rectal administration


Summary: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.

Top Publications

  1. Owczarzak V, Haddad J. Comparison of oral versus rectal administration of acetaminophen with codeine in postoperative pediatric adenotonsillectomy patients. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1485-8 pubmed
    ..If given the choice for future surgeries, many parents would switch or consider switching from oral pain medication to suppositories. ..
  2. Sakai M, Hobara N, Hokama N, Kameya H, Ohshiro S, Sakanashi M, et al. Increased bioavailability of tacrolimus after rectal administration in rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27:1480-2 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to elucidate the usefulness of rectal administration of tacrolimus as an alternative route to improve its bioavailability...
  3. Kaona F, Tuba M. A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia. BMC Public Health. 2005;5:28 pubmed
    ..Therefore rectal artesunate may be a well-received intervention in Nakonde District, provided effective sensitisation, to mothers and CHWs is given which will strengthen the health care delivery system at community level. ..
  4. Karunajeewa H, Manning L, Mueller I, Ilett K, Davis T. Rectal administration of artemisinin derivatives for the treatment of malaria. JAMA. 2007;297:2381-90 pubmed
    b>Rectal administration of artemisinin derivatives is a potentially lifesaving emergency treatment of severe malaria...
  5. Hinton R, Auwun A, Pongua G, Oa O, Davis T, Karunajeewa H, et al. Caregivers' acceptance of using artesunate suppositories for treating childhood malaria in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:634-40 pubmed
    ..acceptability is unknown in Papua New Guinea and a formal examination of caregiver's attitudes to rectal administration was needed to inform effective deployment strategies...
  6. Koffi A, Agnely F, Ponchel G, Grossiord J. Modulation of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of thermosensitive poloxamer-based hydrogels intended for the rectal administration of quinine. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2006;27:328-35 pubmed
    ..This master curve would make it possible to predict the values of W at various rates of traction by the simple non-destructive measurement of the elastic modulus, G', at an equivalent shear frequency...
  7. Rozema E, Stephens T, Bach S, Okine E, Johnson R, Stanford K, et al. Oral and rectal administration of bacteriophages for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle. J Food Prot. 2009;72:241-50 pubmed
    This study compared oral and rectal administration of O157-specific bacteriophages for mitigating the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 by experimentally inoculated steers. Fecal shedding of nalidixic acid-resistant (Nal(R)) E...
  8. Aceng J, Byarugaba J, Tumwine J. Rectal artemether versus intravenous quinine for the treatment of cerebral malaria in children in Uganda: randomised clinical trial. BMJ. 2005;330:334 pubmed
    ..29, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 2.01). No serious immediate adverse effects occurred. Rectal artemether is effective and well tolerated and could be used as treatment for cerebral malaria. ..
  9. Pussard E, Straczek C, Kaboré I, Bicaba A, Balima Koussoube T, Bouree P, et al. Dose-dependent resorption of quinine after intrarectal administration to children with moderate Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4422-6 pubmed
    ..b>Rectal administration of doses of 16 or 20 mg/kg of body weight led to concentration-time profiles in blood similar to those of ..

More Information


  1. Mirbagheri S, Nezami B, Assa S, Hajimahmoodi M. Rectal administration of d-alpha tocopherol for active ulcerative colitis: a preliminary report. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:5990-5 pubmed
    ..This preliminary report suggests that rectal d-alpha tocopherol may represent a novel therapy for mild and moderately active UC. The observed results might be due to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of vitamin E. ..
  2. Benakis A, Binh T, Keundjian A, Scheiwe M. Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics findings after repeated administration of ARTESUNATE thermostable suppositories (RECTOCAPS) in Vietnamese patients with uncomplicated malaria. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2006;31:41-5 pubmed
    ..Repeated administration of ART can extend the duration of therapeutic plasma levels of the drug. ..
  3. Barnes K, Mwenechanya J, Tembo M, McIlleron H, Folb P, Ribeiro I, et al. Efficacy of rectal artesunate compared with parenteral quinine in initial treatment of moderately severe malaria in African children and adults: a randomised study. Lancet. 2004;363:1598-605 pubmed
    ..This option is useful for initiation of treatment in patients unable to take oral medication, particularly where parenteral treatment is unavailable. ..
