cranial irradiation


Summary: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.

Top Publications

  1. Naidoo J, Teo M, Deady S, Comber H, Calvert P. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC...
  2. Gong L, Wang Q, Zhao L, Yuan Z, Li R, Wang P. Factors affecting the risk of brain metastasis in small cell lung cancer with surgery: is prophylactic cranial irradiation necessary for stage I-III disease?. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85:196-200 pubmed publisher
    The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with surgical resection has not been fully identified...
  3. De Potter B, De Meerleer G, De Neve W, Boterberg T, Speleers B, Ost P. Hypofractionated frameless stereotactic intensity-modulated radiotherapy with whole brain radiotherapy for the treatment of 1-3 brain metastases. Neurol Sci. 2013;34:647-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The 1-year actuarial local and distant brain control was 66 and 75 %, respectively. WBRT + HSRT is an effective treatment for patients with up to three brain metastases. ..
  4. van Kesteren Z, Belderbos J, van Herk M, Olszewska A, Lamers E, De Ruysscher D, et al. A practical technique to avoid the hippocampus in prophylactic cranial irradiation for lung cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2012;102:225-7 pubmed publisher
    A practical technique is presented to deliver hippocampus avoiding prophylactic cranial irradiation for lung cancer patients, using two lateral fields. For a prescribed dose of 12×2.5 Gy, sparing of the hippocampi to 6...
  5. Parihar V, Limoli C. Cranial irradiation compromises neuronal architecture in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12822-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Cranial irradiation is used routinely for the treatment of nearly all brain tumors, but may lead to progressive and debilitating impairments of cognitive function...
  6. Elaimy A, Mackay A, Lamoreaux W, Fairbanks R, Demakas J, Cooke B, et al. Clinical outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with metastatic brain tumors. World Neurosurg. 2011;75:673-83 pubmed publisher
  7. Belarbi K, Jopson T, Arellano C, Fike J, Rosi S. CCR2 deficiency prevents neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairments induced by cranial irradiation. Cancer Res. 2013;73:1201-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Cranial irradiation can lead to long-lasting cognitive impairments in patients receiving radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant brain tumors...
  8. D Agostino G, Autorino R, Pompucci A, De Santis M, Manfrida S, Di Lella G, et al. Whole-brain radiotherapy combined with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with brain oligometastases: long-term analysis. Strahlenther Onkol. 2011;187:421-5 pubmed publisher
    ..No difference was observed in the two groups (p = 0.40). Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach in symptomatic patients; nevertheless, our data support the use of WBRT plus SRT in one or two brain metastases smaller than 3 cm. ..
  9. Chakraborti A, Allen A, Allen B, Rosi S, Fike J. Cranial irradiation alters dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40844 pubmed publisher
    ..cellular changes in the hippocampus following brain irradiation, we investigated the effects of 10 Gy cranial irradiation on dendritic spines in young adult mice...

More Information


  1. Schild S, Foster N, Meyers J, Ross H, Stella P, Garces Y, et al. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled Analysis. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:2919-24 pubmed publisher
    This pooled analysis evaluated the outcomes of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in 739 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC patients with stable disease (SD) or better following chemotherapy ± thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) to examine ..
  2. Isfan F, Kanold J, Merlin E, Contet A, Sirvent N, Rochette E, et al. Growth hormone treatment impact on growth rate and final height of patients who received HSCT with TBI or/and cranial irradiation in childhood: a report from the French Leukaemia Long-Term Follow-Up Study (LEA). Bone Marrow Transplant. 2012;47:684-93 pubmed publisher
    ..influence the linear growth in up to 85% of patients undergoing haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) with TBI and/or cranial irradiation (CI) for acute leukaemia (AL)...
  3. Burrell K, Hill R, Zadeh G. High-resolution in-vivo analysis of normal brain response to cranial irradiation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38366 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite recognized therapeutic success, significant negative consequences are associated with cranial irradiation (CR), which manifests months to years post-RT...
  4. Pesce G, Klingbiel D, Ribi K, Zouhair A, von Moos R, Schlaeppi M, et al. Outcome, quality of life and cognitive function of patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer treated with whole brain radiotherapy combined with gefitinib or temozolomide. A randomised phase II trial of the Swiss Group for Clinic. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Cognitive function improved during treatment. However, median overall survival for all patients was only 4.9months (95% CI 2.3-5.7) and 1-year survival 25.4% (95% CI 15.4-37.0%). ..
