarajah J. Role of airway surface liquid and submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;284:C2-15 pubmed
    ..New model systems and measurement technologies are being developed to make progress in establishing lung disease mechanisms in CF, which should facilitate mechanism-based design of therapies for CF...
  22. Widdicombe J, Pecson I. Distribution and numbers of mucous glands in the horse trachea. Equine Vet J. 2002;34:630-3 pubmed
    ..Instead, they may be caused mainly by hyperplasia of the mucus-producing cells of the surface epithelium or by vascular transudation...
  23. Jayaraman S, Joo N, Reitz B, Wine J, Verkman A. Submucosal gland secretions in airways from cystic fibrosis patients have normal [Na(+)] and pH but elevated viscosity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:8119-23 pubmed
    ..The elevated gland fluid viscosity in CF may be an important factor promoting bacterial colonization and airway disease...
  24. Brandtzaeg P, Farstad I, Johansen F, Morton H, Norderhaug I, Yamanaka T. The B-cell system of human mucosae and exocrine glands. Immunol Rev. 1999;171:45-87 pubmed
    The mucosae and exocrine glands harbour the largest activated B-cell system of the body, amounting to some 80-90% of all immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing cells...
  25. Lane R, Bernardes D. Histology and ultrastructure of pheromone secreting glands in males of the phlebotomine sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1990;84:53-61 pubmed
    ..The individual cells have a complicated 'end-apparatus' and central reservoir which are connected directly to the exterior via a small chitinized duct. This is the first ultrastructural study of pheromone secreting cells of Diptera...
  26. Thiagarajah J, Song Y, Haggie P, Verkman A. A small molecule CFTR inhibitor produces cystic fibrosis-like submucosal gland fluid secretions in normal airways. FASEB J. 2004;18:875-7 pubmed
  27. Tsubota K, Fujita H, Tadano K, Onoda N, Tsuzaka K, Takeuchi T. Abnormal expression and function of Fas ligand of lacrimal glands and peripheral blood in Sjögren's syndrome patients with enlarged exocrine glands. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;129:177-82 pubmed
    ..of Fas ligand protein abnormalities in certain types of Sjögren's syndrome patients with enlarged exocrine glands. Fas ligand expression by lymphocytes infiltrating the lacrimal glands and by peripheral blood monocytes in ..
  28. Spitzweg C, Joba W, Schriever K, Goellner J, Morris J, Heufelder A. Analysis of human sodium iodide symporter immunoreactivity in human exocrine glands. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:4178-84 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our study demonstrates the expression of hNIS protein by several human exocrine glands, suggesting that iodide transport in these glands is a specific property conferred by the expression of hNIS ..
  29. Ishimaru N, Saegusa K, Yanagi K, Haneji N, Saito I, Hayashi Y. Estrogen deficiency accelerates autoimmune exocrinopathy in murine Sjögren's syndrome through fas-mediated apoptosis. Am J Pathol. 1999;155:173-81 pubmed
  30. Ohashi K, Natori S, Kubo T. Change in the mode of gene expression of the hypopharyngeal gland cells with an age-dependent role change of the worker honeybee Apis mellifera L. Eur J Biochem. 1997;249:797-802 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the individual secretory cells of the acinus of the hypopharyngeal gland were shown to express these genes differently with the age-dependent role change of the worker bee...
  31. Ohashi K, Natori S, Kubo T. Expression of amylase and glucose oxidase in the hypopharyngeal gland with an age-dependent role change of the worker honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Eur J Biochem. 1999;265:127-33 pubmed
  32. Reinhard J, Kaib M. Thin-layer chromatography assessing feeding stimulation by labial gland secretion compared to synthetic chemicals in the subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. J Chem Ecol. 2001;27:175-87 pubmed
    ..Amino acids induced only light feeding preference. The intensity of feeding stimulation by the natural signal from the labial gland as compared to synthetic phagostimulants is discussed...
  33. Reinhard J, Kaib M. Food exploitation in termites: indication for a general feeding-stimulating signal in labial gland secretion of isoptera. J Chem Ecol. 2001;27:189-201 pubmed
    ..santonensis and S. lamanianus as well, but was not active after heat treatment and after TLC. This points towards a general feeding-stimulating signal having evolved only in the labial gland secretion of termites...
  34. Schmitt T, Strohm E, Herzner G, Bicchi C, Krammer G, Heckel F, et al. (S)-2,3-dihydrofarnesoic acid, a new component in cephalic glands of male European beewolves Philanthus triangulum. J Chem Ecol. 2003;29:2469-79 pubmed
    ..Occurrence and function of the four compounds in insect chemistry are discussed...
  35. Victoriano E, Gregório E. Ultrastructure of the Lyonet's glands in larvae of Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Biocell. 2004;28:165-9 pubmed
    ..The detection of nerve fibers in the gland suggest a neural control for the glandular cell function...
  36. Sponner A, Schlott B, Vollrath F, Unger E, Grosse F, Weisshart K. Characterization of the protein components of Nephila clavipes dragline silk. Biochemistry. 2005;44:4727-36 pubmed
    ..Depending on the preparation, some silk material readily underwent degradation, and polypeptides down to 20 kDa in size and less were detectable...
