peritoneal lavage


Summary: Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. The procedure is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic technique following abdominal trauma or inflammation.

Top Publications

  1. Colgan T, Boerner S, Murphy J, Cole D, Narod S, Rosen B. Peritoneal lavage cytology: an assessment of its value during prophylactic oophorectomy. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;85:397-403 pubmed
    ..This study sought to assess the utility of peritoneal lavage cytology at the time of PO in detecting occult malignancy in this group of patients...
  2. Noura S, Ohue M, Shingai T, Kano S, Ohigashi H, Yano M, et al. Effects of intraperitoneal chemotherapy with mitomycin C on the prevention of peritoneal recurrence in colorectal cancer patients with positive peritoneal lavage cytology findings. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..chemotherapy (IPC) with mitomycin C (MMC) on preventing peritoneal recurrence in CRC patients with positive peritoneal lavage cytology findings...
  3. Kanetaka K, Ito S, Susumu S, Yoneda A, Fujita F, Takatsuki M, et al. Clinical significance of carcinoembryonic antigen in peritoneal lavage from patients with gastric cancer. Surgery. 2013;154:563-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the carcinoembryonic antigen level in peritoneal lavage (pCEA) was reported to be a useful biomarker to predict peritoneal recurrence in a small series, its ..
  4. Klein Y, Haider H, McKenney M, Lynn M, Cohn S. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage through an abdominal stab wound. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21:559-60 pubmed
    Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is one of the most useful tools in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal injuries secondary to stab wounds...
  5. Thacker L, Parks J, Thal E. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage: is 100,000 RBCs a valid figure for penetrating abdominal trauma?. J Trauma. 2007;62:853-7 pubmed
    Controversy exists regarding the interpretation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage results. This is especially true in the evaluation of patients sustaining penetrating trauma, specifically stab wounds to the lower chest and abdomen...
  6. Nakagawa S, Nashimoto A, Yabusaki H. Role of staging laparoscopy with peritoneal lavage cytology in the treatment of locally advanced gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2007;10:29-34 pubmed
    ..One hundred patients with primary gastric adenocarcinoma underwent laparoscopy with peritoneal lavage cytology. The disease stages determined were compared with those obtained by conventional methods...
  7. van Veen S, Levi M, van Vliet A, Florquin S, van Gulik T, Boermeester M. Peritoneal lavage with activated protein C alters compartmentalized coagulation and fibrinolysis and improves survival in polymicrobial peritonitis. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:2799-805 pubmed
    ..This study in polymicrobial peritonitis assessed the effects of local activated protein C administration in peritoneal lavage fluid on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and survival. Prospective, randomized study...
  8. Piedrafita D, Estuningsih E, Pleasance J, Prowse R, Raadsma H, Meeusen E, et al. Peritoneal lavage cells of Indonesian thin-tail sheep mediate antibody-dependent superoxide radical cytotoxicity in vitro against newly excysted juvenile Fasciola gigantica but not juvenile Fasciola hepatica. Infect Immun. 2007;75:1954-63 pubmed
    ..hepatica to superoxide-mediated killing. We suggest that ovine macrophages and eosinophils, acting in concert with a specific antibody, may be important effector cells involved in the resistance of ITT sheep to F. gigantica...
  9. Afshar S, Kurer M. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis. Colorectal Dis. 2012;14:135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..There have been a number of recent publications on the use of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for perforated sigmoid diverticulitis, as an alternative to the emergency Hartmann's procedure, with its ..

More Information


  1. Taylor C, Layani L, Ghusn M, White S. Perforated diverticulitis managed by laparoscopic lavage. ANZ J Surg. 2006;76:962-5 pubmed
    ..Acute resection should still be carried out in patients found to have faecal peritonitis or who fail to improve following lavage. ..
  2. Lloyd J, McIver C, Stephenson S, Hewett P, Rieger N, Hardingham J. Identification of early-stage colorectal cancer patients at risk of relapse post-resection by immunobead reverse transcription-PCR analysis of peritoneal lavage fluid for malignant cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:417-23 pubmed
    ..This method may be considered as a new diagnostic tool to improve the staging and management of colorectal cancer. ..
  3. Cha J, Kashuk J, Sarin E, Cothren C, Johnson J, Biffl W, et al. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage remains a valuable adjunct to modern imaging techniques. J Trauma. 2009;67:330-4; discussion 334-6 pubmed publisher
    ..acceptance of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) have prompted the suggestion that diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is obsolete...
