Summary: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.

Top Publications

  1. Blume Peytavi U, Cork M, Faergemann J, Szczapa J, Vanaclocha F, Gelmetti C. Bathing and cleansing in newborns from day 1 to first year of life: recommendations from a European round table meeting. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23:751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When bathing infants with a liquid cleanser, a mild one not altering the normal pH of the skin surface or causing irritation to skin or eyes should be chosen. ..
  2. Garcia Bartels N, Rösler S, Martus P, Stroux A, Lönnfors S, Reisshauer A, et al. Effect of baby swimming and baby lotion on the skin barrier of infants aged 3-6 months. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2011;9:1018-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Influence of baby lotion on skin barrier and gender differences in skin functional parameters were demonstrated for the first time in healthy infants participating in baby swimming. ..
  3. Petrofsky J, Lohman E, Lee S, de la Cuesta Z, Labial L, Iouciulescu R, et al. Effects of contrast baths on skin blood flow on the dorsal and plantar foot in people with type 2 diabetes and age-matched controls. Physiother Theory Pract. 2007;23:189-97 pubmed
    Contrast baths have been used for therapy for over 2,000 years. The basic concept is to alternate warm and cool water baths during a treatment session...
  4. Lavender T, Bedwell C, O Brien E, Cork M, Turner M, Hart A. Infant skin-cleansing product versus water: a pilot randomized, assessor-blinded controlled trial. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:35 pubmed publisher
    ..The decision to proceed with a superiority trial, for example, was inconsistent with our data; therefore a non-inferiority trial is recommended. ..
  5. Hayasaka S, Shibata Y, Noda T, Goto Y, Ojima T. Incidence of symptoms and accidents during baths and showers among the Japanese general public. J Epidemiol. 2011;21:305-8 pubmed
    ..We calculated the incidence rates of accidents per 10 000 baths/showers and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and compared the clinical characteristics of participants who had ..
  6. Jury L, Guerrero D, Burant C, Cadnum J, Donskey C. Effectiveness of routine patient bathing to decrease the burden of spores on the skin of patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011;32:181-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine bathing practices had limited efficacy in decreasing the burden of spores on skin; however, showers were more effective than bed baths.
  7. Higgins T, Heazlewood I, Climstein M. A random control trial of contrast baths and ice baths for recovery during competition in U/20 rugby union. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25:1046-51 pubmed publisher
    ..n = 26) from a premier rugby club volunteered to participate in a random control trial (RCT) using contrast baths, ice baths, and no recovery...
  8. Bleasdale S, Trick W, Gonzalez I, Lyles R, Hayden M, Weinstein R. Effectiveness of chlorhexidine bathing to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections in medical intensive care unit patients. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2073-9 pubmed
    ..Protection against primary BSI by CHG cleansing was apparent after 5 or more days in the MICU. Daily cleansing of MICU patients with CHG-impregnated cloths is a simple, effective strategy to decrease the rate of primary BSIs. ..
  9. Evans H, Dellit T, Chan J, Nathens A, Maier R, Cuschieri J. Effect of chlorhexidine whole-body bathing on hospital-acquired infections among trauma patients. Arch Surg. 2010;145:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Baseline patient and injury characteristics were similar between cohorts. Patients receiving chlorhexidine baths were significantly less likely to acquire a catheter-related bloodstream infection than comparators (2.1 vs 8...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Popovich K, Hota B, Hayes R, Weinstein R, Hayden M. Effectiveness of routine patient cleansing with chlorhexidine gluconate for infection prevention in the medical intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30:959-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Controlled studies are needed to determine whether these beneficial effects extend outside the MICU. ..
  2. Garcia Bartels N, Scheufele R, Prosch F, Schink T, Proquitte H, Wauer R, et al. Effect of standardized skin care regimens on neonatal skin barrier function in different body areas. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Skin care regimens did not harm physiologic neonatal skin barrier adaptation within the first 8 weeks of life. However, significant influence of skin care on barrier function was found in a regional specific fashion. ..
  3. Porter T, Crane L, Dickinson L, Gannon J, Drisko J, DiGuiseppi C. Parent opinions about the appropriate ages at which adult supervision is unnecessary for bathing, street crossing, and bicycling. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:656-62 pubmed
    ..Identification of parent and household factors associated with supervision practices might help pediatricians target counseling about age-appropriate supervision. ..
  4. Ridenour G, Lampen R, Federspiel J, Kritchevsky S, Wong E, Climo M. Selective use of intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine bathing and the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection among intensive care unit patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:1155-61 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests that additional strategies to reduce the incidence of MRSA infection and colonization--beyond expanded surveillance--may be needed. ..
