intravitreal injections


Summary: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.

Top Publications

  1. Sallam A, Taylor S, Habot Wilner Z, Elgohary M, Do H, McCluskey P, et al. Repeat intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injections in uveitic macular oedema. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:e323-5 pubmed publisher
  2. Lau M, Prenner J, Brucker A, VanderBeek B. Accuracy of Billing Codes Used in the Therapeutic Care of Diabetic Retinopathy. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:791-794 pubmed publisher
    ..6%-100%) and a high specificity (range, 97.2%-100%). These data suggest diagnostic, procedure, and therapeutic codes derived from insurance billing claims accurately reflect the medical record for patients with diabetic retinopathy. ..
  3. Zhuang P, Muraleedharan C, Xu S. Intraocular Delivery of miR-146 Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Retinal Functional Defects in Diabetic Rat Model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:1646-1655 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravitreal delivery of miR-146 inhibited diabetes-induced NF-?B activation and retinal microvascular and neuronal functional defects in a diabetic rat model. ..
  4. Gallagher M. Introduction of a nurse-led intravitreal injection service in ophthalmology. Br J Nurs. 2017;26:800-803 pubmed publisher
  5. Jain P, Sheth J, Anantharaman G, Gopalakrishnan M. Real-world evidence of safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in an Indian scenario. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:596-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyzing the safety of bevacizumab is necessary for a developing country like India as the majority of the population cannot afford the costly ranibizumab as compared to bevacizumab for ocular healthcare. ..
  6. Kaburaki T, Taoka K, Matsuda J, Yamashita H, Matsuda I, Tsuji H, et al. Combined intravitreal methotrexate and immunochemotherapy followed by reduced-dose whole-brain radiotherapy for newly diagnosed B-cell primary intraocular lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2017;179:246-255 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of intravitreal chemotherapy, prophylactic systemic chemotherapy and rdWBRT for primary IOL showed a potential to reduce CNS relapse rate and improved 4-year PFS and OS without increase of cognitive dysfunction. ..
  7. Oshima Y, Kimoto K, Yoshida N, Fujisawa K, Sonoda S, Kubota T, et al. One-Year Outcomes following Intravitreal Aflibercept for Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in Japanese Patients: The APOLLO Study. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:163-171 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate 1-year outcomes of intravitreal injections of aflibercept (IVA) in Japanese polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) patients...
  8. Fernández Ferreiro A, Luaces Rodríguez A, Aguiar P, Pardo Montero J, González Barcia M, García Varela L, et al. Preclinical PET Study of Intravitreal Injections. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2843-2851 pubmed publisher
    ..The pharmacokinetic profile of intravitreal injections of molecules labeled with 18Fluorine (18F) was evaluated in adult Sprague Dawley rats by using a ..
  9. Vogl W, Waldstein S, Gerendas B, Schlegl T, Langs G, Schmidt Erfurth U. Analyzing and Predicting Visual Acuity Outcomes of Anti-VEGF Therapy by a Longitudinal Mixed Effects Model of Imaging and Clinical Data. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4173-4181 pubmed publisher
    ..Individual BCVA outcomes after 1 year could be predicted from initial BCVA and fluid measurements combined with the population-wide model. Accounting for fluid in the predictive model increased prediction accuracy. ..

More Information


  1. Mimouni M, Segev O, Dori D, Geffen N, Flores V, Segal O. Disorganization of the Retinal Inner Layers as a Predictor of Visual Acuity in Eyes With Macular Edema Secondary to Vein Occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;182:160-167 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the extent of DRIL before and after treatment is an additional SD-OCT parameter that may serve as a biomarker for patients with RVO-ME. ..
  2. Kempen J, Altaweel M, Holbrook J, Sugar E, Thorne J, Jabs D. Association Between Long-Lasting Intravitreous Fluocinolone Acetonide Implant vs Systemic Anti-inflammatory Therapy and Visual Acuity at 7 Years Among Patients With Intermediate, Posterior, or Panuveitis. JAMA. 2017;317:1993-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..5 years; longer-term outcomes are not known...
  3. Brazier J, Muston D, Konwea H, Power G, Barzey V, Lloyd A, et al. Evaluating the Relationship Between Visual Acuity and Utilities in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema Enrolled in Intravitreal Aflibercept Studies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4818-4825 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between visual acuity and utility (health-related quality of life) in diabetic macular edema (DME) using intravitreal aflibercept data...
