hair follicle

Summary

Summary: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.

Top Publications

  1. Lesko M, Driskell R, Kretzschmar K, Goldie S, Watt F. Sox2 modulates the function of two distinct cell lineages in mouse skin. Dev Biol. 2013;382:15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of Sox2 from the DP did not inhibit hair follicle morphogenesis or establishment of the dermis and hypodermis...
  2. Ito T, Shimomura Y, Farooq M, Suzuki N, Sakabe J, Tokura Y. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome with low expression of TRPS1 on epidermal and hair follicle epithelial cells. J Dermatol. 2013;40:396-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, higher expression of phospho-Stat3 was found consequent to the loss of TRPS1 in the outer root sheath...
  3. Yang Y, Li Y, Wang Y, Wu J, Yang G, Yang T, et al. Versican gene: regulation by the ?-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in dermal papilla cell aggregative growth. J Dermatol Sci. 2012;68:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..sulfate proteoglycan and one of the major components of the extracellular matrix, plays an essential role in hair follicle formation...
  4. Mukhopadhyay A, Krishnaswami S, Cowing Zitron C, Hung N, Reilly Rhoten H, Burns J, et al. Negative regulation of Shh levels by Kras and Fgfr2 during hair follicle development. Dev Biol. 2013;373:373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..loss-of-function in the ectoderm caused derepression of Shh, revealing a role for FGF in Shh regulation in the hair follicle. These studies define both dosage sensitive effects of RAS signaling on hair morphogenesis and reveal acute ..
  5. Nakajima T, Inui S, Fushimi T, Noguchi F, Kitagawa Y, Reddy J, et al. Roles of MED1 in quiescence of hair follicle stem cells and maintenance of normal hair cycling. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:354-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the numbers of hair follicle bulge stem cells were reduced in Med1(epi-/-) mice from a few months after birth...
  6. Keyes B, Segal J, Heller E, Lien W, Chang C, Guo X, et al. Nfatc1 orchestrates aging in hair follicle stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4950-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explore why hair growth wanes with age. We show that aged hair follicle SCs (HFSCs) in mice exhibit enhanced resting and abbreviated growth phases and are delayed in response to ..
  7. Grisanti L, Clavel C, Cai X, Rezza A, Tsai S, Sennett R, et al. Tbx18 targets dermal condensates for labeling, isolation, and gene ablation during embryonic hair follicle formation. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:344-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Although functional analysis of hair follicle epithelial stem cells by gene targeting is well established, the molecular and genetic characterization of the ..
  8. Huang Y, Chan C, Lin W, Chiu H, Tsai R, Tsai T, et al. Scalable production of controllable dermal papilla spheroids on PVA surfaces and the effects of spheroid size on hair follicle regeneration. Biomaterials. 2013;34:442-51 pubmed publisher
    Organ size and numbers are vital issues in bioengineering for hair follicle (HF) regeneration. Murine HF dermal papilla (DP) cells are able to induce HF neogenesis when transplanted as aggregates...
  9. Fu J, Hsu W. Epidermal Wnt controls hair follicle induction by orchestrating dynamic signaling crosstalk between the epidermis and dermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Wnt is the earliest signal known to be intimately involved in hair follicle induction...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Huang S, Zhu X, Liu Y, Tao Y, Feng G, He L, et al. Wls is expressed in the epidermis and regulates embryonic hair follicle induction in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45904 pubmed publisher
    Wnt proteins are secreted molecules that play multiple roles during hair follicle development and postnatal hair cycling. Wntless (Wls) is a cargo protein required for the secretion of various Wnt ligands...
  2. Folgueras A, Guo X, Pasolli H, Stokes N, Polak L, Zheng D, et al. Architectural niche organization by LHX2 is linked to hair follicle stem cell function. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:314-27 pubmed publisher
    In adult skin, self-renewing, undifferentiated hair follicle stem cells (HF-SCs) reside within a specialized niche, where they spend prolonged times as a single layer of polarized, quiescent epithelial cells...