  37. Warren J, Petryk A, Marqu s G, Parvy J, Shinoda T, Itoyama K, et al. Phantom encodes the 25-hydroxylase of Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori: a P450 enzyme critical in ecdysone biosynthesis. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:991-1010 pubmed publisher
  38. Hosoyamada Y, Sakai T. The ultrastructure of periductal connective tissue and distinctive populations of collagen fibrils associated with ductal epithelia of exocrine glands. Arch Histol Cytol. 2003;66:407-18 pubmed
    The ultrastructure of the connective tissue around the intraglandular ducts was observed in rat exocrine glands. Connective tissue with a dense population of collagen fibrils was found either around the ducts and blood vessels (..
  39. Kerekes A, Hoffmann O, Iski G, Lipták N, Gócza E, Kues W, et al. Secretion of a recombinant protein without a signal peptide by the exocrine glands of transgenic rabbits. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187214 pubmed publisher
    ..transposon-carrying transgenic rabbits with particular emphasis on the secretion of the reporter protein by exocrine glands, such as mammary, salivary, tear and seminal glands...
  40. Artur O, Wiesław B, Paweł G, Jacek M S. Multiple sex pheromone genes are expressed in the abdominal glands of the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) and Montandon's Newt (L. montandoni) (Salamandridae). Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:587-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the divergence of at least some of these genes predates the radiation of European newts...
  41. Kimura S, Nio Kobayashi J, Kishimoto A, Iwanaga T. The broad distribution of GP2 in mucous glands and secretory products. Biomed Res. 2016;37:351-358 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that GP2 is a popular secretory product released from mucous glands and secretory cells and may support defense mechanisms against pathogenic bacteria in the tubular organs open to the external milieu. ..
  42. Gammill W, Fites J, Rollins Smith L. Norepinephrine depletion of antimicrobial peptides from the skin glands of Xenopus laevis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;37:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass spectrometry and histology confirmed that glands are depleted after two injections. Periodic acid-Schiff staining indicated that mucus gland secretion was also induced by norepinephrine...
  43. Karbanova J, Missol Kolka E, Fonseca A, Lorra C, Janich P, Hollerová H, et al. The stem cell marker CD133 (Prominin-1) is expressed in various human glandular epithelia. J Histochem Cytochem. 2008;56:977-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials...
  44. Liman N, Alan E, Beyaz F. Immunohistochemical demonstration of S-100 protein in the chicken uropygial gland during the post-hatching period. Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:600-7 pubmed publisher
  45. Vang L, Inomata S, Kinjo M, Komai F, Andoi T. Sex pheromones of five olethreutine species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with the seedlings and fruits of mangrove plants in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: identification and field evaluation. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:859-78 pubmed
  46. Sobotnik J, Bourguignon T, Hanus R, Demianova Z, Pytelková J, Mares M, et al. Explosive backpacks in old termite workers. Science. 2012;337:436 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the amount of defensive substances and the readiness to explode increase with workers' age, as their food-collecting ability declines...
  47. Shatrov A, Soldatenko E. Dermal glands in freshwater mites Limnesia undulata (O.F. Müller, 1776) and Limnesia fulgida (C.L. Koch, 1836) (Acariformes, Limnesiidae). Arthropod Struct Dev. 2016;45:341-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of the idiosomal glands secretion still remains unknown. ..
  48. Cummins S, Degnan B, Nagle G. Characterization of Aplysia Alb-1, a candidate water-borne protein pheromone released during egg laying. Peptides. 2008;29:152-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the data suggest that Alb-1 may be processed in the albumen gland and that the Alb-1 1-56 protein released during egg laying may serve a pheromonal function in concert with attractin, enticin, temptin and seductin...
  49. Teixeira A, Games P, Katz B, Tomich J, Zanuncio J, Serrão J. Proteomic analysis in the Dufour's gland of Africanized Apis mellifera workers (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177415 pubmed publisher
    ..plays a crucial role in the maintenance of sociability in bees with many compounds released by the exocrine glands. The Dufour's gland is a non-paired gland associated with the sting apparatus with important functions in the ..
  50. Dehghani H, Sajjadi M, Parto P, Rajaian H, Mokhlesi A. Histological characterization of the special venom secretory cells in the stinger of rays in the northern waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Toxicon. 2010;55:1188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences among the stingers of various species may explain the envenomation severity in these species...
  51. Weldon C, Mackessy S. Biological and proteomic analysis of venom from the Puerto Rican Racer (Alsophis portoricensis: Dipsadidae). Toxicon. 2010;55:558-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Venom from A. portoricensis, in particular the prominent metalloproteinase activity, likely serves an important trophic function by facilitating prey handling and predigestion of prey...
  52. Yamashina M, Nishio A, Nakayama S, Okazaki T, Uchida K, Fukui T, et al. Comparative study on experimental autoimmune pancreatitis and its extrapancreatic involvement in mice. Pancreas. 2012;41:1255-62 pubmed publisher
  53. Reza M, Minh Le T, Swarup S, Manjunatha Kini R. Molecular evolution caught in action: gene duplication and evolution of molecular isoforms of prothrombin activators in Pseudonaja textilis (brown snake). J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:1346-53 pubmed
    ..As vertebrates, the snakes also contain a system to activate prothrombin in their own blood during injury. These hemostatic factors are produced in the liver...