  4. Kuramoto M, Shimada S, Ikeshima S, Matsuo A, Yagi Y, Matsuda M, et al. Extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage as a standard prophylactic strategy for peritoneal recurrence in patients with gastric carcinoma. Ann Surg. 2009;250:242-6 pubmed publisher
    This prospective randomized multicenter study aims to evaluate the efficacy of extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage followed by intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EIPL-IPC) on the overall 5-year survival of advanced gastric cancer ..
  5. Nath J, Moorthy K, Taniere P, Hallissey M, Alderson D. Peritoneal lavage cytology in patients with oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. Br J Surg. 2008;95:721-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to determine the value of performing peritoneal lavage cytology during laparoscopy in the management of oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma...
  6. Hoffmann K, Kerner C, Wilfert W, Mueller M, Thiery J, Hauss J, et al. Detection of disseminated pancreatic cells by amplification of cytokeratin-19 with quantitative RT-PCR in blood, bone marrow and peritoneal lavage of pancreatic carcinoma patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:257-63 pubmed
    ..of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA for the detection of disseminated tumor cells in blood, bone marrow and peritoneal lavage in patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas...
  7. Ribeiro U, Safatle Ribeiro A, Zilberstein B, Mucerino D, Yagi O, Bresciani C, et al. Does the intraoperative peritoneal lavage cytology add prognostic information in patients with potentially curative gastric resection?. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006;10:170-6, discussion 176-7 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of intraperitoneal free cancer cells (IFCCs) in peritoneal lavage of patients who underwent potentially curative resection for gastric carcinoma...
  8. Katsuragi K, Yashiro M, Sawada T, Osaka H, Ohira M, Hirakawa K. Prognostic impact of PCR-based identification of isolated tumour cells in the peritoneal lavage fluid of gastric cancer patients who underwent a curative R0 resection. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:550-6 pubmed
    ..real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction-(PCR) based identification of isolated tumour cells in the peritoneal lavage fluid of gastric carcinoma...
  9. Huguet E, Keeling N. Distilled water peritoneal lavage after colorectal cancer surgery. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004;47:2114-9 pubmed
    ..Although commonly used, the tumoricidal effectiveness of antiseptics in peritoneal lavage is doubted because of their chemical alteration by peritoneal secretions...
  10. Ohashi N, Nakanishi H, Kodera Y, Ito S, Mochizuki Y, Koike M, et al. Intraoperative quantitative detection of CEA mRNA in the peritoneal lavage of gastric cancer patients with transcription reverse-transcription concerted (TRC) method. A comparative study with real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:2769-77 pubmed
    ..chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA in the peritoneal lavage of gastric cancer patients is now recognized as a useful method for the prediction of peritoneal recurrence ..
  11. Myers E, Hurley M, O Sullivan G, Kavanagh D, Wilson I, Winter D. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for generalized peritonitis due to perforated diverticulitis. Br J Surg. 2008;95:97-101 pubmed
    ..This study assessed the feasibility of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. A prospective multi-institutional study of 100 patients was undertaken...
  12. Swank H, Vermeulen J, Lange J, Mulder I, van der Hoeven J, Stassen L, et al. The ladies trial: laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or resection for purulent peritonitis and Hartmann's procedure or resection with primary anastomosis for purulent or faecal peritonitis in perforated diverticulitis (NTR2037). BMC Surg. 2010;10:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Nederlands Trial Register NTR2037. ..
  13. Karoui M, Champault A, Pautrat K, Valleur P, Cherqui D, Champault G. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage or primary anastomosis with defunctioning stoma for Hinchey 3 complicated diverticulitis: results of a comparative study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009;52:609-15 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to compare postoperative outcomes of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage and open primary anastomosis with defunctioning stoma in the management of Hinchey 3 diverticulitis...
  14. Yamamoto M, Matsuyama A, Kameyama T, Okamoto M, Okazaki J, Utsunomiya T, et al. Prognostic re-evaluation of peritoneal lavage cytology in Japanese patients with gastric carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology. 2009;56:261-5 pubmed
    ..However, a small subpopulation of patients with P(-)CY(+) showed an intermediate prognosis. ..
  15. Li J, Zheng M, Miao C, Zhang J, Ding G, Wu W. Peritoneal lavage cytology and carcinoembryonic antigen determination in predicting peritoneal metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:7374-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the role of peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) determination of peritoneal washes (pCEA) in predicting the peritoneal metastasis and prognosis after curative resection of gastric cancer...
  16. Yamamoto M, Baba H, Toh Y, Okamura T, Maehara Y. Peritoneal lavage CEA/CA125 is a prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007;133:471-6 pubmed
    We recently found an elevation in the pre-operative peritoneal lavage carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level to be associated with an earlier detection of recurrent peritoneal dissemination and a poor prognosis...
