gastric lavage


Summary: Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.

Top Publications

  1. Vale J, Kulig K. Position paper: gastric lavage. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42:933-43 pubmed
    b>Gastric lavage should not be employed routinely, if ever, in the management of poisoned patients. In experimental studies, the amount of marker removed by gastric lavage was highly variable and diminished with time...
  2. Madden M. Pediatric poisonings: recognition, assessment, and management. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2005;17:395-404, xi pubmed
  3. Zar H, Hanslo D, Apolles P, Swingler G, Hussey G. Induced sputum versus gastric lavage for microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in infants and young children: a prospective study. Lancet. 2005;365:130-4 pubmed
    ..We aimed to compare the yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from repeated induced sputum with that from gastric lavage in young children from an area with a high rate of HIV and tuberculosis...
  4. Benson B, Hoppu K, Troutman W, Bedry R, Erdman A, Hojer J, et al. Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013;51:140-6 pubmed publisher
    The first update of the 1997 gastric lavage position paper was published by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists in 2004...
  5. Uskul B, Turker H, Kant A, Partal M. Comparison of bronchoscopic washing and gastric lavage in the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. South Med J. 2009;102:154-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the diagnostic contribution and utility of bacteriologic surveys using bronchoscopic washing and gastric lavage in cases of radiologically suspected tuberculosis with no detectable acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the sputum...
  6. Gu Y, Wan W, Xu M, Zou H. [Gastric lavage for organophosphate pesticides poisoning patients]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2004;22:388-90 pubmed
  7. Teece S, Hogg K. Best evidence topic reports. Gastric lavage in paracetamol poisoning. Emerg Med J. 2004;21:75-6 pubmed
    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether gastric lavage is better than activated charcoal in cases of poisoning with paracetamol...
  8. Eddleston M, Juszczak E, Buckley N. Does gastric lavage really push poisons beyond the pylorus? A systematic review of the evidence. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42:359-64 pubmed
    ..Authoritative position statements have stated that forced emesis should not be used and that gastric lavage should be used in restricted settings...
  9. Pateron D, Vicaut E, Debuc E, Sahraoui K, Carbonell N, Bobbia X, et al. Erythromycin infusion or gastric lavage for upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57:582-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We determine whether in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding the frequency of satisfactory stomach visualization was different after intravenous erythromycin, a nasogastric tube with gastric lavage, or both.

More Information


  1. Westergaard B, Hoegberg L, Groenlykke T. Adherence to international recommendations for gastric lavage in medical drug poisonings in Denmark 2007-2010. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2012;50:129-35 pubmed publisher
    Recent reviews strongly discourage the routine use of gastric lavage in oral poisonings, but the authors suspected that gastric lavage might still be in widespread use in Denmark...
  2. Bates M, O Grady J, Maeurer M, Tembo J, Chilukutu L, Chabala C, et al. Assessment of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis with gastric lavage aspirates in children in sub-Saharan Africa: a prospective descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed this assay for the detection of tuberculosis and multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis with gastric lavage aspirate (GLA) samples in children admitted to hospital...
  3. Eddleston M, Haggalla S, Reginald K, Sudarshan K, Senthilkumaran M, Karalliedde L, et al. The hazards of gastric lavage for intentional self-poisoning in a resource poor location. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2007;45:136-43 pubmed
    ..5% found in the West. This may explain in part why the recent movement away from the use of gastric lavage in the West has not been followed in the developing world...
  4. Christophersen A, Levin D, Hoegberg L, Angelo H, Kampmann J. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage: a simulated large paracetamol intoxication. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;53:312-7 pubmed
    ..Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provided evidence of ..
  5. Wong S, Yu H, So J. Detection of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid: a novel method to detect gastric cancer. J Surg Res. 2006;131:252-5 pubmed
    ..This study describes the presence of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid in patients with gastric cancer...
  6. Hatherill M, Hawkridge T, Zar H, Whitelaw A, Tameris M, Workman L, et al. Induced sputum or gastric lavage for community-based diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis?. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:195-201 pubmed publisher
    To compare the diagnostic yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from induced sputum (IS) and gastric lavage (GL) among children in a community setting...
  7. Patel A, Shaikh S. Efficacy of breast milk gastric lavage in preterm neonates. Indian Pediatr. 2007;44:199-203 pubmed
    To evaluate effects of gastric lavage with mother's milk starting 4 hours after birth, in hospitalized preterm newborns otherwise on exclusive parenteral fluids. Randomized controlled trial...
