whole body irradiation


Summary: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.

Top Publications

  1. Nakayama S, Uchida T, Choi J, Fujitani Y, Ogihara T, Iwashita N, et al. Impact of whole body irradiation and vascular endothelial growth factor-A on increased beta cell mass after bone marrow transplantation in a mouse model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetologia. 2009;52:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that whole body irradiation is essential and sufficient for restoration of beta cell mass after streptozotocin treatment independent ..
  2. Ossetrova N, Blakely W. Multiple blood-proteins approach for early-response exposure assessment using an in vivo murine radiation model. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009;85:837-50 pubmed
    ..The aim was to evaluate the utility of multiple blood-protein biomarkers for early-response assessment of radiation exposure using a murine radiation model system...
  3. Salter A, Meadows S, Muramoto G, Himburg H, Doan P, Daher P, et al. Endothelial progenitor cell infusion induces hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution in vivo. Blood. 2009;113:2104-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that allogeneic EPC infusions can augment hematopoiesis and suggest a relationship between BM microvascular recovery and hematopoietic reconstitution in vivo. ..
  4. Duran Struuck R, Hartigan A, Clouthier S, Dyson M, Lowler K, Gatza E, et al. Differential susceptibility of C57BL/6NCr and B6.Cg-Ptprca mice to commensal bacteria after whole body irradiation in translational bone marrow transplant studies. J Transl Med. 2008;6:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Cg-Ptprca/NCr (Ly5.2). This is the first report documenting a measurable difference in radiation sensitivity and its effects between an inbred strain of mice and its congenic counterpart eventually succumbing to sepsis after BMT. ..
  5. Huisman C, Meijer E, Petersen E, Lokhorst H, Verdonck L. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning in acute myelogenous leukemia patients older than 40 years. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2008;14:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, fludarabine plus low-dose TBI-based RIC HSCT is effective in AML patients over the age of 40 years without active disease at the time of transplant and is associated with low TRM. ..
  6. Chemaitilly W, Sklar C. Endocrine complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007;36:983-98; ix pubmed
    ..This article focuses on the late endocrine abnormalities that are most commonly observed following successful HSCT, with a special emphasis on pediatric HSCT recipients, for whom long-term follow-up data are increasingly available. ..
  7. Soule B, Simone N, Savani B, Ning H, Albert P, Barrett A, et al. Pulmonary function following total body irradiation (with or without lung shielding) and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40:573-8 pubmed
    ..TBI with or without lung dose reduction has a small but statistically significant effect on pulmonary function measured at 1 year but not 2 years post irradiation. ..
  8. Onishi Y, Mori S, Kusumoto S, Sugimoto K, Akahane D, Morita Hoshi Y, et al. Unrelated-donor bone marrow transplantation with a conditioning regimen including fludarabine, busulfan, and 4 Gy total body irradiation. Int J Hematol. 2007;85:256-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that this regimen reduces the risk of graft failure, but further studies are needed to ameliorate transplantation-related toxicities, primarily GVHD and/or pulmonary complications. ..
  9. Bluff J, Ferguson M, O Kane S, Ireland G. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells do not contribute significantly to new vessels during incisional wound healing. Exp Hematol. 2007;35:500-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Singh A, Savani B, Albert P, Barrett A. Efficacy of CD34+ stem cell dose in patients undergoing allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after total body irradiation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13:339-44 pubmed
    ..A method for assessing risk of mortality by CD34(+) dose as a continuous variable is presented. Risk of mortality decreased with CD34(+) doses between 4-8 x 10(6) cells/kg and then began to increase. ..
  2. Chemaitilly W, Boulad F, Heller G, Kernan N, Small T, O Reilly R, et al. Final height in pediatric patients after hyperfractionated total body irradiation and stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007;40:29-35 pubmed
    ..Final height after hyperfractionated TBI was similar to that reported after fractionated TBI. ..
  3. Inamoto Y, Suzuki R, Kuwatsuka Y, Yasuda T, Takahashi T, Tsujimura A, et al. Long-term outcome after bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia using cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation as conditioning regimen. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2008;14:43-9 pubmed
    ..No other secondary malignancies developed after long-term follow-up. Our findings suggest that TLI conditioning is feasible and effective for patients with AA. ..
