bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

Summary

Summary: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.

Top Publications

  1. Mu X, Shang Y, Zheng S, Zhou B, Yu B, Dong X, et al. [A study on the differential diagnosis of ciliated epithelial cells from Lophomonas blattarum in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2013;36:646-50 pubmed
    ..To validate the authenticity of the cases diagnosed as pulmonary Lophomonas blattarum infection in literatures and Lophomonas blattarum as a kind of pathogen resulting in pulmonary infection...
  2. Zhang W, Wang R, Wang X, Zhou X, Wang H, Zhang H, et al. [Changes of cell factor in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in rats exposed to silica]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2013;31:801-5 pubmed
    To investigate the changes in the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in rats exposed to silica dust.
  3. Selman M, Pardo A, King T. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: insights in diagnosis and pathobiology. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticosteroids are generally used, although their long-term efficacy has not been proved in prospective clinical trials. Lung transplantation should be recommended in cases of progressive end-stage illness...
  4. Jouneau S, Poineuf J, Minjolle S, Tattevin P, Uhel F, Kerjouan M, et al. Which patients should be tested for viruses on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid?. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32:671-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Testing for viruses on BALF should be mostly restricted to immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory diseases and/or patients with unexplained ground-glass attenuations on CT scanning...
  5. Ghio A, Roggli V, Soukup J, Richards J, Randell S, Muhlebach M. Iron accumulates in the lavage and explanted lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. J Cyst Fibros. 2013;12:390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that iron homeostasis is disrupted in CF patients with an accumulation of this metal and altered expression of iron-related proteins being evident in the lungs...
  6. Lee M, Shin I, Jeon W, Lim H, Kim J, Ha H. Pinellia ternata Breitenbach attenuates ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation and mucus secretion in a murine model of asthma. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013;35:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pinellia ternata is an important plant in traditional Chinese medicine. This study describes the anti-inflammatory effects of a water extract of P. ternata (PTE) in allergic airway inflammation in a model of asthma in mice...
  7. Shin I, Lee M, Jeon W, Shin N, Seo C, Ha H. EBM84 attenuates airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31:982-8 pubmed publisher
    ..lowered elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, eotaxin and immunoglobulin (Ig)E in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or plasma. Airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion were attenuated following EBM84 administration...
  8. Kotecha S, Davies P, Clark H, McGreal E. Increased prevalence of low oligomeric state surfactant protein D with restricted lectin activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from preterm infants. Thorax. 2013;68:460-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we assess the expression and functional status of SP-D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from preterm infants at risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) of prematurity and term controls...
  9. Yu P, Li J, Zhu Z, Kong H, Jin H, Zhang J, et al. Praeruptorin D and E attenuate lipopolysaccharide/hydrochloric acid induced acute lung injury in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;710:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and decreased the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same dose. There was no statistically significant difference between PD and PE group...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications61

  1. Cissé O, Pagni M, Hauser P. De novo assembly of the Pneumocystis jirovecii genome from a single bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a patient. MBio. 2012;4:e00428-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the genome of P. jirovecii that was obtained from a single bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen from a patient...
  2. Bartlett J, Albertolle M, Wohlford Lenane C, Pezzulo A, Zabner J, Niles R, et al. Protein composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway surface liquid from newborn pigs. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L256-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In greatly expanding the known proteome of the lung lining fluid in the pig, this study provides a valuable resource for future studies using this important animal model of pulmonary physiology and disease. ..
  3. Joyner B, Jones S, Cairns B, Harris B, Coverstone A, Abode K, et al. DNA and inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with acute inhalational injuries. J Burn Care Res. 2013;34:326-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Serial analysis of factors in airway secretions is feasible and has the potential to reveal important pathophyisiologic pathways and therapeutic targets for the treatment of acute inhalational injuries...