  5. Climo M, Sepkowitz K, Zuccotti G, Fraser V, Warren D, Perl T, et al. The effect of daily bathing with chlorhexidine on the acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: results of a quasi-experimental multicenter trial. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:1858-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach is simple to implement and inexpensive and may be an important adjunctive intervention to barrier precautions to reduce acquisition of VRE and MRSA and the subsequent development of healthcare-associated BSI. ..
  6. Mao S, McKenzie L, Xiang H, Smith G. Injuries associated with bathtubs and showers among children in the United States. Pediatrics. 2009;124:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of these injuries may be decreased by increasing the coefficient of friction of bathtub and shower surfaces. ..
  7. Munoz Price L, Hota B, Stemer A, Weinstein R. Prevention of bloodstream infections by use of daily chlorhexidine baths for patients at a long-term acute care hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009;30:1031-5 pubmed publisher
    ..For patients at the LTACH, daily 2% chlorhexidine baths were instituted during the period from September 2006 until May 2007 (ie, the intervention period)...
  8. Dizon M, Galzote C, Estanislao R, Mathew N, Sarkar R. Tolerance of baby cleansers in infants: a randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatr. 2010;47:959-63 pubmed
    ..Parents did not report any side-effects. All the three studied interventions used as whole body cleansers were efficacious and well tolerated by infants. ..
  9. Hayasaka S, Shibata Y, Goto Y, Noda T, Ojima T. Bathing in a bathtub and health status: a cross-sectional study. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010;16:219-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Other survey items were similar between the two groups. The findings of this study suggested that bathing in a bathtub every day or more frequently was associated with a good state of self-rated health and sleep quality. ..
  10. O Horo J, Silva G, Munoz Price L, Safdar N. The efficacy of daily bathing with chlorhexidine for reducing healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: a meta-analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33:257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should also examine the efficacy of daily CHG bathing in non-ICU populations at risk for BSI. ..
  11. Furuhata K, Hara M, Yoshida S, Fukuyama M. [Distribution of Legionella spp. in hot spring baths in Japan]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2004;78:710-6 pubmed
    ..The above findings clarified that although the number of the bacteria is low, Legionella spp. inhabits hot spring water throughout Japan. ..
  12. Camus C, Bellissant E, Sébille V, Perrotin D, Garo B, Legras A, et al. Prevention of acquired infections in intubated patients with the combination of two decontamination regimens. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:307-14 pubmed
    ..Whether both regimens could increase Candida infections deserves further investigation. ..
  13. Mangione E, Huitt G, Lenaway D, Beebe J, Bailey A, Figoski M, et al. Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease following hot tub exposure. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:1039-42 pubmed
    ..Pulmonary disease caused by NTM is increasingly recognized in previously healthy persons. Investigation of pulmonary disease affecting a family of five identified an indoor hot tub as the source of NTM-related disease. ..
  14. Kerger B, Schmidt C, Paustenbach D. Assessment of airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in residential showers and baths. Risk Anal. 2000;20:637-51 pubmed
    ..3+/-0.4 for TCM, 1.8+/-0.3 for BDCM, and 0.5+/-0.1 for CDBM (n = 12), and during baths was 1.2+/-0.4 for TCM, 0.59+/-0.21 for BDCM, and 0.15+/-0.05 for CDBM (n = 4)...
  15. Budd G, Brotherhood J, Beasley F, Hendrie A, Jeffery S, Lincoln G, et al. Effects of acclimatization to cold baths on men's responses to whole-body cooling in air. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1993;67:438-49 pubmed
    ..nude, in air at 10 degrees C for 2 h before and after they had been acclimatized by ten daily cold (15 degrees C) baths of 30-60 min followed by rapid rewarming in hot (38-42 degrees C) water, and again 4 months later after ..
  16. Turner J. Prevention of drowning in infants and children. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2004;23:191-3 pubmed
    ..Drowning is among the leading causes of death in children under 5 years of age. Yet it need not be, as most drowning is often preventable. The author discusses this important topic for all nurses and parents. ..
  17. Garunova K, Aminova G. [Rat spleen cellular composition after water baths]. Morfologiia. 2004;125:55-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fresh water baths on rat spleen structural components (lymphoid nodules with or without germinal centers, periarterial lymphoid sheaths and splenic cords)...
  18. Hayasaka S, Okayama M, Ishikawa S, Nakamura Y, Kajii E. Accidents associated with bathing in home care services for the aged in Japan. J Epidemiol. 2001;11:139-42 pubmed
  19. Byard R, de Koning C, Blackbourne B, Nadeau J, Krous H. Shared bathing and drowning in infants and young children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2001;37:542-4 pubmed
    ..While the risk of leaving an infant in a filled bath may be exacerbated if an older child is also present, further population-based studies are required to examine this hypothesis. ..