  8. Teece S, Crawford I. Best evidence topic report. Gastric lavage in aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug overdose. Emerg Med J. 2004;21:591-2 pubmed
    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether gastric lavage was better than activated charcoal alone at reducing toxicity after aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) overdose...
  9. Lee S, Kearney D. A randomized controlled trial of gastric lavage prior to endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38:861-5 pubmed
    We hypothesized that large volume gastric lavage prior to endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding would improve the quality of endoscopic examination...
  10. Rizvi N, Rao N, Hussain M. Yield of gastric lavage and bronchial wash in pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2000;4:147-51 pubmed
    To determine the yield of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in gastric lavage and bronchial washing in adult patients clinically and radiologically suspected of pulmonary tuberculosis but who cannot produce sputum...
  11. Maciel E, Brotto L, Sales C, Zandonade E, Sant Anna C. Gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: a systematic review. Rev Saude Publica. 2010;44:735-42 pubmed
    To analyze standardization of gastric lavage protocols in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children.
  12. Houston M, Hendrickson R. Decontamination. Crit Care Clin. 2005;21:653-72, v pubmed
    ..In rare circumstances, additional steps in decontamination including gastric lavage, broncho-alveolar lavage, surgical removal of wound foreign bodies, and administration of activated charcoal, ..
  13. Bae H, Lee K. Medico-legal consideration of gastric lavage in acutely intoxicated patients. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:233 pubmed
  14. Doneray H, Orbak Z, Karakelleoglu C. Clinical outcomes in children with hyoscyamus niger intoxication not receiving physostigmine therapy. Eur J Emerg Med. 2007;14:348-50 pubmed
    ..Physostigmine is not available in Turkey. This retrospective study investigated the clinical outcomes in children with hyoscyamus niger intoxication who did not receive physostigmine therapy...
  15. Schmidt A, Karlson Stiber C. Caffeine poisoning and lactate rise: an overlooked toxic effect?. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:1012-4 pubmed publisher
  16. Makarovsky I, Markel G, Dushnitsky T, Eisenkraft A. Hydrogen fluoride--the protoplasmic poison. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10:381-5 pubmed
    ..The emergency medical teams should be familiar with its symptoms, should possess the proper protective means and should be ready to respond properly in case of emergency...
  17. Shin E, Park S, Kim K, Moon W, Park M, Lim D, et al. [Effect of combination pretreatment of polyethylene glycol solution and magnesium hydroxide for colonoscopy]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2010;55:232-6 pubmed
  18. Klein Franke A, Kropshofer G, Gassner I, Meister B, Salvador C, Scholl Burgi S, et al. Severe anemia in 3 toddlers with gastric lactobezoar. Klin Padiatr. 2013;225:159-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose to include GLB in the differential diagnosis of anemia in cow's milk fed small children. ..
  19. Virgilio E, Giarnieri E, Giovagnoli M, Montagnini M, Proietti A, D Urso R, et al. Early Gastric Cancer Exfoliating into Gastric Lavage (GL1 EGC) Shows a More Aggressive Behavior and Poorer Survival Compared to the Non-Exfoliative Counterpart (GL0 EGC). Anticancer Res. 2017;37:4199-4203 pubmed
    ..Some cases, however, entail a poorer survival. Our aim was to assess if EGC exfoliating into gastric lavage (GL) has a more aggressive behavior than the non-exfoliative counterpart...
  20. Mintegi S, Dalziel S, Azkunaga B, Prego J, Arana Arri E, Acedo Y, et al. International Variability in Gastrointestinal Decontamination With Acute Poisonings. Pediatrics. 2017;140: pubmed publisher
    ..1%-22.0%) underwent the following GID procedures: activated charcoal (166, 49.1%), activated charcoal and gastric lavage (122, 36.1%), gastric lavage (47, 13.9%), and ipecac (3, 0.9%). In 155 (45.8%, 40.5%-51...
  21. Salen P, Shih R, Sierzenski P, Reed J. Effect of physostigmine and gastric lavage in a Datura stramonium-induced anticholinergic poisoning epidemic. Am J Emerg Med. 2003;21:316-7 pubmed
    ..85). The use of physostigmine and the successful nasogastric lavage of Jimsonweed seeds did not result in decreased intensive-care use or shorter length of stay in the hospital for Jimsonweed-induced anticholinergic toxicity...
  22. Suenobu T, Yoshioka T, Maruta S, Shimoji H. [Post-marketing surveillance of acetylcysteine oral solution 17.6% "SENJU" for the antidote to acetaminophen overdose--use--results surveillance]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2006;19:383-94 pubmed
    ..8% of the total cases. This rate indicates that the medical treatment procedure needs more consideration on the clinical standard for the antidote to acetaminophen overdose and on its practical application. ..