  4. Pragman A, Kim H, Reilly C, Wendt C, Isaacson R. The lung microbiome in moderate and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47305 pubmed publisher
    ..The composition of the lung microbiomes was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Sequences were analyzed using mothur, Ribosomal Database Project, Fast UniFrac, and Metastats...
  5. Garnett J, Baker E, Naik S, Lindsay J, Knight G, Gill S, et al. Metformin reduces airway glucose permeability and hyperglycaemia-induced Staphylococcus aureus load independently of effects on blood glucose. Thorax. 2013;68:835-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes is a risk factor for respiratory infection, and hyperglycaemia is associated with increased glucose in airway surface liquid and risk of Staphylococcus aureus infection...
  6. Cao C, Sun S, Lv D, Chen Z, Ding Q, Deng Z. Utility of VEGF and sVEGFR-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:2443-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we performed a prospective study to investigate the utility of VEGF and sVEGFR-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer...
  7. Schinwald A, Donaldson K. Use of back-scatter electron signals to visualise cell/nanowires interactions in vitro and in vivo; frustrated phagocytosis of long fibres in macrophages and compartmentalisation in mesothelial cells in vivo. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2012;9:34 pubmed publisher
  8. Theron G, Peter J, Meldau R, Khalfey H, Gina P, Matinyena B, et al. Accuracy and impact of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of smear-negative or sputum-scarce tuberculosis using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Thorax. 2013;68:1043-51 pubmed publisher
    The accuracy and impact of new tuberculosis (TB) tests, such as Xpert MTB/RIF, when performed on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from patients with sputum-scarce or smear-negative TB is unclear.
  9. Akkerman O, van der Werf T, de Boer M, de Beer J, Rahim Z, Rossen J, et al. Comparison of 14 molecular assays for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3505-11 pubmed publisher
    We compared 14 molecular assays for their ability to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. Three approaches were followed...
  10. Dhaliwal K, Scholefield E, Ferenbach D, Gibbons M, Duffin R, Dorward D, et al. Monocytes control second-phase neutrophil emigration in established lipopolysaccharide-induced murine lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:514-24 pubmed publisher
  11. Thillai M, Eberhardt C, Lewin A, Potiphar L, Hingley Wilson S, Sridhar S, et al. Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis cytokine profiles: indistinguishable in bronchoalveolar lavage but different in blood. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38083 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesised that immunological profiling might provide insight into a possible relationship between the diseases or allow us to distinguish between them...
  12. Urbankowski T, Hoser G, Domagała Kulawik J. Th1/Th2/Th17?related cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with sarcoidosis: association with smoking. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2012;122:320-5 pubmed
    ..Sarcoidosis is more prevalent in nonsmokers than in smokers. The exact effect of smoking on granulomatous inflammation in this disease remains unclear...
  13. Charlson E, Diamond J, Bittinger K, Fitzgerald A, Yadav A, Haas A, et al. Lung-enriched organisms and aberrant bacterial and fungal respiratory microbiota after lung transplant. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:536-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term survival after lung transplantation is limited by infectious complications and by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a form of chronic rejection linked in part to microbial triggers...
  14. Reinwald M, Hummel M, Kovalevskaya E, Spiess B, Heinz W, Vehreschild J, et al. Therapy with antifungals decreases the diagnostic performance of PCR for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients with haematological malignancies. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:2260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effect of antifungal treatment on the performance of an Aspergillus-specific PCR assay in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples...
  15. Fredriksson K, Fielhaber J, Lam J, Yao X, Meyer K, Keeran K, et al. Paradoxical effects of rapamycin on experimental house dust mite-induced asthma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33984 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, consistent with the context-dependent effects of rapamycin on inflammation, the timing of mTOR inhibition may be an important determinant of efficacy and toxicity in HDM-induced asthma...
  16. Cuzic S, Bosnar M, Kramaric M, Ferencic Z, Markovic D, Glojnaric I, et al. Claudin-3 and Clara cell 10 kDa protein as early signals of cigarette smoke-induced epithelial injury along alveolar ducts. Toxicol Pathol. 2012;40:1169-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Claudin-3 and Clara cell 10 kDa protein were identified as possible markers of early tobacco smoke-induced epithelial injury along ADs...
