granulation tissue


Summary: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.

Top Publications

  1. Dhar S, Saraf R, Gupta A, Raina B. Comparative study of skin grafting with and without surgical removal of granulation tissue in chronic burn wounds. Burns. 2007;33:872-8 pubmed
    A prospective comparative study of skin grafting of chronic wounds with and without surgical removal of granulation tissue was done on 51 patients with an objective of finding a better method of skin grafting objectively in the chronic ..
  2. Yuan Y, Ren J, Zhang W, Chen J, Li J. The effect of different temporary abdominal closure materials on the growth of granulation tissue after the open abdomen. J Trauma. 2011;71:961-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different TAC materials and topically applied exogenous growth factors on the growth of granulation tissue covered on the wound areas after the open abdomen.
  3. Kawao N, Nagai N, Ishida C, Okada K, Okumoto K, Suzuki Y, et al. Plasminogen is essential for granulation tissue formation during the recovery process after liver injury in mice. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:1555-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of plasminogen in liver repair has been reported, but its exact role in promoting this process is unknown...
  4. Zhang J, Wang T, Wang J, Pei Y, Xu M, Wang Y, et al. Effect of three interventional bronchoscopic methods on tracheal stenosis and the formation of granulation tissues in dogs. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:621-7 pubmed
    ..We examined the efficacy of three different approaches, including induction of mechanical lesions, APC performed with different powers or durations and cryotherapy, to identify the method that limited the formation of granulation tissue.
  5. Chung F, Lin S, Chou C, Chen H, Liu C, Yu C, et al. Factors leading to obstructive granulation tissue formation after ultraflex stenting in benign tracheal narrowing. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58:102-7 pubmed publisher
    This retrospective study aimed to determine the factors leading to obstructive granulation tissue formation after the placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) in patients with benign tracheal disease.
  6. Shinozaki M, Okada Y, Kitano A, Ikeda K, Saika S, Shinozaki M. Impaired cutaneous wound healing with excess granulation tissue formation in TNFalpha-null mice. Arch Dermatol Res. 2009;301:531-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that loss of TNFalpha promotes granulation tissue formation and retards reepithelialization in a circular wound in mouse dorsal skin...
  7. Blumbach K, Zweers M, Brunner G, Peters A, Schmitz M, Schulz J, et al. Defective granulation tissue formation in mice with specific ablation of integrin-linked kinase in fibroblasts - role of TGF?1 levels and RhoA activity. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3872-83 pubmed publisher
    ..severe reduction in the number of myofibroblasts, whereas inflammatory infiltrate and vascularization of the granulation tissue are unaffected...
  8. Bermudez D, Xu J, Herdrich B, Radu A, Mitchell M, Liechty K. Inhibition of stromal cell-derived factor-1? further impairs diabetic wound healing. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53:774-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that SDF-1? is a critical component of the normal wound-healing response and that inhibition of SDF-1? would further delay the wound-healing process...
  9. Xiao X, Wang Z, Tang H, Liu X. [Effects of Fuhuang Shengji Yuchuang Ointment on expressions of types I and III collagens in granulation tissue of wound in rats with diabetes]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2009;7:366-71 pubmed publisher
    To observe the effects of Fuhuang Shengji Yuchuang (FHSJYC) Ointment, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on the expressions of types I and III collagens in granulation tissue of wound in rats with diabetes.

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Takikawa M, Nakamura S, Nakamura S, Nambu M, Ishihara M, Fujita M, et al. Enhancement of vascularization and granulation tissue formation by growth factors in human platelet-rich plasma-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2011;97:373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..PRP)-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) as a protein carrier on neovascularization and granulation tissue formation...
  2. Hu H, Liu Y, Wu Y, Hsieh M, Chao Y, Wu C, et al. Granulation tissue formation following Dumon airway stenting: the influence of stent diameter. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;59:163-8 pubmed publisher
    The present study aimed to determine whether stent diameter influences granulation tissue formation following stent placement for major airway stenosis.
  3. Sarrazy V, Billet F, Micallef L, Coulomb B, Desmouliere A. Mechanisms of pathological scarring: role of myofibroblasts and current developments. Wound Repair Regen. 2011;19 Suppl 1:s10-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These cells normally disappear from granulation tissue by apoptosis after wound closure, but under some circumstances, they persist and may contribute to ..
  4. Toriseva M, Laato M, Carpen O, Ruohonen S, Savontaus E, Inada M, et al. MMP-13 regulates growth of wound granulation tissue and modulates gene expression signatures involved in inflammation, proteolysis, and cell viability. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42596 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) in granulation tissue growth was studied in subcutaneously implanted viscose cellulose sponge in MMP-13 knockout (Mmp13(-/-)) and ..