  23. Birmes P, Chounet V, Mazerolles M, Cathala B, Schmitt L, Lauque D. [Self-poisoning with Datura stramonium. 3 case reports]. Presse Med. 2002;31:69-72 pubmed
    ..Symptomatic treatment is efficient. Primary care physicians might be informed about the abuse of Datura stramonium, often associated with substance misuse, and the need to educate risk-patients. ..
  24. Adinew G, Asrie A, Birru E. Pattern of acute organophosphorus poisoning at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:149 pubmed publisher
    ..Health care professionals' useds decontamination methods such as gastric lavage and activated charcoal (45.6%) and 36.7% use atropine for OPP treatment. The mean hospital stay was 0.74 days...
  25. Gokel Y, Sertdemir Y, Yilmaz M, Sahan M. Gastric lavage with normal saline: effects on serum electrolytes. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2010;111:216-8 pubmed is to determine the intensity of changes in serum calcium, ionized calcium, and magnesium levels after gastric lavage with normal saline in patients with amitriptyline intoxication...
  26. Okumura T, Yoshida T, Shirakawa Y, Asari Y, Shimazu T, Sakamoto T, et al. [Guidelines for the treatment of acute chemical poisoning. Gut decontamination. 1. Gastric lavage]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2003;16:185-8 pubmed
  27. Sule A, Kidmas A, Awani K, Uba F, Misauno M. Gastrointestinal perforation following blunt abdominal trauma. East Afr Med J. 2007;84:429-33 pubmed
    ..Delayed presentation still accounts for a high mortality in bowel perforation following blunt abdominal trauma. ..
  28. Streangă V, Nistor N, Dimitriu A, Cristogel F, Jităreanu C, Frasin M. [Cardiac arrhythmia in amitriptyline poisoning in children]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2005;109:251-3 pubmed
    ..The treatment consisted in: gastric lavage with activated charcoal, alkalinisation with sodium bicarbonate, antiarrhythmic drugs and sustained vital ..
  29. Peter J, Prabhakar A, Pichamuthu K. In-laws, insecticide--and a mimic of brain death. Lancet. 2008;371:622 pubmed publisher
  30. Klein L, Huelster J, Adil U, Rischall M, Brunette D, Kempainen R, et al. Endovascular rewarming in the emergency department for moderate to severe accidental hypothermia. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35:1624-1629 pubmed publisher
    ..Other methods of rewarming included external forced-air rewarming (85, 80%), bladder lavage (17, 16%), gastric lavage (10, 9%), closed pleural lavage (6, 6%), and peritoneal lavage (3, 3%)...
  31. Bryant S, Singer J. Management of toxic exposure in children. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2003;21:101-19 pubmed
    ..Definitive emergency care is completed only after the provision of a developmentally oriented preventive strategy. ..
  32. Hiki N, Kaminishi M, Yasuda K, Uedo N, Honjo H, Matsuhashi N, et al. Antiperistaltic effect and safety of L-menthol sprayed on the gastric mucosa for upper GI endoscopy: a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;73:932-41 pubmed publisher
    ..512). Small sample size. During upper GI endoscopy, L-menthol sprayed on the gastric mucosa significantly suppresses peristalsis with minimal adverse drug reactions compared with placebo. ( NCT00742599.). ..
  33. Ramadass B, Dokladny K, Moseley P, Patel Y, Lin H. Sucrose co-administration reduces the toxic effect of lectin on gut permeability and intestinal bacterial colonization. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:2778-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, whether or not sucrose rescues these toxic effects by decreasing gut bacterial concentration and intestinal permeability is unknown...
  34. Criddle L. An overview of pediatric poisonings. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2007;18:109-18 pubmed
  35. Greene S, Dargan P, Jones A. Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell. Postgrad Med J. 2005;81:204-16 pubmed
    ..Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. ..
  36. Kupper J, Reichert C. [Intoxications with plants]. Ther Umsch. 2009;66:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at the moment. ..
  37. Akyildiz B, Kondolot M, Kurtoglu S, Akin L. Organophosphate intoxication presenting as diabetic keto-acidosis. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2009;29:155-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The presenting symptoms and signs of OP intoxication are multiple and may cause difficulty in differential diagnosis, especially in children. A case of OP intoxication is reported who presented as diabetic keto-acidosis. ..