  4. Singh A, Karimpour S, Savani B, Guion P, Hope A, Mansueti J, et al. Pretransplant pulmonary function tests predict risk of mortality following fractionated total body irradiation and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;66:520-7 pubmed
    ..50%, log-rank test p=0.042). Among those with combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits, lung dose reduction during TBI significantly improved survival. ..
  5. Epperly M, Jin S, Nie S, Cao S, Zhang X, Franicola D, et al. Ethyl pyruvate, a potentially effective mitigator of damage after total-body irradiation. Radiat Res. 2007;168:552-9 pubmed
    ..EP may be an effective radioprotector and mitigator of the hematopoietic syndrome induced by TBI. ..
  6. Das Gupta E, Russell N, Shaw B, Pearce R, Byrne J. Long-term outcome of unrelated donor transplantation for AML using myeloablative conditioning incorporating pretransplant Alemtuzumab. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007;13:724-33 pubmed
    ..The addition of Alemtuzumab is highly effective in preventing both rejection and severe acute and extensive chronic GVHD without an increased relapse risk. ..
  7. Ahn M, Kim H, Kim J, Lee J, Hyun J, Park J, et al. Gamma-ray irradiation stimulates the expression of caveolin-1 and GFAP in rat spinal cord: a study of immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. J Vet Sci. 2006;7:309-14 pubmed
    ..The precise role of caveolin-1 in the spinal cords should be studied further. ..
  8. Majhail N, Parks K, DeFor T, Weisdorf D. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and infection-associated alveolar hemorrhage following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: related and high-risk clinical syndromes. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2006;12:1038-46 pubmed
    ..28). The pathogenesis of alveolar hemorrhage after HSCT is multifactorial, and we propose that IAH and DAH in HSCT recipients are related clinical syndromes with similar clinical presentation, risks, and associated high mortality. ..
  9. Lowe T, Luu T, Shen J, Bhatia S, Shibata S, Stein A, et al. Male breast cancer 15 years after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation including total body irradiation for recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Onkologie. 2008;31:266-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a male breast cancer following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Survivors of primary cancer need lifelong monitoring for complications from their initial therapy. ..
  10. Pincheira J, Carrera P, Marcelain K, de la Torre C. Hepatocytes, rather than leukocytes reverse DNA damage in vivo induced by whole body gamma-irradiation of mice, as shown by the alkaline comet assay. Biol Res. 2008;41:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the efficiency of in vivo repair of radio-induced DNA damage in dormant cells (lymphocytes) is quite different from that in hepatocytes whose low proliferation activity accounts only for cell renewal. ..
  11. Lee S, Kim H, Min W, Cho B, Eom K, Kim Y, et al. Favorable outcomes of intravenous busulfan, fludarabine, and 400 cGy total body irradiation-based reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia with old age and/or co-morbidities. Int J Hematol. 2010;92:342-50 pubmed publisher
    ..4 and 62.5%. This study suggests that the Flu/Bu/TBI 400 cGy or Flu/Bu/TBI 400 cGy/ATG-based conditioning regimens maybe a feasible therapeutic approach for AML with old age and/or co-morbidities. ..
  12. Kunwar A, Bansal P, Kumar S, Bag P, Paul P, Reddy N, et al. In vivo radioprotection studies of 3,3'-diselenodipropionic acid, a selenocystine derivative. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:399-410 pubmed publisher
  13. Morikawa S, Mabuchi Y, Kubota Y, Nagai Y, Niibe K, Hiratsu E, et al. Prospective identification, isolation, and systemic transplantation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in murine bone marrow. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2483-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Naive MSCs resided in the perivascular region in a quiescent state. This study provides the useful method needed to identify MSCs as defined in vivo entities. ..
  14. Nevelsky A, Bar Deroma R, Kuten A. Radiobiological effects of total body irradiation on the spinal cord. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2009;48:385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Reliable experimental data are needed for accurate assessment of radiation damage to the spinal cord following fractionated low dose rate TBI. ..