  17. Mezhir J, Posner M, Roggin K. Prospective clinical trial of diagnostic peritoneal lavage to detect positive peritoneal cytology in patients with gastric cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2013;107:794-8 pubmed publisher
    Positive peritoneal cytology equates M1 disease in patients with gastric cancer. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is a proven test to detect occult visceral injury in trauma patients...
  18. Souza L, Coelho A, Sampietre S, Martins J, Cunha J, Machado M. Anti-inflammatory effects of peritoneal lavage in acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2010;39:1180-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of peritoneal lavage on the systemic inflammatory response in severe AP...
  19. Toorenvliet B, Swank H, Schoones J, Hamming J, Bemelman W. Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for perforated colonic diverticulitis: a systematic review. Colorectal Dis. 2010;12:862-7 pubmed publisher
    This systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy, morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for patients with perforated diverticulitis...
  20. Yamamoto K, Shimada S, Hirota M, Yagi Y, Matsuda M, Baba H. EIPL (extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage) therapy significantly reduces peritoneal recurrence after pancreatectomy in patients with pancreatic cancer. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:1321-8 pubmed
    ..We have established EIPL (extensive intra-operative peritoneal lavage) therapy as a very simple and non-aggressive prophylactic treatment for peritoneal dissemination of gastric ..
  21. Hirota M, Shimada S, Yamamoto K, Tanaka E, Sugita H, Egami H, et al. Pancreatectomy using the no-touch isolation technique followed by extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage to prevent cancer cell dissemination: a pilot study. JOP. 2005;6:143-51 pubmed
    ..the dissemination of these cancer cells, the no-touch isolation technique and extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage may be a potential operative procedure for improving the outcome...
  22. Whitehouse J, Weigelt J. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage: a review of indications, technique, and interpretation. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009;17:13 pubmed publisher
    Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is a highly accurate test for evaluating intraperitoneal hemorrhage or a ruptured hollow viscus, but is performed less frequently today due to the increased use of focused abdominal sonography for ..
  23. Franklin M, Portillo G, Trevino J, Gonzalez J, Glass J. Long-term experience with the laparoscopic approach to perforated diverticulitis plus generalized peritonitis. World J Surg. 2008;32:1507-11 pubmed publisher
    ..with complicated acute diverticulitis and peritonitis without gross fecal contamination, laparoscopic peritoneal lavage, inspection of the colon, and intraoperative drain placement of the peritoneal cavity appears to alleviate ..
  24. Edeiken S, Maxwell R, Dart B, Mejia V. Preliminary experience with laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for complicated diverticulitis: a new algorithm for treatment?. Am Surg. 2013;79:819-25 pubmed
    ..and surgical management of diverticulitis including the use of diagnostic laparoscopy and laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for patients with Hinchey Stage 3 diverticulitis or abscess formation not amenable to percutaneous drainage...
  25. Yamamoto T, Nagasue K, Okuno S, Yamakawa T. The role of peritoneal lavage and the prognostic significance of mesothelial cell area in preventing encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. Perit Dial Int. 2010;30:343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The usefulness of peritoneal lavage after withdrawal of PD and the risk factors for EPS have not been addressed until now...
  26. Griffin X, Pullinger R. Are diagnostic peritoneal lavage or focused abdominal sonography for trauma safe screening investigations for hemodynamically stable patients after blunt abdominal trauma? A review of the literature. J Trauma. 2007;62:779-84 pubmed
    ..To appraise the evidence supporting the use of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and focused abdominal sonography for trauma as screening tests in the emergency department to reduce the use ..
  27. Oh C, Bae J, Oh S, Choi M, Noh J, Sohn T, et al. Long-term results and prognostic factors of gastric cancer patients with only positive peritoneal lavage cytology. J Surg Oncol. 2012;105:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A Borrmann type IV carcinoma may be the candidates for intraperitoneal chemotherapy among advanced gastric cancer patients. ..
  28. de Manzoni G, Verlato G, Di Leo A, Tomezzoli A, Pedrazzani C, Pasini F, et al. Peritoneal cytology does not increase the prognostic information provided by TNM in gastric cancer. World J Surg. 2006;30:579-84 pubmed
    ..5). Positive peritoneal cytology was a marker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Nevertheless, peritoneal lavage did not increase the prognostic information already provided by the TNM staging system in this Italian ..
  29. Kumar A, Saltzman D, Shukula M, Lewis V, Wendorf R, Sauer M, et al. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage for assessing acute abdomen in pediatric oncology and stem cell transplantation patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004;26:824-6 pubmed
    Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is a technique designed to sample the peritoneal cavity for evidence of catastrophic pathology, while incurring minimum risk...