  5. Tommila M, Stark C, Jokilammi A, Peltonen V, Penttinen R, Ekholm E. Hemoglobin expression in rat experimental granulation tissue. J Mol Cell Biol. 2011;3:190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered ?-globin expression in rat experimental granulation tissue induced by subcutaneously implanted cellulose sponges...
  6. Fernández Montequín J, Valenzuela Silva C, Díaz O, Savigne W, Sancho Soutelo N, Rivero Fernández F, et al. Intra-lesional injections of recombinant human epidermal growth factor promote granulation and healing in advanced diabetic foot ulcers: multicenter, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Int Wound J. 2009;6:432-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The main endpoint was granulation tissue covering > or = 50% of the ulcer at 2 weeks...
  7. Patel J, Gudehithlu K, Dunea G, Arruda J, Singh A. Foreign body-induced granulation tissue is a source of adult stem cells. Transl Res. 2010;155:191-9 pubmed publisher
    In the current study, we have cultured and propagated the cells obtained from the granulation tissue that forms around perforated polyvinyl tubes placed in the subcutaneous space of normal rats...
  8. Slavkovsky R, Kohlerova R, Jiroutova A, Hajzlerova M, Sobotka L, Cermakova E, et al. Effects of hyaluronan and iodine on wound contraction and granulation tissue formation in rat skin wounds. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2010;35:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyaluronan (HA) plays an important role in the repair of damaged skin and has been used for the treatment of wounds. Iodine is a mild topical antiseptic...
  9. Katsuno A, Aimoto T, Uchida E, Tabata Y, Miyamoto M, Tajiri T. The controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor promotes a rapid healing of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis with potent angiogenesis and accelerates apoptosis in granulation tissue. J Surg Res. 2011;167:166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the healing process in detail to investigate the significance of treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporated in gelatin hydrogel (GH) microspheres for anastomotic healing...
  10. Mauch C, Zamek J, Abety A, Grimberg G, Fox J, Zigrino P. Accelerated wound repair in ADAM-9 knockout animals. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show the previously unreported role of ADAM-9 in wound repair by regulating keratinocyte migration through modulation of collagen XVII shedding...
  11. Wang Y, Wang M, Chen Y, Leu Y, Lin H, Lee K. The effects of Vaseline gauze strip, Merocel, and Nasopore on the formation of synechiae and excessive granulation tissue in the middle meatus and the incidence of major postoperative bleeding after endoscopic sinus surgery. J Chin Med Assoc. 2011;74:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..and Nasopore (Polyganics, Rozenburglaan, Groningen, The Netherlands)] on the formation of synechiae and excessive granulation tissue in the middle meatus and incidence of major postoperative bleeding in patients who had undergone ESS.
  12. Matsuo K, Akasaki Y, Adachi K, Zhang M, Ishikawa A, Jimi E, et al. Promoting effects of thymosin ?4 on granulation tissue and new bone formation after tooth extraction in rats. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114:17-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of thymosin ?4 (TB4) on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats...
  13. Hong S, Jia S, Xie P, Xu W, Leung K, Mustoe T, et al. Topically delivered adipose derived stem cells show an activated-fibroblast phenotype and enhance granulation tissue formation in skin wounds. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55640 pubmed publisher
    ..Topically delivered ASCs increased granulation tissue formation in wounds when compared to saline controls, whereas BM-MSCs or DFs did not...
  14. Howdieshell T, Callaway D, Webb W, Gaines M, Procter C, Sathyanarayana -, et al. Antibody neutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits wound granulation tissue formation. J Surg Res. 2001;96:173-82 pubmed
    ..goal of this work was to test the functional role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in promoting the vigorous granulation tissue formation, wound fluid accumulation, and angiogenic responses characteristic of this wound model.
  15. Hayakawa K, Takemura G, Kanoh M, Li Y, Koda M, Kawase Y, et al. Inhibition of granulation tissue cell apoptosis during the subacute stage of myocardial infarction improves cardiac remodeling and dysfunction at the chronic stage. Circulation. 2003;108:104-9 pubmed
    b>Granulation tissue cells at the subacute stage of myocardial infarction (MI) are eliminated by apoptosis to finally make a scar at the chronic stage...
  16. Grinnell F, Zhu M, Carlson M, Abrams J. Release of mechanical tension triggers apoptosis of human fibroblasts in a model of regressing granulation tissue. Exp Cell Res. 1999;248:608-19 pubmed
    In an in vitro model of granulation tissue, early passage human diploid fibroblasts under mechanical tension showed little or no apoptosis...