  4. Yang Y, Lee J, Kim I, Jung Y, Kim Y. Synthesis and properties of N-nicotinoyl-2-(5-fluorouracil-1-yl)-D,L-glycine ester as a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil for rectal administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2007;66:260-7 pubmed
    ..isopropyl esters (NFGIp) were synthesized and their potential as a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for rectal administration was investigated...
  5. Marraffa J, Hui A, Stork C. Severe hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia following the rectal administration of a phosphate-containing Fleet pediatric enema. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20:453-6 pubmed
    ..We report a case of electrolyte disturbance and seizure secondary to the rectal administration of 2 Fleet pediatric enemas...
  6. Simpson J, Agbenyega T, Barnes K, Di Perri G, Folb P, Gomes M, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e444 pubmed
    ..However, a number of modelling assumptions were required due to the large intra- and inter-individual variability of the DHA concentrations. ..
  7. Awad M, Alkadru A, Behrens R, Baraka O, Eltayeb I. Descriptive study on the efficacy and safety of artesunate suppository in combination with other antimalarials in the treatment of severe malaria in Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:153-8 pubmed
    ..The combination regimens could be used in areas where there is limited access to parenteral therapy for malaria. ..
  8. Gomez E, Jurado M, Cambon N. Randomised efficacy and safety study of two 3-day artesunate rectal capsule/mefloquine regimens versus artesunate alone for uncomplicated malaria in Ecuadorian children. Acta Trop. 2003;89:47-53 pubmed
    ..Comparing the two tested artesunate/mefloquine regimens, a total mefloquine dose of 20 mg/kg seems to be more effective compared to a total dose of 15-17 mg/kg. Further studies seem to be warranted. ..
  9. Awad M, Eltayeb I, Baraka O, Behrens R, Alkadru A. Pharmacokinetics of artesunate following oral and rectal administration in healthy Sudanese volunteers. Trop Doct. 2004;34:132-5 pubmed
    ..of 200 mg oral and rectal artesunate in healthy volunteers, and to suggest a rational dosage regimen for rectal administration. The study design was a randomized open cross-over study of 12 healthy volunteers; the analytical method ..
  10. Sun X, Suzuki K, Nagata M, Kawauchi Y, Yano M, Ohkoshi S, et al. Rectal administration of tranilast ameliorated acute colitis in mice through increased expression of heme oxygenase-1. Pathol Int. 2010;60:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Tranilast might exert these effects partly through enhanced HO-1 expression in the colon, suggesting a potential adjunctive therapy for IBD. ..
  11. Eisenhut M, Omari A, MacLehose H. Intrarectal quinine for treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a systematic review. Malar J. 2005;4:24 pubmed
    ..Pain during application may be less with intrarectal quinine. Further larger trials, in patients with severe malaria and in adults, are required before the intrarectal route could be recommended. ..
  12. Carballo Dieguez A, Exner T, Dolezal C, Pickard R, Lin P, Mayer K. Rectal microbicide acceptability: results of a volume escalation trial. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:224-9 pubmed
    ..Condom use was inconsistent despite advice to use condoms. Microbicides that would require up to 35 mL of volume to be effective would be acceptable to men who engage in high-risk RAI. ..
  13. Koffi A, Agnely F, Besnard M, Kablan Brou J, Grossiord J, Ponchel G. In vitro and in vivo characteristics of a thermogelling and bioadhesive delivery system intended for rectal administration of quinine in children. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2008;69:167-75 pubmed
    ..Modulation by HPMC of the viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties of poloxamer 407 thermogelling solutions allowed a prolonged release of quinine hydrochloride and an improvement of bioavailability in rabbit. ..
  14. Barennes H, Sterlingot H, Nagot N, Meda H, Kabore M, Sanou M, et al. Intrarectal pharmacokinetics of two formulations of quinine in children with falciparum malaria. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;58:649-52 pubmed
    ..Intrarectal administration of hydrochloride salt solution is a possible mode of quinine delivery in remote rural areas of Africa. ..
  15. Matsuura M, Okazaki K, Nishio A, Nakase H, Tamaki H, Uchida K, et al. Therapeutic effects of rectal administration of basic fibroblast growth factor on experimental murine colitis. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:975-86 pubmed
    ..The proliferation activity of hrbFGF on the colonic epithelium was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Rectal administration of hrbFGF ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner...
  16. Pengsaa K, Sirivichayakul C, Na Bangchang K, Thaiarporn I, Chaivisuth A, Wongsuwan A, et al. Life-saving rectal artesunate for complicated malaria in children. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36:597-601 pubmed
    ..Further studies for the optimized regimen of rectal artesunate in the treatment of cerebral/complicated childhood falciparum malaria in areas of multidrug resistance are warranted. ..