  4. Anders F, Teister J, Liu A, Funke S, Grus F, Thanos S, et al. Intravitreal injection of ?-crystallin B2 improves retinal ganglion cell survival in an experimental animal model of glaucoma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175451 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context especially annexin A5, calcium-transporting ATPase 1 and various histone proteins seem to play a major role. ..
  5. Lee K, Kim S, Lee J, Kang E, Koh H. Peripapillary Choroidal Thickness Change of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy after Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:431-438 pubmed publisher
    ..PCV exhibits a thick choroid in the peripapillary region. PCT decreases after anti-VEGF in PCV but not in exudative AMD. In exudative AMD, subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased, but that in the peripapillary region did not. ..
  6. Türksever C, Prünte C, Hatz K. Baseline Optical Coherence Tomography Findings as Outcome Predictors after Switching from Ranibizumab to Aflibercept in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration following a Treat-and-Extend Regimen. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:172-178 pubmed publisher
    ..024) and IRF at month 12 (p = 0.049). Baseline HRF presence predicted better morphological outcome, while SRF predicted a shorter RFTI and IRF a longer RFTI after switching from ranibizumab to aflibercept within a TER. ..
  7. Dinah C, Nenova K, Pushpoth S, El Ghrably I, Varma D, Talks S. Intravitreal dexamethasone for central retinal vein occlusion with low visual acuity: a retrospective study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:796-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Bressler S, Liu D, Glassman A, Blodi B, Castellarin A, Jampol L, et al. Change in Diabetic Retinopathy Through 2 Years: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, and Ranibizumab. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:558-568 pubmed publisher
    ..All 3 anti-VEGF treatments were associated with low rates of DR worsening. These data provide additional outcomes that might be considered when choosing an anti-VEGF agent to treat DME. ..
  9. Tuuminen R, Uusitalo Jarvinen H, Aaltonen V, Hautala N, Kaipiainen S, Laitamäki N, et al. The Finnish national guideline for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In context of these current aspects, we aimed to set evidence-based medical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with wAMD. ..
  10. Son B, Kwak H, Kim E, Yu S. Comparison of Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab for Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:209-216 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the mean number of injections and the retreatment rates were not significantly different between the groups. ..
  11. Kuehlewein L, Dustin L, Sagong M, Hariri A, Mendes T, Rofagha S, et al. Predictors of Macular Atrophy Detected by Fundus Autofluorescence in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration After Long-Term Ranibizumab Treatment. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from this study may guide hypothesis generation for future AMD trials. ..
  12. Park J, Lee M. Short-term effects and safety of an acute increase of intraocular pressure after intravitreal bevacizumab injection on corneal endothelial cells. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:17 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical Research Information Service (CRiS), Republic of Korea, KCT0002645 . Retrospectively registered 9 January 2018. ..
  13. Danielescu C, Cantemir A, Chiselita D. Successful treatment of fungal endophthalmitis using intravitreal caspofungin. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:196-198 pubmed publisher
    ..vitreal penetration of caspofungin after its intravenous administration is unclear, we performed multiple intravitreal injections, first with 50 µg/0.1 ml and then with 250 µg/0.1 ml caspofungin...
  14. Iu L, Fan M, Lam W, Wong I. Repeated intraocular crystallization of ganciclovir in one eye after bilateral intravitreal injections: a case report. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18:36 pubmed publisher
    ..We hereby report a case of intraocular ganciclovir crystallization in one eye after bilateral intravitreal injections, and repeated crystallization in the same eye after repeated injections...
  15. Uesugi K, Sakaguchi H, Hayashida Y, Hayashi R, Baba K, Suganuma Y, et al. A Self-Assembling Peptide Gel as a Vitreous Substitute: A Rabbit Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4068-4075 pubmed publisher
    ..Electroretinography and histology confirmed the gel's biocompatibility. This diluted self-assembling peptide gel could be provide a promising vitreous substitute. ..