  15. Huang W, Yang Y, Sun Z, Zeng X. Early radiation-induced bone marrow injury: serial MR imaging during initial 4 weeks after irradiation. Acad Radiol. 2009;16:733-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Schwartz J, Kopecky K, Mathes R, Leisenring W, Friedman D, Deeg H. Basal cell skin cancer after total-body irradiation and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Radiat Res. 2009;171:155-63 pubmed publisher
  17. Mae H, Ooi J, Takahashi S, Tomonari A, Tsukada N, Konuma T, et al. Early renal injury after myeloablative cord blood transplantation in adults. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008;49:538-42 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Our result suggests that it is important to monitor VCM dosing more strictly with pharmacokinetic assessment, especially in days 11 - 20, when the most frequently observed declining renal function. ..
  18. Gunnlaugsson A, Nilsson P, Kjellen E, Johnsson A. The effect on the small bowel of 5-FU and oxaliplatin in combination with radiation using a microcolony survival assay. Radiat Oncol. 2009;4:61 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher crypt survival with split dose radiation indicates a substantial recovery between radiation fractions. This mucosal-sparing effect achieved by fractionation was maintained also when chemotherapy was added. ..
  19. Kato H, Taji H, Ogura M, Kagami Y, Oki Y, Tsujimura A, et al. Favorable consolidative effect of high-dose melphalan and total-body irradiation followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after rituximab-containing induction chemotherapy with in vivo purging in relapsed or refractory follic. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2009;9:443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Consolidation of high-dose melphalan and TBI followed by autoPBSCT with in vivo purging is feasible and effective for relapsed or refractory chemosensitive FL. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm the role and late toxicities. ..
  20. Jung M, Cho K, Lee J, Chung N, Cho B, Suh B, et al. Endocrine complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation during childhood and adolescence. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:1071-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, multiple endocrine functions should be monitored periodically after HSCT until they reach adult age. ..
  21. Prager E, Wehrschuetz M, Bisail B, Woltsche M, Schwarz T, Lanz H, et al. Comparison of 18F-FDG and 67Ga-citrate in sarcoidosis imaging. Nuklearmedizin. 2008;47:18-23 pubmed
    ..Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of both tracers in early diagnosis and staging of sarcoidosis, and to resolve questions concerning medical treatment and follow-up. ..
  22. Yang Z, Xiong D, Zeng Y, Liang L, Li Q, Wu G. [Effects of natural killer cells on engraftment and reconstitution of hematopoiesis and immunity in mice undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2008;16:627-32 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that in allo-BMT mice, alloreactive NK cell inhibits graft rejection, enhances engraftment, promotes the reconstitution of hematopoiesis and immunity, and increases survival rates. ..
  23. Down J, Yanch J. Identifying the high radiosensitivity of the lungs of C57L mice in a model of total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. Radiat Res. 2010;174:258-63 pubmed publisher
  24. Willey J, Grilly L, Howard S, Pecaut M, Obenaus A, Gridley D, et al. Bone architectural and structural properties after 56Fe26+ radiation-induced changes in body mass. Radiat Res. 2008;170:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to (56)Fe(26+) ions can alter trabecular microarchitecture in shielded bones. Reduced body mass seems to be correlated with these deficits of trabecular and cortical bone...
  25. Chen B, Deng X, Ding J, Sun X, Dong W, Bi Y, et al. [Effect of recipient mouse splenocytes taken orally by donor mouse on GVHD after splenocyte transplantation]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2008;16:126-30 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference in survival rate between different groups of recipients inoculated with leukemia cell. It is concluded that the peroral recipient-mouse splenocytes can ameliorate GVHD without hampering effect on GVL. ..
  26. Wu C, Chen W, Lin P, Liao S, Chen M. Androgen deprivation modulates the inflammatory response induced by irradiation. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:92 pubmed publisher
    ..When irradiation was given to patients with total androgen deprivation, the augmenting effects on the RT-induced inflammation and fibrosis should take into consideration for complications associated with radiotherapy. ..