  3. Ohyama M, Veraitch O. Strategies to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for human hair follicle bioengineering. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;70:78-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Hair follicle morphogenesis and regeneration depend on intensive but well-orchestrated interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal components...
  4. Chi W, Wu E, Morgan B. Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline. Development. 2013;140:1676-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss...
  5. Schmidt B, Horsley V. Unravelling hair follicle-adipocyte communication. Exp Dermatol. 2012;21:827-30 pubmed publisher
    Here, we explore the established and potential roles for intradermal adipose tissue in communication with hair follicle biology...
  6. Sotiropoulou P, Karambelas A, Debaugnies M, Candi A, Bouwman P, Moers V, et al. BRCA1 deficiency in skin epidermis leads to selective loss of hair follicle stem cells and their progeny. Genes Dev. 2013;27:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..conditional deletion of Brca1 during epidermal development and found that BRCA1 is specifically required for hair follicle (HF) formation and for development of adult HF stem cells (SCs)...
  7. Hamanaka R, Glasauer A, Hoover P, Yang S, Blatt H, Mullen A, et al. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species promote epidermal differentiation and hair follicle development. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ablation of TFAM in keratinocytes impaired epidermal differentiation and hair follicle growth and resulted in death 2 weeks after birth...
  8. Zhang X, Wang Y, Gao Y, Liu X, Bai T, Li M, et al. Maintenance of high proliferation and multipotent potential of human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells by growth factors. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31:913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Human hair follicle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HF-MSCs) were obtained by organ culture...
  9. Huh S, Närhi K, Lindfors P, Häärä O, Yang L, Ornitz D, et al. Fgf20 governs formation of primary and secondary dermal condensations in developing hair follicles. Genes Dev. 2013;27:450-8 pubmed publisher
    In hair follicle development, a placode-derived signal is believed to induce formation of the dermal condensation, an essential component of ectodermal organs. However, the identity of this signal is unknown...
  10. Lien W, Polak L, Lin M, Lay K, Zheng D, Fuchs E. In vivo transcriptional governance of hair follicle stem cells by canonical Wnt regulators. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:179-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) regenerate hair in response to Wnt signalling...
  11. Youssef K, Lapouge G, Bouvrée K, Rorive S, Brohée S, Appelstein O, et al. Adult interfollicular tumour-initiating cells are reprogrammed into an embryonic hair follicle progenitor-like fate during basal cell carcinoma initiation. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:1282-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that tumour-initiating cells are massively reprogrammed into a fate resembling that of embryonic hair follicle progenitors (EHFPs)...
  12. Fantauzzo K, Kurban M, Levy B, Christiano A. Trps1 and its target gene Sox9 regulate epithelial proliferation in the developing hair follicle and are associated with hypertrichosis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003002 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Trps1 directly represses expression of the hair follicle stem cell regulator Sox9 to control proliferation of the follicle epithelium...
  13. Nakamura M, Schneider M, Schmidt Ullrich R, Paus R. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;69:6-29 pubmed publisher
    ..A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the ..
  14. Plikus M, Gay D, Treffeisen E, Wang A, Supapannachart R, Cotsarelis G. Epithelial stem cells and implications for wound repair. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23:946-53 pubmed publisher
    ..has a mosaic composition consisting of progeny that can be traced back both to epidermal and several types of hair follicle stem cells...
  15. da Silva Diz V, Solé Sánchez S, Valdés Gutiérrez A, Urpí M, Riba Artés D, Penin R, et al. Progeny of Lgr5-expressing hair follicle stem cell contributes to papillomavirus-induced tumor development in epidermis. Oncogene. 2013;32:3732-43 pubmed publisher
    Epidermal keratinocytes and hair follicle (HF) stem cells (SCs) expressing oncogenes are competent at developing squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in epidermis and HFs, respectively...
  16. Kim S, Kang J, Park D, Lee Y, Hyun J, Koh Y, et al. Promotion effect of acankoreoside J, a lupane-triterpene in Acanthopanax koreanum, on hair growth. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:1495-503 pubmed publisher
  17. Gay D, Kwon O, Zhang Z, Spata M, Plikus M, Holler P, et al. Fgf9 from dermal ?? T cells induces hair follicle neogenesis after wounding. Nat Med. 2013;19:916-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9), initially secreted by ?? T cells, modulates hair follicle regeneration after wounding the skin of adult mice...