  17. Eddy R, Petro J, Tomasek J. Evidence for the nonmuscle nature of the "myofibroblast" of granulation tissue and hypertropic scar. An immunofluorescence study. Am J Pathol. 1988;130:252-60 pubmed
    ..the authors have examined its cytoskeleton and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) in human burn granulation tissue, human hypertrophic scar, and rat granulation tissue by indirect immunofluorescence...
  18. Li F, Li B, Wang Z, Fan B, Xu W, Xu R. [Effects of resolving stagnation and promoting granulation therapy on expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 in granulation tissue of diabetic rats during wound healing]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2007;5:661-4 pubmed
    To study the effects of resolving stagnation and promoting granulation therapy on expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 in granulation tissue of diabetic rats during wound healing.
  19. Nouraei S, Petrou M, Randhawa P, Singh A, Howard D, Sandhu G. Bacterial colonization of airway stents: a promoter of granulation tissue formation following laryngotracheal reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132:1086-90 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether airway granulation, a common occurrence during laryngotracheal reconstructive surgery and a common cause of delays in definitive treatment and treatment failure, is associated with a microbial etiology...
  20. Pollock J, Webb W, Callaway D, Sathyanarayana -, O BRIEN W, Howdieshell T. Nitric oxide synthase isoform expression in a porcine model of granulation tissue formation. Surgery. 2001;129:341-50 pubmed
    This study was designed to determine whether the nitric oxide (NO) pathway is involved in wound granulation tissue formation.
  21. Streit M, Velasco P, Riccardi L, Spencer L, Brown L, Janes L, et al. Thrombospondin-1 suppresses wound healing and granulation tissue formation in the skin of transgenic mice. EMBO J. 2000;19:3272-82 pubmed
    ..of full-thickness skin wounds was greatly delayed in TSP-1 transgenic mice and was associated with reduced granulation tissue formation and highly diminished wound angiogenesis...
  22. Madlener M, Parks W, Werner S. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their physiological inhibitors (TIMPs) are differentially expressed during excisional skin wound repair. Exp Cell Res. 1998;242:201-10 pubmed
    ..hyperproliferative epithelium, TIMP-1 transcripts accumulated at the mesenchymal/epidermal border of the granulation tissue. During later phases of wound repair, we observed an increase in 72-kDa gelatinase and MT1-MMP expression, ..
  23. Shimizu T, Kawakami T, Ochiai T, Kurihara S, Hasegawa H. Histopathological evaluation of subcutaneous tissue reaction in mice to a calcium hydroxide paste developed for root canal fillings. J Int Med Res. 2004;32:416-21 pubmed
    ..We found necrotic and degenerative changes, as well as foreign body reaction or proliferation of granulation tissue in specimens from both groups until 3 weeks after the injection...
  24. Ozaki K, Yamagami T, Nomura K, Haritani M, Tsutsumi Y, Narama I. Abscess-forming inflammatory granulation tissue with Gram-positive cocci and prominent eosinophil infiltration in cats: possible infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:283-7 pubmed
    ..encounter feline cervical or mesenteric lesions diagnosed histopathologically as abscess or inflammatory granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration. Gram-positive cocci accompany the lesions...
  25. Kössi J, Vähä Kreula M, Peltonen J, Risteli J, Laato M. Hexose sugars differentially alter collagen gene expression and synthesis in fibroblasts derived from granulation tissue, hypertrophic scar and keloid. Arch Dermatol Res. 2004;295:521-6 pubmed
    Clinical observations have suggested that sugar and honey enhance granulation tissue formation and in vitro studies have shown that monosaccharide sugars stimulate mesenchymal and endothelial cells...
  26. Schreinemacher M, Emans P, Gijbels M, Greve J, Beets G, Bouvy N. Degradation of mesh coatings and intraperitoneal adhesion formation in an experimental model. Br J Surg. 2009;96:305-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this experimental study the ability of different coated and uncoated meshes to attenuate adhesion formation was examined...
  27. Mann A, Breuhahn K, Schirmacher P, Blessing M. Keratinocyte-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor accelerates wound healing: Stimulation of keratinocyte proliferation, granulation tissue formation, and vascularization. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117:1382-90 pubmed
    ..significantly higher numbers of proliferating keratinocytes at the wound edges and increased formation of granulation tissue with enhanced neovascularization...
