temazepam

Summary

Summary: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.

Top Publications

  1. Paul M, Gray G, Kenny G, Pigeau R. Impact of melatonin, zaleplon, zopiclone, and temazepam on psychomotor performance. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2003;74:1263-70 pubmed
    ..g., zopiclone, temazepam (t(1/2) 4-6 hours) may be used...
  2. Wegman A, van der Windt D, Bongers M, Twisk J, Stalman W, de Vries T. Efficacy of temazepam in frequent users: a series of N-of-1 trials. Fam Pract. 2005;22:152-9 pubmed
    ..To investigate for individual patients whether placebo was as effective as temazepam, or whether 10 mg was as effective as 20 mg temazepam, and whether these results influenced their future ..
  3. Dwyer R. Privileging pleasure: temazepam injection in a heroin marketplace. Int J Drug Policy. 2008;19:367-74 pubmed
    Pleasure and its pursuit provide the key explanatory frame in this ethnographic analysis of temazepam injection among a set of drug injectors who enthusiastically embrace high-risk practices...
  4. Leufkens T, Vermeeren A. Highway driving in the elderly the morning after bedtime use of hypnotics: a comparison between temazepam 20 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg, and placebo. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;29:432-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual effects the morning after evening doses of temazepam 20 mg and zopiclone 7.5 mg on driving performance in healthy elderly drivers...
  5. Nickol A, Leverment J, Richards P, Seal P, Harris G, Cleland J, et al. Temazepam at high altitude reduces periodic breathing without impairing next-day performance: a randomized cross-over double-blind study. J Sleep Res. 2006;15:445-54 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy and safety of temazepam on nocturnal oxygenation and next-day performance at altitude. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial was performed in Thirty-three healthy volunteers...
  6. Simons R, Koerhuis C, Valk P, Van den Oord M. Usefulness of temazepam and zaleplon to induce afternoon sleep. Mil Med. 2006;171:998-1001 pubmed
    ..The usefulness of temazepam and zaleplon to optimize afternoon sleep and their effects on performance and alertness during a subsequent ..
  7. Tiplady B, Bowness E, Stien L, Drummond G. Selective effects of clonidine and temazepam on attention and memory. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19:259-65 pubmed
    The present study compared the effects of clonidine and temazepam on performance on a range of tasks aiming to assess the role of central noradrenergic mechanisms in cognitive function...
  8. Breen C, Degenhardt L, Bruno R, Roxburgh A, Jenkinson R. The effects of restricting publicly subsidised temazepam capsules on benzodiazepine use among injecting drug users in Australia. Med J Aust. 2004;181:300-4 pubmed
    To assess the effect of a restriction on publicly subsidised temazepam 10 mg capsules upon the injection of benzodiazepines by injecting drug users (IDUs)...
  9. Morin C, Bastien C, Brink D, Brown T. Adverse effects of temazepam in older adults with chronic insomnia. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2003;18:75-82 pubmed
    ..This study reports on the incidence of adverse effects of temazepam in older adults with chronic insomnia and examines whether the addition of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) is ..