  16. Sugimoto M, Toledo V, Cunha M, Carregal V, Jorge R, Leão P, et al. Quality of bevacizumab (Avastin®) repacked in single-use glass vials for intravitreal administration. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:108-113 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that bevacizumab remained stable after compounding in ampoules and single-use glass vials; no significant aggregation, fragmentation, or loss of biological activity was observed. ..
  17. Zhou G, Duan Y, Ma G, Wu W, Hu Z, Chen N, et al. Introduction of the MDM2 T309G Mutation in Primary Human Retinal Epithelial Cells Enhances Experimental Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5361-5367 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, MDM2 T309G in the hRPE cells enhanced the development of PVR in a rabbit model. The MDM2 SNP309 in RPE cells enhances their potential of PVR pathogenesis. ..
  18. Li S, Deng G, Liu J, Ma Y, Lu H. The effects of a treatment combination of anti-VEGF injections, laser coagulation and cryotherapy on patients with type 3 Coat's disease. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:76 pubmed publisher
    ..We retrospectively registered our study, The trial registration number (TRN) is ChiCTR-ONC-17011161 and date of registration is April 16, 2017. ..
  19. Ozkaya A, Alkin Z, Togac M, Ahmet S, Perente I, Taskapili M. Five-year Outcomes of Ranibizumab in Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration: Real Life Clinical Experience. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:424-430 pubmed publisher
    ..Half of the ranibizumab-treated nAMD patients maintained their vision during the 5 years of follow-up. Visit and injection numbers were found to be lower than in prospective studies, reflecting a real world clinical practice. ..
  20. Scott I, VanVeldhuisen P, Ip M, Blodi B, Oden N, Awh C, et al. Effect of Bevacizumab vs Aflibercept on Visual Acuity Among Patients With Macular Edema Due to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: The SCORE2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017;317:2072-2087 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies have established the efficacy and safety of aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. Bevacizumab is used off-label to treat this condition despite the absence of supporting data...
  21. Mahalingam P, Topiwalla T, Ganesan G. Drug-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal endophthalmitis following dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:634-636 pubmed publisher
    ..A week following treatment, there was significant improvement in the patient's sign and symptoms with improvement in vision. Our case demonstrated that acute endophthalmitis can occur following dexamethasone intravitreal implant. ..
  22. Ou W, Brown D, Payne J, Wykoff C. Relationship Between Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness During Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Retinal Diseases. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Correlations appear to be more complex in AMD and RVO. At the inflection point between monthly and PRN dosing, when recurrence of edema is anticipated in many patients, CRT appears strongly correlated with loss of BCVA in RVO. ..
  23. Blanco R, Martínez Navarrete G, Valiente Soriano F, Avilés Trigueros M, Pérez Rico C, Serrano Puebla A, et al. The S1P1 receptor-selective agonist CYM-5442 protects retinal ganglion cells in endothelin-1 induced retinal ganglion cell loss. Exp Eye Res. 2017;164:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study further demonstrate the important role of S1P1 receptor agonists to lessen intravitreal ET-1 induced RGC loss. ..
  24. Wells J, Glassman A, Ayala A, Jampol L, Aiello L, Antoszyk A, et al. Aflibercept, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..At worse levels of initial visual acuity, aflibercept was more effective at improving vision. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; number, NCT01627249.). ..
  25. Smith B, Wang X, Chauhan B, Côté P, Tremblay F. Contribution of retinal ganglion cells to the mouse electroretinogram. Doc Ophthalmol. 2014;128:155-68 pubmed
    ..With an intact a-wave demonstrated following ONTx, we find that the most robust indicators of RGC function in the mouse full-field ERG were the STR components. ..
  26. Joo K, Park S, Choi Y, Lee J, Na Y, Hong H, et al. Role of the Fc Region in the Vitreous Half-Life of Anti-VEGF Drugs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4261-4267 pubmed publisher
    ..Truncation or mutation of the Fc region can prolong the intraocular residence time of VEGF-Trap and possibly reduce the number of VEGF-Trap injections required in clinical practice. ..
  27. Kawashima Y, Hata M, Oishi A, Ooto S, Yamashiro K, Tamura H, et al. Association of Vascular Versus Avascular Subretinal Hyperreflective Material With Aflibercept Response in Age-related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;181:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular SHRM persisted after treatment and was associated with failure to achieve dry macula, suggesting that vascular SHRM is predictive of lower response to anti-VEGF therapy. ..