  28. Argenta L, Morykwas M. Vacuum-assisted closure: a new method for wound control and treatment: clinical experience. Ann Plast Surg. 1997;38:563-76; discussion 577 pubmed
    ..ninety-six wounds responded favorably to subatmospheric pressure treatment, with an increased rate of granulation tissue formation...
  29. Wai C, Nihira M, Drewes P, Chang J, Siddiqui M, Hemsell D. Actinomyces associated with persistent vaginal granulation tissue. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2005;13:53-5 pubmed
    We report a case of symptomatic actinomycosis associated with vaginal suture erosion and granulation tissue refractory to conservative management, in an outpatient setting.
  30. Jabs A, Moncada G, Nichols C, Waller E, Wilcox J. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells acquire myofibroblast characteristics in granulation tissue. J Vasc Res. 2005;42:174-80 pubmed
    ..We therefore assessed the distribution of transplanted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in granulation tissue formation, and evaluated their possible transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts.
  31. Sakai H, Jingushi S, Shuto T, Urabe K, Ikenoue T, Okazaki K, et al. Fibroblasts from the inner granulation tissue of the pseudocapsule in hips at revision arthroplasty induce osteoclast differentiation, as do stromal cells. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:103-9 pubmed
    It has previously been shown that many osteoclast precursors are included in the granulation tissue within the pseudocapsule obtained at revision arthroplasty from hips with osteolysis...
  32. Sato M, Terada Y, Nakagawa T, Li M, Wada H. Successful use of argon plasma coagulation and tranilast to treat granulation tissue obstructing the airway after tracheal anastomosis. Chest. 2000;118:1829-31 pubmed
    We successfully used argon plasma coagulation (APC) and tranilast to treat granulation tissue that had formed on an end-to-end tracheal anastomosis...
  33. Ghosh A, Hirasawa N, Ohtsu H, Watanabe T, Ohuchi K. Defective angiogenesis in the inflammatory granulation tissue in histidine decarboxylase-deficient mice but not in mast cell-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2002;195:973-82 pubmed
    We have analyzed the role of histamine in the angiogenesis of the granulation tissue in histidine decarboxylase-deficient (HDC(-/-)) mice, mast cell-deficient mice (WBB6F1-W/W(V)), and their corresponding wild-type mice (HDC(+/+) and ..
  34. Lappin D, MacLeod C, Kerr A, Mitchell T, Kinane D. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and T cell cytokine profile in periodontitis granulation tissue. Clin Exp Immunol. 2001;123:294-300 pubmed
    ..factor (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of granulation tissue from periodontitis lesions...
  35. Kössi J, Vähä Kreula M, Peltonen J, Risteli J, Laato M. Effect of sucrose on collagen metabolism in keloid, hypertrophic scar, and granulation tissue fibroblast cultures. World J Surg. 2001;25:142-6 pubmed
    ..Sucrose (5.5, 15, or 25 mM) was added to granulation tissue, hypertrophic scar, and keloid fibroblast cultures, mRNA levels and procollagen aminopropeptides for type I ..
  36. Galiano R, Michaels J, Dobryansky M, Levine J, Gurtner G. Quantitative and reproducible murine model of excisional wound healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2004;12:485-92 pubmed
    ..because the major mechanism of wound closure is contraction, whereas in humans reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation are the major mechanisms involved...
  37. Singer A, Clark R. Cutaneous wound healing. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:738-46 pubmed
  38. Heffernan D, Dudley B, McNeil P, Howdieshell T. Local arginine supplementation results in sustained wound nitric oxide production and reductions in vascular endothelial growth factor expression and granulation tissue formation. J Surg Res. 2006;133:46-54 pubmed
    The goal of this work was to test the functional role of L-arginine in promotion of nitric oxide (NO) production and the vigorous granulation tissue formation characteristic of this wound model.
  39. Desmouliere A, Redard M, Darby I, Gabbiani G. Apoptosis mediates the decrease in cellularity during the transition between granulation tissue and scar. Am J Pathol. 1995;146:56-66 pubmed
    b>Granulation tissue formation and contraction is an important step of second intention wound healing...
  40. Brooks P, Clark R, Cheresh D. Requirement of vascular integrin alpha v beta 3 for angiogenesis. Science. 1994;264:569-71 pubmed
    ..Integrin alpha v beta 3 was expressed on blood vessels in human wound granulation tissue but not in normal skin, and it showed a fourfold increase in expression during angiogenesis on the chick ..