  5. Rades D, Schild S. Do patients with a limited number of brain metastases need whole-brain radiotherapy in addition to radiosurgery?. Strahlenther Onkol. 2012;188:702-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further randomized studies including adequate assessment of neurocognitive function and a follow-up period of at least 2 years are needed to help customize the treatment for individual patients. ..
  6. Rao A, Ye H, Decker P, Howe C, Wetmore C. Therapeutic doses of cranial irradiation induce hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits in young mice. J Neurooncol. 2011;105:191-8 pubmed publisher
    Fractionated cranial irradiation is an essential part of treatment in the management of cohorts of pediatric brain tumor and leukemia patients...
  7. Fruh M, Kacsir B, Ess S, Cerny T, Rodriguez R, Plasswilm L. Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: An indication for prophylactic cranial irradiation? A single center experience. Strahlenther Onkol. 2011;187:561-7 pubmed publisher
    Information about extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is limited and the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is unknown...
  8. Ramlov A, Tietze A, Khalil A, Knap M. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer. A retrospective study of recurrence, survival and morbidity. Lung Cancer. 2012;77:561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The study showed that prophylactic steroid use might reduce acute toxicity to PCI. Survival data and recurrence rates are comparable to other clinical studies. ..
  9. Viani G, Boin A, Ikeda V, Vianna B, Silva R, Santanella F. Thirty years of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Bras Pneumol. 2012;38:372-81 pubmed
    To determine the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC)...
  10. Vandecruys E, Dhooge C, Craen M, Benoit Y, De Schepper J. Longitudinal linear growth and final height is impaired in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors after treatment without cranial irradiation. J Pediatr. 2013;163:268-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapeutic regimens of moderate intensity without cranial radiation therapy exhibit a modest loss in SDS for height at FH irrespective of GH status at the cessation of treatment. ..
  11. Topkan E, Parlak C, Kotek A, Yuksel O, Cengiz M, Ozsahin M, et al. Impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation timing on brain relapse rates in patients with stage IIIB non-small-cell lung carcinoma treated with two different chemoradiotherapy regimens. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:1264-71 pubmed publisher
    To retrospectively assess the influence of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) timing on brain relapse rates in patients treated with two different chemoradiotherapy (CRT) regimens for Stage IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  12. Abe E, Aoyama H. The role of whole brain radiation therapy for the management of brain metastases in the era of stereotactic radiosurgery. Curr Oncol Rep. 2012;14:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients who have solitary BM with the absence of extracranial metastases may be indicated for SRS monotherapy given the lower risk of BTR compared with those having multiple BMs or extracranial metastases. ..
  13. Godlewski B, Drummond K, Kaye A. Radiation-induced meningiomas after high-dose cranial irradiation. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:1627-35 pubmed publisher
    ..It is timely to consider RIM due to high dose radiation, which is now frequently employed in the management of various childhood and other malignancies. ..
  14. Grosshans D, Meyers C, Allen P, Davenport S, Komaki R. Neurocognitive function in patients with small cell lung cancer : effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation. Cancer. 2008;112:589-95 pubmed
    The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been tempered by fears of detrimental effects on cognitive function...
  15. Clarke J, Register S, McGregor J, Grecula J, Mayr N, Wang J, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery with or without whole brain radiotherapy for patients with a single radioresistant brain metastasis. Am J Clin Oncol. 2010;33:70-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Radiosurgery alone is a reasonable treatment option, but may carry a greater likelihood of distant brain recurrence. ..
  16. Raber J. Unintended effects of cranial irradiation on cognitive function. Toxicol Pathol. 2010;38:198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..The symposium was held in Washington, DC, in 2009 and dealt with unintended adverse events associated with cranial irradiation as part of cancer therapy...
  17. Gondi V, Tome W, Mehta M. Why avoid the hippocampus? A comprehensive review. Radiother Oncol. 2010;97:370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of the rationale for using modern IMRT techniques to spare the subgranular zone of the hippocampus during cranial irradiation. We review the literature on neurocognitive effects of cranial irradiation; discuss clinical and ..