  27. Kraft A. Manhattan transfer: lethal radiation, bone marrow transplantation, and the birth of stem cell biology, ca. 1942-1961. Hist Stud Nat Sci. 2009;39:171-218 pubmed
    ..In its focus on BMT this paper provides a new perspective on the evolving relationship between radiobiology and biomedicine in the postwar period. ..
  28. Takahata M, Hashino S, Okada K, Onozawa M, Kahata K, Sugita J, et al. Reduced intensity conditioning regimen with fludarabine, busulfan, and low-dose TBI (Flu-BU2-TBI): clinical efficacy in high-risk patients. Am J Hematol. 2010;85:243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The Flu-BU2-TBI regimen for high-risk patients showed therapeutic effects equivalent to those for standard-risk patients and favorable outcomes compared with those of other previous RIC regimens. ..
  29. Bos R, van Duikeren S, Morreau H, Franken K, Schumacher T, Haanen J, et al. Balancing between antitumor efficacy and autoimmune pathology in T-cell-mediated targeting of carcinoembryonic antigen. Cancer Res. 2008;68:8446-55 pubmed publisher
  30. Kumar V, Vats R, Pathak P. Harmful effects of 41 and 202 MHz radiations on some body parts and tissues. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2008;45:269-74 pubmed
  31. Bailey H, Kappy M, Giller R, Gralla J. Time-course and risk factors of hypothyroidism following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children conditioned with fractionated total body irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51:405-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of our patients who received BMT had sibling donors and the majority of CB transplants were from unrelated donors. It is difficult to determine which association is related to hypothyroidism, but the combination is significant. ..
  32. Tatsumi K, Otani H, Sato D, Enoki C, Iwasaka T, Imamura H, et al. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor increases donor mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow and their mobilization into peripheral circulation but does not repair dystrophic heart after bone marrow transplantation. Circ J. 2008;72:1351-8 pubmed
  33. Ilnytskyy Y, Koturbash I, Kovalchuk O. Radiation-induced bystander effects in vivo are epigenetically regulated in a tissue-specific manner. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2009;50:105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are clearly needed to address organismal and carcinogenic repercussions of those changes. ..
  34. Briere T, Tailor R, Tolani N, Prado K, Lane R, Woo S, et al. Patient dosimetry for total body irradiation using single-use MOSFET detectors. J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2008;9:2787 pubmed
  35. Radojcic V, Bezak K, Skarica M, Pletneva M, Yoshimura K, Schulick R, et al. Cyclophosphamide resets dendritic cell homeostasis and enhances antitumor immunity through effects that extend beyond regulatory T cell elimination. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:137-48 pubmed publisher
  36. Bialkowski K, Szpila A, Kasprzak K. Up-regulation of 8-oxo-dGTPase activity of MTH1 protein in the brain, testes and kidneys of mice exposed to (137)Cs gamma radiation. Radiat Res. 2009;172:187-97 pubmed publisher
  37. Dawson L, Kavanagh B, Paulino A, Das S, Miften M, Li X, et al. Radiation-associated kidney injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76:S108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitigation of radiation nephropathy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and other compounds has been shown in animal models and, more recently, in patients. ..
  38. Ramos de Andrade E, Da Costa Escobar Piccoli J, Mânica da Cruz I, Teixeira Rocha J, Garzo E, Marina R, et al. Radiomodifying effect of organic grape juice supplementation on hematological parameters and organ weight in whole-body X-irradiation in rats. Nutr Hosp. 2009;24:297-303 pubmed
    ..Hematological analysis showed typical abnormalities for ionizing radiation exposure, including early leucopenia and anemia. The intake of grape juice induced an increase in granulocyte percent count. ..
  39. Armistead P, de Lima M, Pierce S, Qiao W, Wang X, Thall P, et al. Quantifying the survival benefit for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009;15:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that HSCT is preferable to chemotherapy alone in these patients with poor prognoses, with particular benefits noted in patients under age 50 years. ..