  17. McKinney W, Jackson M, Sager T, Reynolds J, Chen B, Afshari A, et al. Pulmonary and cardiovascular responses of rats to inhalation of a commercial antimicrobial spray containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Inhal Toxicol. 2012;24:447-57 pubmed publisher
    ..It would be prudent to avoid exposure to children or those with pre-existing respiratory disease...
  18. Hesselstrand R, Wildt M, Bozovic G, Andersson Sjöland A, Andréasson K, Scheja A, et al. Biomarkers from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in systemic sclerosis patients with interstitial lung disease relate to severity of lung fibrosis. Respir Med. 2013;107:1079-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The objectives of this study were to study biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from SSc patients with ILD and to relate the findings to the severity and activity of lung ..
  19. Hunt W, Zughaier S, Guentert D, Shenep M, Koval M, McCarty N, et al. Hyperglycemia impedes lung bacterial clearance in a murine model of cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected for glucose concentration and cell counts...
  20. Rogers G, van der Gast C, Cuthbertson L, Thomson S, Bruce K, Martin M, et al. Clinical measures of disease in adult non-CF bronchiectasis correlate with airway microbiota composition. Thorax. 2013;68:731-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the potentially important roles for infection in adult non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis disease progression, the bacterial species present in the lower airways of these patients is poorly characterised...
  21. Morris A, Beck J, Schloss P, Campbell T, Crothers K, Curtis J, et al. Comparison of the respiratory microbiome in healthy nonsmokers and smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:1067-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouth microbiome differs in nonsmokers and smokers, but lung communities were not significantly altered by smoking. ..
  22. Torregrosa Paredes P, Esser J, Admyre C, Nord M, Rahman Q, Lukic A, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomes contribute to cytokine and leukotriene production in allergic asthma. Allergy. 2012;67:911-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown an altered exosome profile in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with sarcoidosis, but their role in asthma is unknown...
  23. Johansson M, Gunderson K, Kelly E, Denlinger L, Jarjour N, Mosher D. Anti-IL-5 attenuates activation and surface density of ?(2) -integrins on circulating eosinophils after segmental antigen challenge. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43:292-303 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-5 activates ?(M) ?(2) integrin on blood eosinophils in vitro. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) following segmental antigen challenge have activated ?(2) -integrins...
  24. Mizuguchi Y, Myojo T, Oyabu T, Hashiba M, Lee B, Yamamoto M, et al. Comparison of dose-response relations between 4-week inhalation and intratracheal instillation of NiO nanoparticles using polimorphonuclear neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a biomarker of pulmonary inflammation. Inhal Toxicol. 2013;25:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Using polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a biomarker of inflammation, we attempted to quantify the relationship between responses to ..
  25. Palazzo S, Simpson T, Simmons J, Schnapp L. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) as a diagnostic marker of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Respir Care. 2012;57:2052-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine the utility of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples from patients who underwent bronchoscopy for a ..
  26. Borewicz K, Pragman A, Kim H, Hertz M, Wendt C, Isaacson R. Longitudinal analysis of the lung microbiome in lung transplantation. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;339:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were obtained from four patients at three time points after transplantation, and two ..
  27. Avni T, Levy I, Sprecher H, Yahav D, Leibovici L, Paul M. Diagnostic accuracy of PCR alone compared to galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: a systematic review. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:3652-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Performing both tests results in optimal sensitivity with no loss of specificity. Results are dependent on the reference standard definitions...
  28. Noel A, Maghni K, Cloutier Y, Dion C, Wilkinson K, Halle S, et al. Effects of inhaled nano-TiO2 aerosols showing two distinct agglomeration states on rat lungs. Toxicol Lett. 2012;214:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that biological responses to nanoparticles (NP) might depend on the dimension and concentration of NP agglomerates...