  30. Lin C, Hsieh H, Yu J, Chen T, Yu C, Hsieh C. Peritoneal lavage with distilled water during liver resection in patients with spontaneously ruptured hepatocellular carcinomas. J Surg Oncol. 2006;94:255-6 pubmed
    ..We applied distilled water peritoneal lavage after liver resection in patients with spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma to define the ..
  31. Olszewski W, Kubicka U, Tarnowski W, Bielecki K, Ziolkowska A, Wesolowska A. Activation of human peritoneal immune cells in early stages of gastric and colon cancer. Surgery. 2007;141:212-21 pubmed
    ..We investigated mobilization of immune cells in peritoneal fluid of gastric and colon cancer, phenotypes and level of activation of recruited cells, and concentration of cellular and peritoneal fluid cytokines...
  32. Akkuş A, Gulmen M, Cevik A, Bildik N, Sad O, Oztürk E, et al. Effect of peritoneal lavage with taurolidine on primary colonic anastomosis in a rat model of secondary peritonitis. Surg Today. 2006;36:436-40 pubmed
    ..Intraperitoneal lavage with taurolidine solution may reduce the risks associated with performing primary colonic anastomosis in patients with secondary peritonitis. ..
  33. Ito S, Nakanishi H, Kodera Y, Mochizuki Y, Tatematsu M, Yamamura Y. Prospective validation of quantitative CEA mRNA detection in peritoneal washes in gastric carcinoma patients. Br J Cancer. 2005;93:986-92 pubmed
    ..0130) and peritoneal recurrence-free survival (P=0.0006) as end points. These results indicate that quantitation of CEA mRNA in peritoneal washes is a reliable prognostic indicator of peritoneal recurrence in the clinical setting. ..
  34. Whiteside O, Tytherleigh M, Thrush S, Farouk R, Galland R. Intra-operative peritoneal lavage--who does it and why?. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2005;87:255-8 pubmed
    Intra-operative peritoneal lavage (IOPL) is widely practised but its benefits are unclear. The frequency and pattern of its use amongst general surgeons is investigated...
  35. Favuzza J, Friel J, Kelly J, Perugini R, Counihan T. Benefits of laparoscopic peritoneal lavage for complicated sigmoid diverticulitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:797-801 pubmed publisher
    ..We report laparoscopic exploration with peritoneal lavage as an alternative in seven patients who required emergency surgery for diverticulitis.
  36. Kodera Y, Ito S, Mochizuki Y, Ohashi N, Tanaka C, Kobayashi D, et al. Long-term follow up of patients who were positive for peritoneal lavage cytology: final report from the CCOG0301 study. Gastric Cancer. 2012;15:335-7 pubmed publisher
    In gastric cancer patients who have positive results for peritoneal lavage cytology the disease is defined as CY1, and classified as stage IV, and this population has generally suffered a dismal outcome...
  37. Marutsuka T, Shimada S, Shiomori K, Hayashi N, Yagi Y, Yamane T, et al. Mechanisms of peritoneal metastasis after operation for non-serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma: an ultrarapid detection system for intraperitoneal free cancer cells and a prophylactic strategy for peritoneal metastasis. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:678-85 pubmed
    ..from non-serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma, and to evaluate the effect of the extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage (EIPL) using the ultra-rapid quantitative RT-PCR as a prophylactic strategy for peritoneal metastasis...
  38. Platell C, Cooper D, Hall J. A meta-analysis of peritoneal lavage for acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;16:689-93 pubmed
    ..conducted on eight randomized, prospective, clinical trials (a total of 333 patients) evaluating continuous peritoneal lavage in patients with acute pancreatitis. The end-points were mortality and morbidity (i.e...
  39. Kodera Y, Nakanishi H, Ito S, Yamamura Y, Kanemitsu Y, Shimizu Y, et al. Quantitative detection of disseminated cancer cells in the greater omentum of gastric carcinoma patients with real-time RT-PCR: a comparison with peritoneal lavage cytology. Gastric Cancer. 2002;5:69-76 pubmed
    b>Peritoneal lavage cytology is an excellent prognostic determinant but lacks sensitivity...
  40. Hayes N, Wayman J, Wadehra V, Scott D, Raimes S, Griffin S. Peritoneal cytology in the surgical evaluation of gastric carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1999;79:520-4 pubmed
    ..After resection, samples were taken by peritoneal lavage, imprint cytology of the resected specimen and post-operatively by peritoneal irrigation via a percutaneous ..