  28. Vardarinos A, Gupta N, Janjua R, Iron A, Empeslidis T, Tsaousis K. 24-month clinical outcomes of a treat-and-extend regimen with ranibizumab for wet age-related macular degeneration in a real life setting. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:58 pubmed publisher
  29. Dashti Khavidaki S, Abdollahi M. Intravitreal administration of bevacizumab: pros and cons. Daru. 2015;23:27 pubmed publisher
  30. Lu C, Hao J, Liu X, Liang L, Zhou D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis caused by accidental iatrogenic ocular injury with a hypodermic needle. J Int Med Res. 2017;45:882-885 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient remained stable during the 2-month follow-up. Standard practice should be adopted when irrigating the eye to prevent this type of injury, and emergent surgical intervention is very important to preserve visual function. ..
  31. Ferrara D, Silver R, Louzada R, Novais E, Collins G, Seddon J. Optical Coherence Tomography Features Preceding the Onset of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3519-3529 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insights into disease progression, and may be helpful to identify earlier endpoints for clinical studies. ..
  32. Sacconi R, Battaglia Parodi M, Casati S, Lattanzio R, Marchini G, Bandello F. Dexamethasone Implants in Diabetic Macular Edema Patients with High Visual Acuity. Ophthalmic Res. 2017;58:125-130 pubmed publisher
  33. Branchini L, Regatieri C, Adhi M, Flores Moreno I, Manjunath V, Fujimoto J, et al. Effect of intravitreous anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on choroidal thickness in neovascular age-related macular degeneration using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:693-4 pubmed publisher
  34. Minami Y, Nagaoka T, Ishibazawa A, Yoshida A. Correlation between short- and long-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy on macular edema after branch retinal vein occlusion: a prospective observational study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:90 pubmed publisher
    ..The short-term effects of IVR may predict the long-term effects of IVR in macular edema secondary to BRVO. Trial registration number: UMIN000027003 . Retrospectively registered. (April/15/2017). ..
  35. Davoudi S, Ebrahimiadib N, Yasa C, Sevgi D, Roohipoor R, Papavasilieou E, et al. Outcomes in Autoimmune Retinopathy Patients Treated With Rituximab. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;180:124-132 pubmed publisher
    ..OCT and ERG parameters, as well as AO-SLO cone densities, were stable during treatment. Studies with additional patients and longer follow-up periods are needed to further explore the utility of rituximab in the management of AIR. ..
  36. Scott I, VanVeldhuisen P, Ip M, Blodi B, Oden N, King J, et al. Baseline Factors Associated With 6-Month Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness Outcomes in Patients With Macular Edema Secondary to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion or Hemiretinal Vein Occlusion: SCORE2 Study Report 4. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:639-649 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying factors associated with better outcomes in RVO eyes treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy may provide information useful in counseling patients...
  37. Kitaoka Y, Sase K, Tsukahara C, Kojima K, Shiono A, Kogo J, et al. Axonal Protection by Ripasudil, a Rho Kinase Inhibitor, via Modulating Autophagy in TNF-Induced Optic Nerve Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:5056-5064 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated whether ripasudil modulates TNF-induced axonal loss and affects autophagy machinery after the induction of optic nerve degeneration...
  38. Hoerster R, Muether P, Dahlke C, Mehler K, Oberthür A, Kirchhof B, et al. Serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor in an infant treated with ranibizumab for retinopathy of prematurity. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013;91:e74-5 pubmed publisher
  39. Waizel M, Todorova M, Masyk M, Wolf K, Rickmann A, Helaiwa K, et al. Switch to aflibercept or ranibizumab after initial treatment with bevacizumab in eyes with neovascular AMD. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:79 pubmed publisher
    ..From a total of 96 eyes treated with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (10.5 ± 7.6 (mean ± SD)), 58 eyes switched to aflibercept (6.5 ± 3...
  40. Hwang H, Kim J, Chang Y, Kim J, Kim C. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy with Feeder Vessels: Characteristics, Fellow Eye Findings, and Long-term Treatment Outcomes. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2017;31:230-239 pubmed publisher
    ..A relatively high incidence of pathological findings in the fellow eye and bilateral involvement suggest the need for bilateral examinations. ..