  17. Chen Y, Chen Y, Liu W, Zhou T, Cai J, Du Q, et al. Therapeutic effects of rectal administration of muscovite on experimental colitis in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:912-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate whether rectal administration of muscovite can ameliorate colonic inflammation in a rat model of experimental colitis, and its possible mechanism...
  18. Gomes M, Ribeiro I, Warsame M, Karunajeewa H, Petzold M. Rectal artemisinins for malaria: a review of efficacy and safety from individual patient data in clinical studies. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:39 pubmed publisher
    b>Rectal administration of artemisinin derivatives has potential for early treatment for severe malaria in remote settings where injectable antimalarial therapy may not be feasible...
  19. Sheng H, Davis M, Knecht H, Hovde C. Rectal administration of Escherichia coli O157:H7: novel model for colonization of ruminants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:4588-95 pubmed
    ..The surprising ease with which long-term infections resulted from a single application of bacteria to the rectoanal mucosa also strongly supported this location as a site of E. coli O157:H7 colonization in cattle. ..
  20. Kowari K, Hirosawa I, Kurai H, Utoguchi N, Fujii M, Watanabe Y. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) after rectal administration of hollow-type suppositories containing hCG. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25:678-81 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 12.6 ng/ml) was observed 24 h after rectal administration of hCG (400 IU/kg body weight) in combination with alpha-CyD (30 mg/kg body weight)...
  21. Sznitowska M, Gajewska M, Janicki S, Radwanska A, Lukowski G. Bioavailability of diazepam from aqueous-organic solution, submicron emulsion and solid lipid nanoparticles after rectal administration in rabbits. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2001;52:159-63 pubmed
    The bioavailability of diazepam in rabbits after rectal administration of three formulations: organic-aqueous Relsed rectal solution (containing ethanol, benzyl alcohol and propylene glycol), submicron emulsion and solid lipid ..
  22. Scolnik D, Kozer E, Jacobson S, Diamond S, Young N. Comparison of oral versus normal and high-dose rectal acetaminophen in the treatment of febrile children. Pediatrics. 2002;110:553-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, there seems to be no evidence to support the use of higher doses of rectal acetaminophen for the treatment of fever in children. The rectal route proved to be as acceptable as the oral among parents. ..
  23. Birmingham P, Tobin M, Fisher D, Henthorn T, Hall S, Cote C. Initial and subsequent dosing of rectal acetaminophen in children: a 24-hour pharmacokinetic study of new dose recommendations. Anesthesiology. 2001;94:385-9 pubmed
    ..There was large interindividual variability in pharmacokinetic characteristics. There was no evidence of accumulation during the 24-h sampling period. ..
  24. Bremerich D, Neidhart G, Heimann K, Kessler P, Behne M. Prophylactically-administered rectal acetaminophen does not reduce postoperative opioid requirements in infants and small children undergoing elective cleft palate repair. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:907-12 pubmed
    ..We showed that rectal acetaminophen up to 40 mg/kg administered at anesthesia induction lacked proof of efficacy, whereas IV opioid boluses resulted in reliable pain relief in children undergoing cleft palate repair. ..
  25. Carballo Dieguez A, Stein Z, Saez H, Dolezal C, Nieves Rosa L, Diaz F. Frequent use of lubricants for anal sex among men who have sex with men: the HIV prevention potential of a microbicidal gel. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1117-21 pubmed
    ..Product and dispenser preferences also were discussed. A rectal lubricant with microbicidal properties appears acceptable and desirable to Latino men who have anal sex with other men. ..
  26. Yagi N, Taniuchi Y, Hamada K, Sudo J, Sekikawa H. Pharmacokinetics of ketotifen fumarate after intravenous, intranasal, oral and rectal administration in rabbits. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25:1614-8 pubmed
    ..We also prepared suppositories containing KF (1 mg/kg) for rectal administration in rabbits. After rectal administration, KF was rapidly absorbed and its bioavailability was 34%...