  29. Zou M, Tang L, Zhao S, Zhao Z, Chen L, Chen P, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of detecting galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43347 pubmed publisher
    ..With the optimal cutoff value of 1.0, the BAL-GM assay has higher SEN compared to PCR and serum GM test. It is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of proven and probable IA. ..
  30. Levänen B, Bhakta N, Torregrosa Paredes P, Barbeau R, Hiltbrunner S, Pollack J, et al. Altered microRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomes in asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131:894-903 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) exosomal miRNA profiles due to asthma, and following subway air exposure...
  31. Ivanov S, Fontaine J, Paget C, Macho Fernandez E, Van Maele L, Renneson J, et al. Key role for respiratory CD103(+) dendritic cells, IFN-?, and IL-17 in protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in response to ?-galactosylceramide. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:723-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook the present study to characterize mechanisms leading to ?-GalCer-mediated protection against lethal infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1, a major respiratory pathogen in humans...
  32. Kang J, Rhee C, Kim J, Park C, Kim S, Lee S, et al. Effect of tiotropium bromide on airway remodeling in a chronic asthma model. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;109:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel anticholinergic drug tiotropium bromide, which selectively antagonizes muscarinic receptors, especially the M3 subtype, and is long acting, could be beneficial in attenuating airway remodeling in chronic asthma...
  33. Yamasaki K, Kawanami T, Yatera K, Fukuda K, Noguchi S, Nagata S, et al. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63103 pubmed publisher
  34. Shim E, Chun E, Lee H, Bang B, Kim T, Cho S, et al. The role of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the pathogenesis of asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42:958-65 pubmed publisher
    ..High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) belonging to endogenous danger signals prolongs eosinophil survival and acts as a chemoattractant...
  35. Jin W, Rong L, Liu Y, Song Y, Li Y, Pan J. Increased claudin-3, -4 and -18 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reflect severity of acute lung injury. Respirology. 2013;18:643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, whether claudin-3, -4, -18 or -5 expression changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-induced ALI and the clinical significance of such change is unknown...
  36. Fernandez N, Hecker K, Gilroy C, Warren A, Leguillette R. Reliability of 400-cell and 5-field leukocyte differential counts for equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Vet Clin Pathol. 2013;42:92-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increases in BAL neutrophils also occur with IAD but are not specific due to overlap between IAD and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)...
  37. Mitchell A, Kaiser Y, Falta M, Munson D, Landry L, Eklund A, et al. Shared αβ TCR Usage in Lungs of Sarcoidosis Patients with Löfgren's Syndrome. J Immunol. 2017;199:2279-2290 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that public CD4+ TCR repertoires exist among LS patients and that these T cells are recognizing the putative sarcoidosis-associated Ag(s) in the context of DR3. ..
  38. Bergdolt S, Kovtun A, Hägele Y, Liedert A, Schinke T, Amling M, et al. Osteoblast-specific overexpression of complement receptor C5aR1 impairs fracture healing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179512 pubmed publisher
    ..and local inflammatory reactions were analyzed by determining C5a and IL-6 concentrations in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and fracture callus and the recruitment of immune cells...
  39. Kido T, Morimoto Y, Yatera K, Ishimoto H, Ogoshi T, Oda K, et al. The utility of electron microscopy in detecting asbestos fibers and particles in BALF in diffuse lung diseases. BMC Pulm Med. 2017;17:71 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the value of assessing asbestos and particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in diffuse lung diseases by electron microscopy (EM) remains unclear...
  40. Yu X, Yu S, Chen L, Liu H, Zhang J, Ge H, et al. Tetrahydroberberrubine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by down-regulating MAPK, AKT, and NF-?B signaling pathways. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;82:489-97 pubmed publisher
    ..addition, THBru markedly decreased the total cell counts, total protein and nitrate/nitrite content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and nitrate/nitrite content in the ..