  40. Bernad D, Sperduto P, Souhami L, Jensen A, Roberge D. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of brain metastases from primary thyroid cancers. J Neurooncol. 2010;98:249-52 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear as to whether current prognostic indices are relevant to this patient population. ..
  41. Gil M, Bieniasz M, Wierzbicki A, Bambach B, Rokita H, Kozbor D. Targeting a mimotope vaccine to activating Fcgamma receptors empowers dendritic cells to prime specific CD8+ T cell responses in tumor-bearing mice. J Immunol. 2009;183:6808-18 pubmed publisher
  42. Hofer M, Pospisil M, Sefc L, Dusek L, Vacek A, Holá J, et al. Activation of adenosine A(3) receptors supports hematopoiesis-stimulating effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in sublethally irradiated mice. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010;86:649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest the ability of IB-MECA to stimulate hematopoiesis and to support the hematopoiesis-stimulating effects of G-CSF in sublethally irradiated mice. ..
  43. Singh V, Brown D, Kao T. Alpha-tocopherol succinate protects mice from gamma-radiation by induction of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010;86:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that G-CSF-induced by the administration of TS, mobilises hematopoietic stem cells and is responsible for the protection from ionising radiation. ..
  44. Pagel J, Gooley T, Rajendran J, Fisher D, Wilson W, Sandmaier B, et al. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2009;114:5444-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177...
  45. Hsieh M, Kang E, Fitzhugh C, Link M, Bolan C, Kurlander R, et al. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2309-17 pubmed publisher
    ..ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00061568.) ..
  46. da Fonseca M, Hong C. An overview of chronic oral graft-vs-host disease following pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Dent. 2008;30:98-104 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this paper was to review the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pediatric chronic graft-vs-host disease, with a focus on its oral manifestations and the dental management of affected children and adolescents. ..
  47. Chen X, Ran X, Sun R, Shi C, Su Y, Guo C, et al. Protective effect of an extract from Periplaneta americana on hematopoiesis in irradiated rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009;85:607-13 pubmed publisher
  48. Yao Z, Liu Y, Jones J, Strober S. Differences in Bcl-2 expression by T-cell subsets alter their balance after in vivo irradiation to favor CD4+Bcl-2hi NKT cells. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:763-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, differential expression of Bcl-2 contributes to the changes in T-cell subsets and immune function after irradiation. ..
  49. Dvorak C, Wright N, Wong W, Kristovich K, Matthews E, Weinberg K, et al. Safety of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children less than three years of age. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008;25:705-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclophosphamide-related perineal dermatitis is a unique complication in very young children. Finally, the incidence of acute and chronic GvHD in this population is low. ..
  50. Horvath Z, Pallinger E, Horváth G, Jelinek I, Veszely G, Furesz J, et al. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is dysregulated in histamine-free histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC-/-) mice. Inflamm Res. 2010;59:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..STAT5 mRNA expression was decreased in granulocyte-myeloid colonies by 72.9 +/- 8.6% (P < 0.001), compared to the wild-type. The absence of histamine adversely affects splenic hematopoiesis via direct and indirect mechanisms. ..
  51. Parikh S, Mendizabal A, Martin P, Prasad V, Szabolcs P, Driscoll T, et al. Unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation in pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome: a single-center experience. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009;15:948-55 pubmed publisher
    ..UUCB should be actively considered for pediatric MDS patients lacking matched related or unrelated adult donors. ..
  52. Oishi A, Otani A, Sasahara M, Kojima H, Nakamura H, Yodoi Y, et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects retinal photoreceptor cells against light-induced damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:5629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..G-CSF protects photoreceptor cells against light-induced damage, possibly via G-CSF receptor expressed on retinal cells. These findings may lead to a novel treatment strategy for neural degenerating diseases of the retina. ..
  53. Prins R, Shu C, Radu C, Vo D, Khan Farooqi H, Soto H, et al. Anti-tumor activity and trafficking of self, tumor-specific T cells against tumors located in the brain. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2008;57:1279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that peripheral tolerance to endogenous TAA can be overcome to treat tumors in the brain and suggest a novel trafficking paradigm for the homing of tumor-specific T cells that target CNS tumors. ..