  18. Geng R, Yuan C, Chen Y. Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development and cycling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62704 pubmed publisher
    Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen...
  19. Xiong Y, Li W, Shang C, Chen R, Han P, Yang J, et al. Brg1 governs a positive feedback circuit in the hair follicle for tissue regeneration and repair. Dev Cell. 2013;25:169-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Hair follicle stem cells (bulge cells) are essential for hair regeneration and early epidermal repair after wounding...
  20. Harries M, Meyer K, Chaudhry I, E Kloepper J, Poblet E, Griffiths C, et al. Lichen planopilaris is characterized by immune privilege collapse of the hair follicle's epithelial stem cell niche. J Pathol. 2013;231:236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Whilst destruction of epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) that reside in an immunologically protected niche of the HF epithelium, the bulge, is a ..
  21. Sennett R, Rendl M. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23:917-27 pubmed publisher
    Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate...
  22. Inui S, Itami S. Androgen actions on the human hair follicle: perspectives. Exp Dermatol. 2013;22:168-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, AGA involves crosstalk between androgen and Wnt/?-catenin signalling. Finally, recent data on susceptibility genes have provided us with the impetus to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of AGA...
  23. Petersson M, Frances D, Niemann C. Lineage tracing of hair follicle stem cells in epidermal whole mounts. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;989:45-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a method of labeling and subsequent tracking stem cells of the hair follicle bulge region in mouse skin...
  24. Amelio I, Lena A, Bonanno E, Melino G, Candi E. miR-24 affects hair follicle morphogenesis targeting Tcf-3. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e922 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-24 directly represses the hair keratinocyte stemness regulator Tcf-3. These results support the notion that microRNAs, and among them miR-24, have an important role in postnatal epidermal homeostasis. ..
  25. Okano J, Levy C, Lichti U, Sun H, Yuspa S, Sakai Y, et al. Cutaneous retinoic acid levels determine hair follicle development and downgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39304-15 pubmed publisher
    ..that specific levels of RA, regulated by Cyp26b1, one of the RA-degrading enzymes, are required for hair follicle (hf) morphogenesis...
  26. Takeda N, Jain R, LeBoeuf M, Padmanabhan A, Wang Q, Li L, et al. Hopx expression defines a subset of multipotent hair follicle stem cells and a progenitor population primed to give rise to K6+ niche cells. Development. 2013;140:1655-64 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian hair follicle relies on adult resident stem cells and their progeny to fuel and maintain hair growth throughout the life of an organism...
  27. Brachelente C, Porcellato I, Sforna M, Lepri E, Mechelli L, Bongiovanni L. The contribution of stem cells to epidermal and hair follicle tumours in the dog. Vet Dermatol. 2013;24:188-94.e41 pubmed publisher
    Although cutaneous stem cells have been implicated in skin tumourigenesis in humans, no studies have been conducted to elucidate the presence and the possible role of stem cells in hair follicle tumours in the dog.
  28. Lee J, Tumbar T. Hairy tale of signaling in hair follicle development and cycling. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23:906-16 pubmed publisher
    ..lineage tracing along with knockout and over-expression of core genes from key signaling pathways, to paint an updated view of the molecular regulatory network that govern each stage of hair follicle development and adult cycling.
  29. Plog S, Mundhenk L, Langbein L, Gruber A. Synthesis of porcine pCLCA2 protein during late differentiation of keratinocytes of epidermis and hair follicle inner root sheath. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;350:445-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that pCLCA2 plays an as yet undefined role in the structural integrity of the skin or, possibly, in specialized functions of the epidermis, including barrier or defense mechanisms...
  30. Petersson M, Niemann C. Stem cell dynamics and heterogeneity: implications for epidermal regeneration and skin cancer. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:5984-92 pubmed
    ..that is driven by stem cells (SCs) localising to the interfollicular epidermis and different regions of the hair follicle. Over the last years, tremendous progress has been made to unravel the physiological function of distinct stem ..