  20. Walker L, Downe S, Gomez L. Skin care in the well term newborn: two systematic reviews. Birth. 2005;32:224-8 pubmed
    ..Systematic reviews that yield no formal results provide insights into unresearched areas of practice, and should be reported to highlight these deficits, and to avoid duplication of effort by future investigators. ..
  21. Leibetseder V, Strauss Blasche G, Holzer F, Marktl W, Ekmekcioglu C. Improving homocysteine levels through balneotherapy: effects of sulphur baths. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;343:105-11 pubmed
    ..Furthermore it has been associated with antioxidative status. Additionally balneotherapeutic sulphur baths have been shown to influence antioxidative status...
  22. Somers G, Chiasson D, Smith C. Pediatric drowning: a 20-year review of autopsied cases: III. Bathtub drownings. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2006;27:113-6 pubmed
    ..All toxicologic samples submitted for analysis were negative. The present study highlights the factors associated with bathtub drownings and may aid in the prevention of such deaths in the pediatric population. ..
  23. Xu X, Weisel C. Dermal uptake of chloroform and haloketones during bathing. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2005;15:289-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, haloketones are much less permeable across human skin under normal bathing conditions than is chloroform. These findings will be useful for future assessment of total human exposure and consequent health risk of these DBPs. ..
  24. Fikree F, Ali T, Durocher J, Rahbar M. Newborn care practices in low socioeconomic settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Soc Sci Med. 2005;60:911-21 pubmed
  25. Traphagan J. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan. Care Manag J. 2004;5:53-60 pubmed
    ..While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States. ..
  26. Villanueva C, Cantor K, Grimalt J, Castano Vinyals G, Malats N, Silverman D, et al. Assessment of lifetime exposure to trihalomethanes through different routes. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63:273-7 pubmed
    ..Overall, 79% usually took showers, 16% usually took baths, and 13% had ever attended a swimming pool...
  27. Modgil G, Baverstock A. Should bubble baths be avoided in children with urinary tract infections?. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:863-5 pubmed
  28. Simon H, Tamura T, Colton K. Reported level of supervision of young children while in the bathtub. Ambul Pediatr. 2003;3:106-8 pubmed
    ..This occurred in children as young as 5 months of age. Given the potential risk of drowning when their children are inadequately supervised, parents should be advised concerning proper supervision in early anticipatory guidance. ..
  29. Xu X, Weisel C. Human respiratory uptake of chloroform and haloketones during showering. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2005;15:6-16 pubmed
    ..The inhalation exposure from a typical 10-15 min shower contributes significantly to the total dose for chloroform in chlorinated drinking water but only to a moderate extent for HKs. ..
  30. Morris N. The effects of lavender (Lavendula angustifolium) baths on psychological well-being: two exploratory randomised control trials. Complement Ther Med. 2002;10:223-8 pubmed
    ..This study investigates the use of lavender baths to improve these aspects of psychological well-being. A single blind, randomised control trial...
  31. Li S, Long C, Liu F, Lee S, Guo Q, Li R, et al. Herbs for medicinal baths among the traditional Yao communities of China. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;108:59-67 pubmed
    Medicinal baths are an important traditional way to prevent and cure common diseases among the traditional Yao communities of Jinping County, Yunnan Province, SW China...
  32. Byard R, Donald T. Infant bath seats, drowning and near-drowning. J Paediatr Child Health. 2004;40:305-7 pubmed
    ..the age of 2 years, including two boys aged 7 and 8 months, both of whom had been left for some time in adult baths in bath seats. Both were successfully resuscitated and treated in hospital...
  33. Lee L, Thompson K. Parental survey of beliefs and practices about bathing and water safety and their children: guidance for drowning prevention. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:58-62 pubmed
    ..Better water safety anticipatory guidance is needed for caregivers...
  34. Villanueva C, Cantor K, Grimalt J, Malats N, Silverman D, Tardon A, et al. Bladder cancer and exposure to water disinfection by-products through ingestion, bathing, showering, and swimming in pools. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:148-56 pubmed
    ..57 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 2.09). Bladder cancer risk was associated with long-term exposure to THMs in chlorinated water at levels regularly occurring in industrialized countries. ..
  35. Hayasaka S, Nakamura Y, Kajii E. [Incidence rates for accidents associated with bathing services for the aged in Japan]. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2002;49:1070-5 pubmed
    ..1 in home-visits and 149.1 in facilities throughout Japan. These results indicated that providers' attention should be drawn to the higher incidence of accidents with home-visit than with facility bathing services. ..
  36. Egorov A, Tereschenko A, Altshul L, Vartiainen T, Samsonov D, LaBrecque B, et al. Exposures to drinking water chlorination by-products in a Russian city. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003;206:539-51 pubmed
    ..The use of home filters resulted in reduction of exposures to HAAs by a factor of three and a greater reduction in exposures to MX. ..