  41. Schlingemann R, Rietveld F, Kwaspen F, van de Kerkhof P, de Waal R, Ruiter D. Differential expression of markers for endothelial cells, pericytes, and basal lamina in the microvasculature of tumors and granulation tissue. Am J Pathol. 1991;138:1335-47 pubmed
    ..distribution of markers for these different components in a series of malignant human tumors and in human granulation tissue, both situations with extensive angiogenesis...
  42. Wong W, Lai K, Shek T, Lam S. Self-inflicted rectal ulcer with exuberant granulation tissue: a lesion that mimics carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;55:951-2 pubmed
  43. Nakagawa H, Komorita N, Shibata F, Ikesue A, Konishi K, Fujioka M, et al. Identification of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINC), rat GRO/CINC-2 alpha and CINC-2 beta, produced by granulation tissue in culture: purification, complete amino acid sequences and characterization. Biochem J. 1994;301 ( Pt 2):545-50 pubmed
    Four basic neutrophil chemotactic factors (chemokines) have been purified from conditioned medium of granulation tissue obtained from carrageenin-induced inflammation in the rat...
  44. Basu A, Kligman L, Samulewicz S, Howe C. Impaired wound healing in mice deficient in a matricellular protein SPARC (osteonectin, BM-40). BMC Cell Biol. 2001;2:15 pubmed
    ..Here we examined the function of SPARC in cutaneous wound healing using SPARC-null mice and dermal fibroblasts derived from them...
  45. DeFranzo A, Argenta L, Marks M, Molnar J, David L, Webb L, et al. The use of vacuum-assisted closure therapy for the treatment of lower-extremity wounds with exposed bone. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;108:1184-91 pubmed
    ..Profuse granulation tissue formed rapidly, covering bone and hardware...
  46. Inkinen K, Wolff H, Lindroos P, Ahonen J. Connective tissue growth factor and its correlation to other growth factors in experimental granulation tissue. Connect Tissue Res. 2003;44:19-29 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that CTGF expression together with TGF-beta and PDGF are up-regulated in wound healing, and CTGF expression in blood vessels suggests that CTGF is involved in angiogenesis...
  47. Fernández Montequín J, Infante Cristiá E, Valenzuela Silva C, Franco Pérez N, Savigne Gutierrez W, Artaza Sanz H, et al. Intralesional injections of Citoprot-P (recombinant human epidermal growth factor) in advanced diabetic foot ulcers with risk of amputation. Int Wound J. 2007;4:333-43 pubmed
    ..Endpoints were granulation tissue formation, complete healing and need of amputation...
  48. Carron M, Kim S, Sawhney R, Reidy P. Airway obstruction by granulation tissue within a fenestrated tracheotomy tube: case report. Ear Nose Throat J. 2006;85:54-5 pubmed
    ..Among the late complications is the development of granulation tissue. We describe one of the few reported cases of granulation tissue that formed within a fenestrated ..
  49. Peng B, Hou S, Wu W, Zhang C, Yang Y. The pathogenesis and clinical significance of a high-intensity zone (HIZ) of lumbar intervertebral disc on MR imaging in the patient with discogenic low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2006;15:583-7 pubmed
    ..slices through the HIZ lesion showed that a notable histologic feature of the formation of vascularized granulation tissue in the outer region of the annulus fibrosus...
  50. Sobol S, Keswani S, Parvadia J, Crombleholme T, Potsic W. Effect of corticosteroid-antibiotic agents on granulation tissue in a murine model. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:330-5 pubmed
    ..of 3 commonly used ototopical corticosteroid-antibiotic agents, currently available for use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the external and middle ear, on granulation tissue in an established murine model of wound healing.
  51. Weckroth M, Vaheri A, Virolainen S, Saarialho Kere U, Jahkola T, Siren V. Epithelial tissue-type plasminogen activator expression, unlike that of urokinase, its receptor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, is increased in chronic venous ulcers. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151:1189-96 pubmed
  52. Ito S, Matsumoto T, Enomoto H, Shindo H. Histological analysis and biological effects of granulation tissue around loosened hip prostheses in the development of osteolysis. J Orthop Sci. 2004;9:478-87 pubmed
    ..The conditioned medium of the granulation tissue culture stimulated osteoblasts to produce interleukin-6 in both protein and mRNA, and this was in part ..
  53. Wackenfors A, Sjögren J, Gustafsson R, Algotsson L, Ingemansson R, Malmsjo M. Effects of vacuum-assisted closure therapy on inguinal wound edge microvascular blood flow. Wound Repair Regen. 2004;12:600-6 pubmed
    ..Data on the mechanisms are scarce, although beneficial effects on blood flow and granulation tissue formation have been presented...