  31. Kim M, Lim C, Lee J, Im K, Yoon K, Song J. Visible-to-near IR quantum dot-based hypermulticolor high-content screening of herbal medicines for the efficacy monitoring of hair growth promotion and hair loss inhibition. J Biomol Screen. 2013;18:462-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular concurrent imaging of these proteins was successfully achieved using HCS, employing visible-to-near infrared probing based on quantum-antibody conjugates and hypermulticolor imaging...
  32. Ito T, Hashizume H, Shimauchi T, Funakoshi A, Ito N, Fukamizu H, et al. CXCL10 produced from hair follicles induces Th1 and Tc1 cell infiltration in the acute phase of alopecia areata followed by sustained Tc1 accumulation in the chronic phase. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;69:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..T lymphocytes densely surround lesional hair bulbs, which is histologically referred to as "swarm of bees". However, pathomechanisms of "swarm of bees" are still uncertain...
  33. Yucel G, Altindag B, Gomez Ospina N, Rana A, Panagiotakos G, Lara M, et al. State-dependent signaling by Cav1.2 regulates hair follicle stem cell function. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..2 underlying Timothy syndrome (TS). While hair follicle stem cells express Cav1.2, they lack detectable voltage-dependent calcium currents. Cav1...
  34. Robicsek O, Karry R, Petit I, Salman Kesner N, Muller F, Klein E, et al. Abnormal neuronal differentiation and mitochondrial dysfunction in hair follicle-derived induced pluripotent stem cells of schizophrenia patients. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:1067-76 pubmed publisher
    ..iPSCs from three schizophrenia patients and from two controls were reprogrammed from hair follicle keratinocytes, because of their accessibility and common ectodermal origin with neurons...
  35. Sequeira I, Nicolas J. Redefining the structure of the hair follicle by 3D clonal analysis. Development. 2012;139:3741-51 pubmed
    The hair follicle (HF) is a multi-tissue mini-organ that self-renews periodically. However, the cellular organisation of this much-studied model is not fully understood...
  36. Lee J, Hoi C, Lilja K, White B, Lee S, Shalloway D, et al. Runx1 and p21 synergistically limit the extent of hair follicle stem cell quiescence in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4634-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We document CDKis expression in vivo during hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) homeostasis and find p21 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a, Cdkn1a), p57, and p15 up-..
  37. Ramos R, Guerrero Juarez C, Plikus M. Hair follicle signaling networks: a dermal papilla-centric approach. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:2306-2308 pubmed publisher
    Functional testing of dermal papilla (DP) signaling inputs into hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis and regeneration is becoming possible with the advent of new Cre lines...
  38. Nelson A, Loy D, Lawson J, Katseff A, Fitzgerald G, Garza L. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis through the receptor, Gpr44. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:881-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN) as a marker of skin regeneration, we hypothesized that PGD2 decreases follicle neogenesis...
  39. Choi Y, Zhang Y, Xu M, Yang Y, Ito M, Peng T, et al. Distinct functions for Wnt/?-catenin in hair follicle stem cell proliferation and survival and interfollicular epidermal homeostasis. Cell Stem Cell. 2013;13:720-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Variable sensitivity of Wnt reporter transgenes, ?-catenin's dual roles in adhesion and signaling, and hair follicle degradation and inflammation resulting from broad deletion of epithelial ?-catenin have precluded clear ..
  40. Clavel C, Grisanti L, Zemla R, Rezza A, Barros R, Sennett R, et al. Sox2 in the dermal papilla niche controls hair growth by fine-tuning BMP signaling in differentiating hair shaft progenitors. Dev Cell. 2012;23:981-94 pubmed publisher
    How dermal papilla (DP) niche cells regulate hair follicle progenitors to control hair growth remains unclear...
  41. Doma E, Rupp C, Baccarini M. EGFR-ras-raf signaling in epidermal stem cells: roles in hair follicle development, regeneration, tissue remodeling and epidermal cancers. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:19361-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we briefly discuss the properties of the epidermal stem cells and review the role of EGFR-Ras-Raf signaling in keratinocyte stem cells during homeostatic and pathological conditions. ..