  38. Hajduk A, Sein Anand J, Chodorowski Z. [Acute intoxication with clonidine--a case report]. Przegl Lek. 2007;64:312-3 pubmed
    ..She was conscious but somnolent. Minimal blood pressure was 90/50 mmHg. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and crystalloids infusion. During two days of observation the symptoms were rapidly retreated.
  39. Adler P, Lynch M, Katz K, Lyons J, Ochoa J, King C. Hypothermia: an unusual indication for gastric lavage. J Emerg Med. 2011;40:176-8 pubmed publisher
    Previous reports suggest that gastric lavage holds many risks and is not routinely indicated for decontamination of the overdose patient...
  40. Chiles W, Kumar U. Massive stone formation in a Kock pouch. J Ark Med Soc. 2003;100:32-3 pubmed
  41. Chen B, Colleoni G, Salazar P, Lal P, Gerdes H, Filippa D. Molecular analysis of gastric washings in the diagnosis and monitoring of gastric lymphomas. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:582-6 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the diagnostic utility of molecular clonality analysis of gastric washings. ..
  42. Johnson D. Overdose advice. CMAJ. 2003;168:957-8; author reply 958 pubmed
  43. Tancredi D, Shannon M. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 30-2003. A 21-year-old man with sudden alteration of mental status. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1267-75 pubmed
  44. Miyauchi M, Hayashida M, Hirata K, Hirata K, Yokota H. Gastric lavage guided by ultrathin transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy in a life-threatening case of tobacco extract poisoning: a case report. J Nippon Med Sch. 2013;80:307-11 pubmed
    ..Although gastric lavage was once commonly used to treat poisoning cases of this type, lavage can lead to such complications as ..
  45. Sekhavat A, Mousavizadeh K, Pakshir H, Aslani F. Effect of misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog, on orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2002;122:542-7 pubmed
    ..The experimental groups received 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 microg/kg misoprostol by gastric lavage every 24 hours for 2 weeks...
  46. Burillo Putze G, Munne Mas P, Pinillos Echeverría M, Avilés Amat J. [Activated charcoal bronchoaspiration]. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;128:77 pubmed
  47. Dearman R, Caddick H, Stone S, Kenna J, Basketter D, Kimber I. Immunogenic properties of rapidly digested food proteins following gavage exposure of mice: a comparison of ovalbumin with a potato acid phosphatase preparation. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:625-33 pubmed
    ..The strong association reported by others between stability in SGF and allergenic potential is unlikely to be solely due to orally-ingested labile proteins failing to provoke immune responses due to degradation in the stomach. ..
  48. Brubacher J, Purssell R, Kent D. Salty broth for salicylate poisoning? Adequacy of overdose management advice in the 2001 Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties. CMAJ. 2002;167:992-6 pubmed
    ..Physicians should refer to authoritative sources (e.g., current toxicology texts, computerized databases or local poison control centres) for poisoning management advice. ..
  49. Schaper A, Ceschi A, Deters M, Kaiser G. Of pills, plants, and paraquat: the relevance of poison centers in emergency medicine. Eur J Intern Med. 2013;24:104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In a short summary the basic principles of clinical toxicology are elucidated: the indications for gastric lavage and the application of activated charcoal...
  50. Dipalma J, McGowan J, Cleveland M. Clinical trial: an efficacy evaluation of reduced bisacodyl given as part of a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution preparation prior to colonoscopy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26:1113-9 pubmed
    ..The 10-mg bisacodyl regimen has an improved safety profile, with significantly reduced cramping, nausea and overall discomfort. ..
  51. Okutan O, Kartaloglu Z, Kilic E, Bozkanat E, Ilvan A. Diagnostic contribution of gastric and bronchial lavage examinations in cases suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. Yonsei Med J. 2003;44:242-8 pubmed
    We assessed whether acid fast bacilli (AFB) determination in gastric lavage (GL) and bronchial lavage (BL) contributes to diagnosis in cases radiologically suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis but with either negative AFB in sputum or the ..
  52. Ito T, Miyake T, Taki K. [A case of successfully treated nifedipine-poisoning]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2003;16:179-83 pubmed
    ..Since systolic blood pressure on arrival was 110 mmHg, primary care involved gastric lavage, infusion of lactated Ringer solution, and administration of activated charcoal and cathartics...
  53. Yilmaz Y, Armagan E, Olmez O, Esen M, Alkis N, Dolar E. Acute arsenic self-poisoning for suicidal purpose in a dentist: a case report. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009;28:63-5 pubmed publisher
    ..He gradually recovered from anemia within 5 months. The patient did not suffer any adverse outcome in spite of having ingesting 4 g of arsenic, approximately 20 times the lethal dose. ..