  18. Siviero Miachon A, Spinola Castro A, Tosta Hernandez P, de Martino Lee M, Petrilli A. Leptin assessment in acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors: role of cranial radiotherapy?. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007;29:776-82 pubmed
    ..index (BMI) in a sample of 26 acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors of both sexes, treated with and without cranial irradiation, aged 7.6 to 17 years, at a mean 3.4+/-2.0 years off treatment...
  19. Le Pechoux C, Laplanche A, Faivre Finn C, Ciuleanu T, Wanders R, Lerouge D, et al. Clinical neurological outcome and quality of life among patients with limited small-cell cancer treated with two different doses of prophylactic cranial irradiation in the intergroup phase III trial (PCI99-01, EORTC 22003-08004, RTOG 0212 and IFCT 99. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:1154-63 pubmed publisher
    We recently published the results of the PCI99 randomised trial comparing the effect of a prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) at 25 or 36 Gy on the incidence of brain metastases (BM) in 720 patients with limited small-cell lung cancer ..
  20. Gore E, Bae K, Wong S, Sun A, Bonner J, Schild S, et al. Phase III comparison of prophylactic cranial irradiation versus observation in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: primary analysis of radiation therapy oncology group study RTOG 0214. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:272-8 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to determine if prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) improves survival in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC)...
  21. Corn B, Moughan J, Knisely J, Fox S, Chakravarti A, Yung W, et al. Prospective evaluation of quality of life and neurocognitive effects in patients with multiple brain metastases receiving whole-brain radiotherapy with or without thalidomide on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 0118. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e., WBRT, thalidomide) to neurocognitive decline. The RTOG has developed a trial to study the role of preventative strategies aimed at forestalling neurocognitive decline in this population. ..
  22. Slotman B, Mauer M, Bottomley A, Faivre Finn C, Kramer G, Rankin E, et al. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in extensive disease small-cell lung cancer: short-term health-related quality of life and patient reported symptoms: results of an international Phase III randomized controlled trial by the EORTC Radiation Oncology a. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:78-84 pubmed publisher
    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC) leads to significantly fewer symptomatic brain metastases and improved survival...
  23. Knisely J, Berkey B, Chakravarti A, Yung A, Curran W, Robins H, et al. A phase III study of conventional radiation therapy plus thalidomide versus conventional radiation therapy for multiple brain metastases (RTOG 0118). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thalidomide provided no survival benefit for patients with multiple, large, or midbrain metastases when combined with WBRT; nearly half the patients discontinued thalidomide due to side effects. ..
  24. Giubilei C, Ingrosso G, D Andrea M, Benassi M, Santoni R. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in combination with whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases. J Neurooncol. 2009;91:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..1%. No patient had acute or late complications. HSRT as a concomitant boost during WBRT is a safe and well tolerated treatment for selected patients with brain metastases. ..
  25. Pui C, Howard S. Current management and challenges of malignant disease in the CNS in paediatric leukaemia. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Because cranial irradiation can cause many acute and late complications (eg, second cancers, neurocognitive deficits, endocrine ..
  26. Rades D, Heisterkamp C, Huttenlocher S, Bohlen G, Dunst J, Haatanen T, et al. Dose escalation of whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases from melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:537-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis generated by this study must be confirmed in a randomized trial stratifying for significant prognostic factors. ..
  27. Kwon A, DiBiase S, Wang B, Hughes S, Milcarek B, Zhu Y. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of brain metastases. Cancer. 2009;115:890-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the current study warrant a prospective randomized study comparing single-fraction SRS with HSRT in this patient population. ..
  28. Scott C, Suh J, Stea B, Nabid A, Hackman J. Improved survival, quality of life, and quality-adjusted survival in breast cancer patients treated with efaproxiral (Efaproxyn) plus whole-brain radiation therapy for brain metastases. Am J Clin Oncol. 2007;30:580-7 pubmed
    ..001). Survival, quality of life, and quality-adjusted survival were all improved in breast cancer patients with brain metastases receiving efaproxiral and WBRT compared with those receiving WBRT alone. ..
  29. Huang F, Alrefae M, Langleben A, Roberge D. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in advanced breast cancer: a case for caution. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:752-8 pubmed publisher
    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has a well-recognized role in the treatment of leukemia and small-cell lung cancer...