  37. Quan L, Cummings P. Characteristics of drowning by different age groups. Inj Prev. 2003;9:163-8 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of drowning episodes vary greatly by age. Different prevention strategies may be needed for different age groups. ..
  38. Nuckols J, Ashley D, Lyu C, Gordon S, Hinckley A, Singer P. Influence of tap water quality and household water use activities on indoor air and internal dose levels of trihalomethanes. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:863-70 pubmed
    ..Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities. ..
  39. Haimov Kochman R, Hurwitz A. [Religious (Halachic) infertility]. Harefuah. 2009;148:271-4 pubmed
    ..Ethical issues concerning the role of the physician and the safety of such treatments are discussed. ..
  40. Bretterklieber A, Legat F, Wolf P, Hofer A. Retrospective long-term follow-up in patients with chronic palmoplantar dermatoses after good response to bath PUVA therapy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2012;10:814-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that bath PUVA may have a long-term, beneficial influence on the course of disease in a majority of patients with recalcitrant chronic palmoplantar dermatoses. ..
  41. Cortes E, Basra R, Kelleher C. Waterbirth and pelvic floor injury: a retrospective study and postal survey using ICIQ modular long form questionnaires. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;155:27-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Physical limitations in protecting the perineum during the expulsion phase may be associated with an increase in the incidence of 3rd degree tears in the WB population. ..
  42. Bauer M, Mathieu L, Deloge Abarkan M, Remen T, Tossa P, Hartemann P, et al. Legionella bacteria in shower aerosols increase the risk of Pontiac fever among older people in retirement homes. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008;62:913-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunosuppressive therapy in the same population group can significantly enhance susceptibility to Legionella bacteria. ..
  43. Kennedy D, Cooley K, Einarson T, Seely D. Objective assessment of an ionic footbath (IonCleanse): testing its ability to remove potentially toxic elements from the body. J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:258968 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications. ..
  44. Kim H, Lee W, Na S, Roh Y, Shin C, Kim J. The effects of chlorhexidine gluconate bathing on health care-associated infection in intensive care units: A meta-analysis. J Crit Care. 2016;32:126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..02, P = .027). Daily CHG bathing was associated with reduced risks of acquiring CLABSI, MRSA, and VRE. A prolonged intervention period and concomitant nasal antibiotic use were associated with lower risks of MRSA acquisition. ..
  45. Patterson D, Smith E, Monahan M, Medvecz A, Hagerty B, Krijger L, et al. Cannabinoid hyperemesis and compulsive bathing: a case series and paradoxical pathophysiological explanation. J Am Board Fam Med. 2010;23:790-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Because recreational and medical use of marijuana is increasing in the United States, this condition should be considered in many patients who present with cyclical vomiting. ..
  46. Hedelin H, Jonsson K. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: symptoms are aggravated by cold and become less distressing with age and time. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2007;41:516-20 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms behind this association between CP/CPPS and temperature as well as the correlation between ejaculatory pain and dysuria require further study. ..
  47. Mancuso T, Poole J. The effect of paraffin and exercise on hand function in persons with scleroderma: a series of single case studies. J Hand Ther. 2009;22:71-7; quiz 78 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research with a larger sample and increased variable control is needed. ..
  48. Stemberga V, Bralic M, Coklo M, Cuculic D, Bosnar A. Suicidal drowning in Southwestern Croatia: a 25-year review. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2010;31:52-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Commonly, the victims were sober at the time of the incident. Cases of suicidal drowning committed in water wells are unexpectedly high, considering abundance of salt water...
  49. Mancini A, Paller A, Simpson E, Ellis C, Eichenfield L. Improving the patient-clinician and parent-clinician partnership in atopic dermatitis management. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2012;31:S23-8 pubmed publisher
  50. Milstone A, Elward A, Song X, Zerr D, Orscheln R, Speck K, et al. Daily chlorhexidine bathing to reduce bacteraemia in critically ill children: a multicentre, cluster-randomised, crossover trial. Lancet. 2013;381:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the treatment was well tolerated. Sage Products, US National Institutes of Health. ..
  51. Edmiston C, Krepel C, Spencer M, Ferraz A, Seabrook G, Lee C, et al. Preadmission Application of 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHG): Enhancing Patient Compliance While Maximizing Skin Surface Concentrations. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016;37:254-9 pubmed publisher
  52. Zanetti Dällenbach R, Holzgreve W, Hösli I. Neonatal group B streptococcus colonization in water births. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;98:54-5 pubmed
  53. Kawabe H, Saito I. Determinants of exaggerated difference in morning and evening home blood pressure in Japanese normotensives. Hypertens Res. 2009;32:1028-31 pubmed publisher
    ..97, P<0.01, CI: 1.30-2.97). In conclusion, older age, regular alcohol drinking and post-bathing measurement at night were significant determinants of an exaggerated morning-evening difference in SBP in Japanese normotensives. ..