  27. Kyle D, Teja Isavadharm P, Li Q, Leo K. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of qinghaosu derivatives: how do they impact on the choice of drug and the dosage regimens?. Med Trop (Mars). 1998;58:38-44 pubmed
  28. Teja Isavadharm P, Nosten F, Kyle D, Luxemburger C, Ter Kuile F, Peggins J, et al. Comparative bioavailability of oral, rectal, and intramuscular artemether in healthy subjects: use of simultaneous measurement by high performance liquid chromatography and bioassay. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;42:599-604 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to determine whether i.r. artemether would be an effective treatment of severe malaria in the rural tropics in situations where oral or parenteral administration is not possible. ..
  29. Jertborn M, Nordström I, Kilander A, Czerkinsky C, Holmgren J. Local and systemic immune responses to rectal administration of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit in humans. Infect Immun. 2001;69:4125-8 pubmed
    ..Antitoxin antibody responses in rectal secretions and serum were also found. ..
  30. Charrueau C, Tuleu C, Astre V, Grossiord J, Chaumeil J. Poloxamer 407 as a thermogelling and adhesive polymer for rectal administration of short-chain fatty acids. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2001;27:351-7 pubmed
    ..The 18% poloxamer 407 concentration provided a solution that was liquid at room temperature, that gelled at 37 degrees C, possessed adhesive properties, and controlled short-chain fatty acid release. ..
  31. Van der Marel C, van Lingen R, Pluim M, Scoones G, van Dijk M, Vaandrager J, et al. Analgesic efficacy of rectal versus oral acetaminophen in children after major craniofacial surgery. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;70:82-90 pubmed
    ..These data also show that, after a rectal loading dose of 40 mg/kg has been given during surgery, the best way of administering acetaminophen after craniofacial surgery is the rectal route. ..
  32. Barennes H, Kailou D, Pussard E, Munjakazi J, Fernan M, Sherouat H, et al. [Intrarectal administration of quinine: an early treatment for severe malaria in children?]. Sante. 2001;11:145-53 pubmed
  33. Jongjaroenprasert W, Akarawut W, Chantasart D, Chailurkit L, Rajatanavin R. Rectal administration of propylthiouracil in hyperthyroid patients: comparison of suspension enema and suppository form. Thyroid. 2002;12:627-31 pubmed
    ..PTU can be effectively absorbed via the rectal route. The enema form appeared to provide better bioavailability than the suppository form. However, both preparations exhibited comparable therapeutic effect. ..
  34. Shojai R, Piechon L, d Ercole C, Boubli L, Ponties J. [Rectal administration of misoprostol for delivery induced hemorrhage. Preliminary study]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2001;30:572-5 pubmed
    ..hemorrhage due to uterine atony unresponsive to syntocinon were give a tablet of misoprostol by rectal administration. The hemorrhage ceased in less than 5 minutes in all patients. No immediate side effect was observed...
  35. Harouna Y, Gamatie Y, Gamatie S, Mounkaila H, Boureima M. [Apropos of 2 rare severe surgical complications from the use of intramuscular and intrarectal quinine]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2000;93:328-30 pubmed
    ..The occurrence of such life-threatening events could be reduced in frequency by teaching health personnel about techniques of quinine administration as well as its dangers. ..
  36. Ilett K, Batty K, Powell S, Binh T, Thu L, Phuong H, et al. The pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular artesunate and rectal dihydroartemisinin in uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;53:23-30 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to determine whether these recommendations can be applied to patients with severe malaria. ..
  37. Lindh Strömberg U. Rectal administration of midazolam for conscious sedation of uncooperative children in need of dental treatment. Swed Dent J. 2001;25:105-11 pubmed
    ..Midazolam has shown in this follow-up to be an effective and safe drug for premedication of infants in the stressed dental situation. The advantage to for example diazepam lies mainly in the shorter period of time of sedation. ..
  38. Maslow J, Mikota S, Zhu M, Isaza R, Peddie L, Dunker F, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Asian and African elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana). J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2005;28:21-7 pubmed
    ..Forty-one elephants received INH daily by either oral or rectal administration with different formulations...
  39. Fraillery D, Zosso N, Nardelli Haefliger D. Rectal and vaginal immunization of mice with human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particles. Vaccine. 2009;27:2326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Imidazoquinolines, largely used to treat genital and anal warts, and nonoxonol-9, used as genital microbicide/spermicide were identified as adjuvants that could be safely used by the rectal or vaginal route, respectively. ..
  40. Landais E, Poisson C, Condamine J. [Analysis of 1697 cases of childhood malaria treated using intra-rectal Quinimax (QIR) in the Tilaberi health district in Niger]. Med Trop (Mars). 2007;67:471-6 pubmed
    ..A survey to evaluate the skill of care providers was carried out at the onset of the study. The presentation and functionality of the QIR kit was validated by care providers. ..