  41. Ong S, Buckley E, McCuen B, Jaffe G, Postel E, Mahmoud T, et al. Comparison of Visual Outcomes in Coats' Disease: A 20-Year Experience. Ophthalmology. 2017;124:1368-1376 pubmed publisher
    ..This is due to a combination of factors, including earlier presentation of disease, fewer eyes being observed without treatment, and eyes, when treated, receiving a higher number of procedures. ..
  42. Ueda Consolvo T, Hayashi A, Ozaki M, Nakamura T, Yagou T, Abe S. The relationship between vascular endothelial dysfunction and treatment frequency in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2017;61:347-353 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelial dysfunction may affect the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy. Neovascular subtypes may also predict a larger number of injections. ..
  43. Lukács R, Sándor G, Resch M, Szabo A, Barcsay G, Ecsedy M, et al. [Intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for choroidal neovascularization secondary to pathological myopia]. Orv Hetil. 2017;158:579-586 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravitreal ranibizumab is an effective therapy in pathological myopia. Some patients experience deterioration of visual acuity despite of treatment. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(15), 579-586. ..
  44. Zarbin M, Dunger Baldauf C, Haskova Z, Koovejee P, Mousseau M, Margaron P, et al. Vascular Safety of Ranibizumab in Patients With Diabetic Macular Edema: A Pooled Analysis of Patient-Level Data From Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017;135:424-431 pubmed publisher
    ..However, uncertainty remains for patients with DME who are at high risk for vascular disease and were not included in these trials. ..
  45. Fraser Bell S, Lim L, Campain A, Mehta H, Aroney C, Bryant J, et al. Bevacizumab or Dexamethasone Implants for DME: 2-year Results (The BEVORDEX Study). Ophthalmology. 2016;123:1399-401 pubmed publisher
  46. Kim J, Yoon Y, Lee D, Joe S, Kim J. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the silicone oil-filled eye for the treatment for recurrent macular oedema associated with ankylosing spondylitis: a case report. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013;91:e331-2 pubmed publisher
  47. Tran J, Craven C, Wabner K, Schmit J, Matter B, Kompella U, et al. A Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Choroidal Neovascularization in a Porcine Model Using Three Targeted Drugs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:3732-3740 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravitreal pazopanib and to a lesser extent hI-con1 reduced the size of CNV lesions. The pig model has nearly a 100% rate of type 2 CNV induction and is a reliable preclinical model with pharmacodynamics similar to humans. ..
  48. Storch M, Hoerauf H. Case report of a secondary macular hole closure after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy in a patient with retinal pigment epithelial detachment. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:632-633 pubmed publisher
  49. Chou H, Wu W, Wang N, Chuang L, Chen K, Lai C. Short-term efficacy of intravitreal Aflibercept injections for retinal angiomatous proliferation. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:104 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the short-term efficacy of intravitreal injections of aflibercept (IVA) to treat retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) and identify factors related to functional outcomes...
  50. Ehlers J, Kim S, Yeh S, Thorne J, Mruthyunjaya P, Schoenberger S, et al. Therapies for Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2017;124:1412-1423 pubmed publisher
    ..g., elevated intraocular pressure, cataracts). Laser photocoagulation remains a safe and effective therapy, but VA results lag behind the results for anti-VEGF therapies. ..
  51. Zhao N, Liu L, Xu J. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with secondary acute lymphosarcoma leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: A rare case report: a care-compliant article. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6878 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the concentration of CMV DNA load in the aqueous humor could be useful in making the diagnosis and in selecting the optimal treatment in this kind of CMV retinitis. ..
  52. Sengupta S, Pan U. Combined branch retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion - clinical features, systemic associations, and outcomes. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:238-241 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined BRAO and BRVO is rare, may have unique underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, is associated with multiple systemic comorbidities and can yield good visual outcome if macula remains well perfused. ..
  53. Huang Q, Zhang Q, Fei P, Xu Y, Lyu J, Ji X, et al. Ranibizumab Injection as Primary Treatment in Patients with Retinopathy of Prematurity: Anatomic Outcomes and Influencing Factors. Ophthalmology. 2017;124:1156-1164 pubmed publisher
    ..After treatment, there were primarily 3 different outcomes. Our predictive tree model is helpful for ophthalmologists to evaluate the risk of reactivation. ..