  30. Mehta M, Shapiro W, Phan S, Gervais R, Carrie C, Chabot P, et al. Motexafin gadolinium combined with prompt whole brain radiotherapy prolongs time to neurologic progression in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases: results of a phase III trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:1069-76 pubmed publisher
    ..MGd significantly prolonged the interval to neurologic progression in non-small-cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases receiving prompt WBRT. The toxicity was acceptable. ..
  31. Yavuz A, Topkan E, Onal C, Yavuz M. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: outcome of recursive partitioning analysis group 1 patients. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2008;27:80 pubmed publisher
    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has been demonstrated to reduce or delay the incidence of brain metastases (BM) in locally advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) patients with various prognostic groups...
  32. Rades D, Kueter J, Pluemer A, Veninga T, Schild S. A matched-pair analysis comparing whole-brain radiotherapy plus stereotactic radiosurgery versus surgery plus whole-brain radiotherapy and a boost to the metastatic site for one or two brain metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:1077-81 pubmed publisher
    ..However, WBRT+SRS is less invasive than OP+WBRT+boost and may be preferable for patients with one or two brain metastases. The results should be confirmed by randomized trials. ..
  33. Louie A, Rodrigues G, Yaremko B, Yu E, Dar A, Dingle B, et al. Management and prognosis in synchronous solitary resected brain metastasis from non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2009;10:174-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, patients with thoracic disease amenable to local resection should be considered for such therapy because a survival advantage could exist compared with patients with more locally advanced disease. ..
  34. Allard E, Jarnet D, Vessieres A, Vinchon Petit S, Jaouen G, Benoit J, et al. Local delivery of ferrociphenol lipid nanocapsules followed by external radiotherapy as a synergistic treatment against intracranial 9L glioma xenograft. Pharm Res. 2010;27:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The synergistic effect between ferrociphenol-loaded LNCs and radiotherapy was due to a closely oxidative relationship. Upon these considerations, Fc-diOH-LNCs appear to be an efficient radiosensitive anticancer drug delivery system. ..
  35. Gondi V, Tome W, Marsh J, Struck A, Ghia A, Turian J, et al. Estimated risk of perihippocampal disease progression after hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy: safety profile for RTOG 0933. Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..02 (95% CI 1.006-1.034, p=0.003) for the presence of perihippocampal metastasis. With an estimated perihippocampal metastasis risk of 8.6%, we deem HA-WBRT safe for clinical testing in patients with brain metastases as part of RTOG 0933. ..
  36. Armour M, Ford E, Iordachita I, Wong J. CT guidance is needed to achieve reproducible positioning of the mouse head for repeat precision cranial irradiation. Radiat Res. 2010;173:119-23 pubmed publisher
    To study the effects of cranial irradiation, we have constructed an all-plastic mouse bed equipped with an immobilizing head holder...
  37. Strenger V, Sovinz P, Lackner H, Dornbusch H, Lingitz H, Eder H, et al. Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors. Strahlenther Onkol. 2008;184:276-80 pubmed publisher
    ..deficits, secondary malignancies and radiation-induced necrosis are well-known possible late effects of cranial irradiation. However, only sporadic cases of radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICH) have been reported so far...
  38. Tamminga J, Koturbash I, Baker M, Kutanzi K, Kathiria P, Pogribny I, et al. Paternal cranial irradiation induces distant bystander DNA damage in the germline and leads to epigenetic alterations in the offspring. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:1238-45 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether or not the paternal cranial irradiation can exert deleterious changes in the protected germline, we studied the accumulation of DNA damage in the ..
  39. Lee Y, Park N, Kim J, Song Y, Kang S, Lee H. Gamma-knife radiosurgery as an optimal treatment modality for brain metastases from epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;108:505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0061). For the control of brain metastases, GKS seems to be an effective modality. GKS improves the overall survival of the patients with brain metastases from EOC. ..
  40. Yom S, Frija E, Mahajan A, Chang E, Klein K, Shiu A, et al. Field-in-field technique with intrafractionally modulated junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:1193-8 pubmed
    ..Field-in-field planning and modulated junction shifts improve the homogeneity and consistency of daily dose delivery, simplify treatment, and reduce the impact of setup errors. ..