  41. Turnbough L, Wilson L. "Take your medicine": nonadherence issues in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2007;30:212-7; quiz 218-9 pubmed
    ..Multiple daily dosing or rectal administration of 5-aminosalicylate medications also can adversely affect adherence rates...
  42. Denis F, Alain S, Ploy M. [New routes of administration: epidermal, transcutaneous mucosal ways of vaccination]. Med Sci (Paris). 2007;23:379-85 pubmed
    ..However, it has not been so easy to obtain regulatory approval for mucosal or transcutaneous formulations and needle-based vaccines continue to dominate the market. ..
  43. Albano F, Bruzzese E, Spagnuolo M, De Marco G. Antiemetics for children with gastroenteritis: off-label but still on in clinical practice. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;43:402-4 pubmed
    ..The majority of responders reported prescribing antiemetics for pediatric gastroenteritis. Although there is insufficient evidence to justify their use, the use of antiemetics is widely present among pediatricians. ..
  44. Mitchell L, Galun E. Rectal immunization of mice with hepatitis A vaccine induces stronger systemic and local immune responses than parenteral immunization. Vaccine. 2003;21:1527-38 pubmed
    ..p.) vaccination, did not. Results suggest that rectal immunization may be a highly effective way of inducing both local and systemic immunity to HAV. ..
  45. Verrotti A, Latini G, di Corcia G, Giannuzzi R, Salladini C, Trotta D, et al. Intermittent oral diazepam prophylaxis in febrile convulsions: its effectiveness for febrile seizure recurrence. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2004;8:131-4 pubmed
    ..7%) went on to have one or more additional episodes. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that oral diazepam, given only when fever is present, is an effective means of reducing the risk of recurrences of FS. ..
  46. Nellore V, Mittal S, Dadhwal V. Rectal misoprostol vs. 15-methyl prostaglandin F2alpha for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;94:45-6 pubmed
  47. Ellenberger D, Otten R, Li B, Aidoo M, Rodriguez I, Sariol C, et al. HIV-1 DNA/MVA vaccination reduces the per exposure probability of infection during repeated mucosal SHIV challenges. Virology. 2006;352:216-25 pubmed
    ..Therefore, improved non-human primate models for vaccine efficacy can provide novel insight and perhaps renew expectations for positive outcomes of human HIV clinical trials. ..
  48. Adler S, Schostak M, Haas H, Walz J. [Prostate biopsy -- less pain through diclofenac]. Aktuelle Urol. 2004;35:344-8 pubmed
  49. Aumais G, Lefebvre M, Massicotte J, Tremblay C, Kasbo J, Brunet J, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pilot efficacy of a mesalazine rectal gel in distal ulcerative colitis. Drugs R D. 2005;6:41-6 pubmed
  50. Belyakov I, Isakov D, Zhu Q, Dzutsev A, Berzofsky J. A novel functional CTL avidity/activity compartmentalization to the site of mucosal immunization contributes to protection of macaques against simian/human immunodeficiency viral depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:7211-21 pubmed
    ..This preferential localization of high-avidity CTL may explain previous differences in vaccination results and may guide future vaccination strategy. ..
  51. Kato K, Ishii Y, Mizuno S, Sugitani M, Asai S, Kohno T, et al. Usefulness of rectally administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate for breath test in patients with active and quiescent ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:207-14 pubmed
  52. Haque N, Bilkis L, Haque N, Bari M, Haque S. Comparative study between rectally administered misoprostol as a prophylaxis versus conventional intramuscular oxytocin in post partum hemorrhage. Mymensingh Med J. 2009;18:S40-44 pubmed
    ..So it can be suggested that per rectally administered misoprostol may be effective in the prevention of PPH as an alternative to conventional intramuscular oxytocin. ..
  53. Isakov D, Dzutsev A, Belyakov I, Berzofsky J. Non-equilibrium and differential function between intraepithelial and lamina propria virus-specific TCRalphabeta(+) CD8alphabeta(+) T cells in the small intestinal mucosa. Mucosal Immunol. 2009;2:450-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The restricted migration of cells from each of these mucosal compartments could partly account for a founder effect we observed in the IEL TCRalphabeta CD8alphabeta epitope-specific repertoire that might impact protective efficacy. ..