  42. Plasari G, Edelmann S, Högger F, Dusserre Y, Mermod N, Calabrese A. Nuclear factor I-C regulates TGF-{beta}-dependent hair follicle cycling. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34115-25 pubmed publisher
    ..NFI-C(-/-) mice were delayed in the transition from the telogen to anagen phase of the hair follicle cycle after either experimental depilation or spontaneous hair loss...
  43. Alkhalifah A, Alsantali A, Wang E, McElwee K, Shapiro J. Alopecia areata update: part I. Clinical picture, histopathology, and pathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62:177-88, quiz 189-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Part one of this two-part series on AA describes the clinical presentation and the associated histopathologic picture. It also proposes a hypothesis for AA development based on the most recent knowledge of disease pathogenesis...
  44. Evers B, Farooqi M, Shelton J, Richardson J, Goldstein J, Brown M, et al. Hair growth defects in Insig-deficient mice caused by cholesterol precursor accumulation and reversed by simvastatin. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1237-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications for several human genetic diseases in which mutations in cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes lead to accumulation of sterol precursors and multiple cutaneous abnormalities...
  45. Meyer Blazejewska E, Call M, Yamanaka O, Liu H, Schlötzer Schrehardt U, Kruse F, et al. From hair to cornea: toward the therapeutic use of hair follicle-derived stem cells in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency. Stem Cells. 2011;29:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of murine vibrissae hair follicle bulge-derived stem cells (HFSCs) as an autologous stem cell (SC) source for ocular surface reconstruction in ..
  46. Bajpai V, Mistriotis P, Andreadis S. Clonal multipotency and effect of long-term in vitro expansion on differentiation potential of human hair follicle derived mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 2012;8:74-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Hair follicle harbors a rich stem cell pool with mesenchymal lineage differentiation potential...
  47. Myung P, Ito M. Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:448-54 pubmed publisher
    The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair...
  48. Guo H, Yang K, Deng F, Ye J, Xing Y, Li Y, et al. Wnt3a promotes melanin synthesis of mouse hair follicle melanocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;420:799-804 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, AdWnt3a rescued the effects of AdsimMITF on HF melanocytes and promoted melanin synthesis. Our results suggest that Wnt3a plays an important role in mouse HF melanocytes homeostasis...
  49. Misago N, Kimura T, Toda S, Mori T, Narisawa Y. A revaluation of folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma: the histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:154-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the TF lesions, the unusual upregulation of nestin expression is occasionally seen in FSCH lesions, including their stromas, which may thus result in the production of various kinds of mesenchymal components in FSCHs...
  50. Lei M, Gao X, Yang L, Yang T, Lian X. Gsdma3 gene is needed for the induction of apoptosis-driven catagen during mouse hair follicle cycle. Histochem Cell Biol. 2011;136:335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..As a main member of the Gsdma subfamily, Gsdma3 is expressed specifically in the hair follicle of mouse skin, but its function remains largely unclear...
  51. Teichert A, Elalieh H, Bikle D. Disruption of the hedgehog signaling pathway contributes to the hair follicle cycling deficiency in Vdr knockout mice. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:482-9 pubmed publisher
    Mice null for the Vitamin D receptor (VdrKO) have a disrupted first hair follicle cycle and aborted subsequent hair follicle cycling...
  52. Toyoshima K, Asakawa K, Ishibashi N, Toki H, Ogawa M, Hasegawa T, et al. Fully functional hair follicle regeneration through the rearrangement of stem cells and their niches. Nat Commun. 2012;3:784 pubmed publisher
    ..The bioengineered hair follicle develops the correct structures and forms proper connections with surrounding host tissues such as the ..
  53. Li Y, Zhang K, Yang K, Ye J, Xing Y, Guo H, et al. Adenovirus-mediated Wnt10b overexpression induces hair follicle regeneration. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:42-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To unveil the roles of Wnt10b in hair follicle regeneration, we established an in vivo mouse model using intradermal injection...