  41. Debeuf N, Haspeslagh E, van Helden M, Hammad H, Lambrecht B. Mouse Models of Asthma. Curr Protoc Mouse Biol. 2016;6:169-84 pubmed publisher
    ..2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ..
  42. Hiraishi Y, Nambu A, Shibui A, Nakanishi W, Yamaguchi S, Morita H, et al. TIM-3 is not essential for development of airway inflammation induced by house dust mite antigens. Allergol Int. 2016;65:459-465 pubmed publisher
  43. Waite T, Georgiou A, Abrishami M, Beck C. Pseudo-outbreaks of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on an intensive care unit in England. J Hosp Infect. 2016;92:392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We cannot exclude the potential for colonization of the lower respiratory tract of exposed patients. Introduction of single-use bronchoscopes was an effective control measure. ..
  44. Samitas K, Poulos N, Semitekolou M, Morianos I, Tousa S, Economidou E, et al. Activin-A is overexpressed in severe asthma and is implicated in angiogenic processes. Eur Respir J. 2016;47:769-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of soluble/immunoreactive activin-A and its receptors was measured in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and endobronchial biopsies from 16 healthy controls, 19 patients with mild/moderate asthma and ..
  45. Lipka J, Semmler Behnke M, Wenk A, Burkhardt J, Aigner A, Kreyling W. Biokinetic studies of non-complexed siRNA versus nano-sized PEI F25-LMW/siRNA polyplexes following intratracheal instillation into mice. Int J Pharm. 2016;500:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..A low inflammatory reaction was observed on the basis of cell differentiation. Taken together, PEI F25-LMW meets fundamental requirements on non-viral vectors for local pulmonary siRNA delivery. ..
  46. Capoor M, Agarwal P, Goel M, Jain S, Shivaprakash M, Honnavar P, et al. Invasive pulmonary mycosis due to Chaetomium globosum with false-positive galactomannan test: a case report and literature review. Mycoses. 2016;59:186-93 pubmed publisher
    ..All the Chaetomium infections reported till date since 1980 are reviewed. Chaetomium spp. with its unique ecology has a hidden clinical potential to cause invasive mould infections. ..
  47. Pabary R, Singh C, Morales S, Bush A, Alshafi K, Bilton D, et al. Antipseudomonal Bacteriophage Reduces Infective Burden and Inflammatory Response in Murine Lung. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:744-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The infective burden and inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assessed at various times...
  48. Abdala Valencia H, Loffredo L, Misharin A, Berdnikovs S. Phenotypic plasticity and targeting of Siglec-F(high) CD11c(low) eosinophils to the airway in a murine model of asthma. Allergy. 2016;71:267-71 pubmed publisher
  49. Sunwoo B, Miller W. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes. Chest. 2014;146:e121-e125 pubmed publisher
    ..Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes. ..
  50. Holmer S, Evans K, Asfaw Y, Saini D, Schell W, Ledford J, et al. Impact of surfactant protein D, interleukin-5, and eosinophilia on Cryptococcosis. Infect Immun. 2014;82:683-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inflammatory cells and cytokines were compared in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and SP-D(-/-) mice after C. neoformans infection...
  51. Wang H, Fan J, Li N, Li J, Yuan S, Yi J, et al. A subanesthetic dose of isoflurane during postconditioning ameliorates zymosan-induced neutrophil inflammation lung injury and mortality in mice. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:479628 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that 0.7% ISO ameliorates inflammatory responses in ZY-treated mouse lung and primary neutrophils...
  52. Mathias L, Khong S, Spyroglou L, Payne N, Siatskas C, Thorburn A, et al. Alveolar macrophages are critical for the inhibition of allergic asthma by mesenchymal stromal cells. J Immunol. 2013;191:5914-24 pubmed publisher
    ..As alveolar macrophages are the predominant immune effector cells at the air-tissue interface in the lungs, this study provides a compelling mechanism for durable MSC effects in the absence of sustained engraftment. ..