  41. Ma S, Xu Y, Deng Q, Yu X. Treatment of brain metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer with whole brain radiotherapy and Gefitinib in a Chinese population. Lung Cancer. 2009;65:198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the data presented herewithin appears promising, more data from randomized trials are needed to further validate this regimen of WBRT/Gefitinib. ..
  42. Le Péchoux C, Dunant A, Senan S, Wolfson A, Quoix E, Faivre Finn C, et al. Standard-dose versus higher-dose prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer in complete remission after chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy (PCI 99-01, EORTC 22003-08004, RTOG 0212, and IFCT 99-01). Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:467-74 pubmed publisher
    The optimum dose of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is unknown. A meta-analysis suggested that the incidence of brain metastases might be reduced with higher PCI doses...
  43. Breene R, Williams R, Hartle J, Gattens M, Acerini C, Murray M. Auxological changes in UK survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated without cranial irradiation. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:746-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia survivors treated historically with protocols including cranial irradiation demonstrate increased weight gain...
  44. Chang E, Wefel J, Hess K, Allen P, Lang F, Kornguth D, et al. Neurocognition in patients with brain metastases treated with radiosurgery or radiosurgery plus whole-brain irradiation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:1037-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial treatment with a combination of SRS and close clinical monitoring is recommended as the preferred treatment strategy to better preserve learning and memory in patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases. ..
  45. Rodrigues G, Yartsev S, Yaremko B, Perera F, Dar A, Hammond A, et al. Phase I trial of simultaneous in-field boost with helical tomotherapy for patients with one to three brain metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach is being tested in a Phase II efficacy trial. ..
  46. Meisner J, Meyer A, Polivka B, Karstens J, Bremer M. Outcome of moderately dosed radiosurgery for limited brain metastases. Report of a single-center experience. Strahlenther Onkol. 2010;186:76-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moderately dosed SRS of limited brain metastases was found to be both effective and safe. Initial SRS only may be offered to informed patients complying with MRI-based follow-up. ..
  47. Patel S, Macdonald O, Suntharalingam M. Evaluation of the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. Cancer. 2009;115:842-50 pubmed publisher
    Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been used in patients with small cell lung cancer to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis after primary therapy...
  48. Barbosa L, Teixeira C. Erythema multiforme associated with prophylactic use of phenytoin during cranial radiation therapy. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65:1048-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was then diagnosed toxic epidermal necrolysis. A patient with intraductal adenocarcinoma of the breast and cerebral metastasis developed erythema multiforme after receiving concurrent phenytoin and radiation therapy. ..
  49. Li J, Bentzen S, Li J, Renschler M, Mehta M. Relationship between neurocognitive function and quality of life after whole-brain radiotherapy in patients with brain metastasis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurocognitive function deterioration precedes QOL decline. The sequential association between NCF and QOL decline suggests that delaying NCF deterioration is a worthwhile treatment goal in brain metastases patients. ..
  50. Sun A, Bae K, Gore E, Movsas B, Wong S, Meyers C, et al. Phase III trial of prophylactic cranial irradiation compared with observation in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: neurocognitive and quality-of-life analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:279-86 pubmed publisher
    There are scant data regarding the effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on neurocognitive function (NCF) and quality of life (QOL)...
  51. Muacevic A, Wowra B, Siefert A, Tonn J, Steiger H, Kreth F. Microsurgery plus whole brain irradiation versus Gamma Knife surgery alone for treatment of single metastases to the brain: a randomized controlled multicentre phase III trial. J Neurooncol. 2008;87:299-307 pubmed
    ..Distant tumor control, however, is significantly less frequently achieved (after radiosurgery alone). The role of radiosurgical salvage therapy (alternatively to WBRT) for distant tumor control deserves further prospective evaluation. ..
  52. Mitchell C, Richards S, Harrison C, Eden T. Long-term follow-up of the United Kingdom medical research council protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 1980-2001. Leukemia. 2010;24:406-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Over the era encompassed by these four trials, there has been a major improvement in both event-free and overall survival for children in the United Kingdom with ALL. ..
  53. Linskey M, Andrews D, Asher A, Burri S, Kondziolka D, Robinson P, et al. The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases: a systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline. J Neurooncol. 2010;96:45-68 pubmed publisher