  41. Suzuki T, Ochiai T, Hayashi H, Hori S, Shimada H, Isono K. Peritoneal lavage cytology findings as prognostic factor for gastric cancer. Semin Surg Oncol. 1999;17:103-7 pubmed
    ..4%) were revealed as positive among 347 patients with resectable gastric cancer in whom peritoneal lavage cytology was performed...
  42. Nagy K, Roberts R, Joseph K, Smith R, An G, Bokhari F, et al. Experience with over 2500 diagnostic peritoneal lavages. Injury. 2000;31:479-82 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to confirm the safety and efficacy of diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) for trauma patients. A prospectively maintained database of all DPLs performed in the past 75 months was analyzed...
  43. Jackson E, Swamy R, Herzer W, Mi Z. Local and systemic effects of peritoneal lavage with high concentrations of adenosine in rats. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14:1371-80 pubmed
    ..To determine whether peritoneal lavage with adenosine provides pharmacological levels of adenosine in the intestines without elevating adenosine ..
  44. Gonzalez R, Ickler J, Gachassin P. Complementary roles of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and computed tomography in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. J Trauma. 2001;51:1128-34; discussion 1134-6 pubmed randomized prospective format sensitivity, laparotomy rate, and cost-effectiveness of using diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) in a complementary role with computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma...
  45. Maxwell Armstrong C, Brooks A, Field M, Hammond J, Abercrombie J. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage analysis: should trauma guidelines be revised?. Emerg Med J. 2002;19:524-5 pubmed
    Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) is used to detect intraperitoneal bleeding in patients sustaining blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma...
  46. Tokuda K, Natsugoe S, Nakajo A, Miyazono F, Ishigami S, Hokita S, et al. Clinical significance of CEA-mRNA expression in peritoneal lavage fluid from patients with gastric cancer. Int J Mol Med. 2003;11:79-84 pubmed
    ..Cytological examination of peritoneal lavage fluid is useful for detection of free cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity...
  47. Broll R, Weschta M, Windhoevel U, Berndt S, Schwandner O, Roblick U, et al. Prognostic significance of free gastrointestinal tumor cells in peritoneal lavage detected by immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2001;386:285-92 pubmed
    The aim of our study was to identify tumor cells in peritoneal lavage comparatively with immunocytochemistry (ICC) and half-nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as marker ..
  48. Kodera Y, Yamamura Y, Ito S, Kanemitsu Y, Shimizu Y, Hirai T, et al. Is Borrmann type IV gastric carcinoma a surgical disease? An old problem revisited with reference to the result of peritoneal washing cytology. J Surg Oncol. 2001;78:175-81; discussion 181-2 pubmed
    ..Peritoneal washing cytology plays an important role in staging B4. Positive cytology findings as well as other evidence of disseminated disease may indicate that gastrectomy should be avoided. ..
  49. Schilling M, Maurer C, Kollmar O, Buchler M. Primary vs. secondary anastomosis after sigmoid colon resection for perforated diverticulitis (Hinchey Stage III and IV): a prospective outcome and cost analysis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2001;44:699-703; discussion 703-5 pubmed
    ..We evaluated outcome and cost of one-stage vs. two-stage sigmoid colon resection after diverticulitis perforation and peritonitis...
  50. Shimada S, Tanaka E, Marutsuka T, Honmyo U, Tokunaga H, Yagi Y, et al. Extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage and chemotherapy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal free cancer cells. Gastric Cancer. 2002;5:168-72 pubmed
    The effects of extensive intraoperative peritoneal lavage (EIPL) for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal free cancer cells were investigated...
  51. Kodera Y, Yamamura Y, Shimizu Y, Torii A, Hirai T, Yasui K, et al. Peritoneal washing cytology: prognostic value of positive findings in patients with gastric carcinoma undergoing a potentially curative resection. J Surg Oncol. 1999;72:60-4; discussion 64-5 pubmed
    ..b>Peritoneal lavage cytology should be employed for all advanced cancer undergoing potentially curative resection for added ..
  52. Githaiga J, Adwok J. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the evaluation of abdominal trauma using the dipstick. East Afr Med J. 2002;79:457-60 pubmed
    To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method...
  53. Ribeiro U, Gama Rodrigues J, Safatle Ribeiro A, Bitelman B, Ibrahim R, Ferreira M, et al. Prognostic significance of intraperitoneal free cancer cells obtained by laparoscopic peritoneal lavage in patients with gastric cancer. J Gastrointest Surg. 1998;2:244-9 pubmed
    ..was to determine the prognostic value of intraperitoneal free cancer cells (IFCCs) detected by laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. Forty-nine patients with advanced gastric cancer underwent laparoscopy with cytologic examination for ..