More Information

Publications94

  1. Caldwell J, Prazinko B, Rowe T, Norman D, Hall K, Caldwell J. Improving daytime sleep with temazepam as a countermeasure for shift lag. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2003;74:153-63 pubmed
    ..Sixteen UH-60 Army aviators were randomly assigned to either a temazepam or a placebo group...
  2. Glass J, Sproule B, Herrmann N, Streiner D, Busto U. Acute pharmacological effects of temazepam, diphenhydramine, and valerian in healthy elderly subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;23:260-8 pubmed
    ..crossover, placebo-controlled study was performed to assess the comparative pharmacodynamics of single doses of temazepam (15 and 30 mg), diphenhydramine (50 and 75 mg), and valerian (400 and 800 mg) in 14 healthy elderly volunteers (..
  3. Paul M, Gray G, MacLellan M, Pigeau R. Sleep-inducing pharmaceuticals: a comparison of melatonin, zaleplon, zopiclone, and temazepam. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004;75:512-9 pubmed
    ..5 mg, temazepam 15 mg, or time-released melatonin 6 mg...
  4. Rogers N, Kennaway D, Dawson D. Neurobehavioural performance effects of daytime melatonin and temazepam administration. J Sleep Res. 2003;12:207-12 pubmed
    ..present study compared neurobehavioural performance following administration of melatonin and the benzodiazepine temazepam, using a within-subjects design...
  5. Partinen M, Hirvonen K, Hublin C, Halavaara M, Hiltunen H. Effects of after-midnight intake of zolpidem and temazepam on driving ability in women with non-organic insomnia. Sleep Med. 2003;4:553-61 pubmed
    ..Single doses of zolpidem 10 mg (Z), temazepam 20 mg (T) or placebo (P) were administered at 2:00 a.m...
  6. Verheyen S, Blaton N, Kinget R, Van den Mooter G. Mechanism of increased dissolution of diazepam and temazepam from polyethylene glycol 6000 solid dispersions. Int J Pharm. 2002;249:45-58 pubmed
    ..relationship between their physico-chemical properties and dissolution characteristics, pure drugs (diazepam, temazepam), polymer (PEG6000), solid dispersions and physical mixtures were characterised by DSC, X-ray powder diffraction ..
  7. Tiplady B, Hiroz J, Holmes L, Drummond G. Errors in performance testing: a comparison of ethanol and temazepam. J Psychopharmacol. 2003;17:41-9 pubmed
    ..the effects of ethanol, at blood concentrations of approximately 80-100 mg/100 ml, compared to two doses of temazepam (20 mg and 30 mg) on psychomotor speed and accuracy and on long-term memory...
  8. Reilly T, Atkinson G, Budgett R. Effect of low-dose temazepam on physiological variables and performance tests following a westerly flight across five time zones. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22:166-74 pubmed
    ..before retiring to bed on days 1, 2 and 3, subjects were administered, in a double-blind fashion, either 10mg of temazepam or a placebo...
  9. Karlsson M, Schoemaker R, Kemp B, Cohen A, van Gerven J, Tuk B, et al. A pharmacodynamic Markov mixed-effects model for the effect of temazepam on sleep. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;68:175-88 pubmed
    ..patients with primary insomnia were collected during a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study of 20 mg temazepam. A separate daytime session was performed to determine the pharmacokinetics of 20 mg temazepam and its effect on ..
  10. Stege G, Heijdra Y, van den Elshout F, van de Ven M, de Bruijn P, van Sorge A, et al. Temazepam 10mg does not affect breathing and gas exchange in patients with severe normocapnic COPD. Respir Med. 2010;104:518-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were to assess the effects of temazepam on indices of circadian respiratory function, dyspnea, sleep quality, and sleepiness in patients with severe ..
  11. Brockmeyer N, Mertins L, Klimek K, Goos M, Ohnhaus E. Comparative effects of rifampin and/or probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of temazepam and nitrazepam. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1990;28:387-93 pubmed
    The pharmacokinetics of nitrazepam and temazepam were investigated in 16 healthy volunteers before and after seven days of the administration of rifampin 600 mg/d and/or probenecid 500 mg/d...
  12. Gunaratna C, Kissinger P. Application of microdialysis to study the in vitro metabolism of drugs in liver microsomes. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1997;16:239-48 pubmed
    ..By making minor modifications to the instruments, microdialysis can be applied to other in vitro systems such as isolated hepatocytes to study the Phase II metabolism or tissue slices to study drug distribution. ..
  13. Sadler D, Fuke C, Court F, Pounder D. Drug accumulation and elimination in Calliphora vicina larvae. Forensic Sci Int. 1995;71:191-7 pubmed
    Calliphora vicina larvae were fed on drug-laden muscle from three suicides involving amitriptyline, temazepam and a combination of trazodone and trimipramine; triplicate daily harvestings were analysed...
  14. Erman M, Loewy D, Scharf M. Effects of temazepam 7.5 mg and temazepam 15 mg on sleep maintenance and sleep architecture in a model of transient insomnia. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21:223-30 pubmed
    To compare the effects of temazepam 7.5 mg and temazepam 15 mg on sleep maintenance during the last third of the night (last 160 min) and on sleep architecture throughout the night...
  15. Wu J, Zeng H, Deng Y, Unger S. High-speed liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using a monolithic column for high-throughput bioanalysis. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2001;15:1113-9 pubmed
    ..This high-speed liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) system has been used routinely in the authors' laboratory to support drug discovery programs. ..
  16. Lapatto Reiniluoto O, Kivistö K, Neuvonen P. Efficacy of activated charcoal versus gastric lavage half an hour after ingestion of moclobemide, temazepam, and verapamil. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;56:285-8 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of activated charcoal and gastric lavage in preventing the absorption of moclobemide, temazepam, and verapamil 30 min after drug ingestion.
  17. Sury M, Fairweather K. The effect of melatonin on sedation of children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Anaesth. 2006;97:220-5 pubmed
    ..Children >5 and <15 kg received chloral hydrate and those >or=15 and <40 kg had a combination of temazepam with droperidol (T&D). The doses of melatonin were 3 and 6 mg, respectively...
  18. Nishiya Y, Nakamura K, Okudaira N, Abe K, Kobayashi N, Okazaki O. Effects of organic solvents on the time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by diazepam. Xenobiotica. 2010;40:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation rate of nordiazepam and temazepam metabolized from diazepam dissolved in DMSO were approximately half of those using substrate dissolved in ..
  19. Marc B, Baudry F, Vaquero P, Zerrouki L, Hassnaoui S, Douceron H. Sexual assault under benzodiazepine submission in a Paris suburb. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000;263:193-7 pubmed
  20. Reilly P, Thompson D, Mason S, Hooper W. Cytochrome P450IIIA enzymes in rat liver microsomes: involvement in C3-hydroxylation of diazepam and nordazepam but not N-dealkylation of diazepam and temazepam. Mol Pharmacol. 1990;37:767-74 pubmed
    ..rats pretreated with monooxygenase-inducing agents were used to study N-dealkylation of diazepam and temazepam and C3-hydroxylation of diazepam and nordazepam...
  21. Larsen H, Chin P, Begg E, Jensen B. Quantification of total and unbound concentrations of lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in human plasma by ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS. Bioanalysis. 2011;3:843-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A fast and sensitive assay for quantifying total and unbound concentrations of lorazepam (Lzp), oxazepam (Ozp) and temazepam (Tzp) in human plasma was needed for a plasma protein binding study...
  22. Van den Mooter G, Augustijns P, Kinget R. Stability prediction of amorphous benzodiazepines by calculation of the mean relaxation time constant using the Williams-Watts decay function. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1999;48:43-8 pubmed
    The enthalpic relaxation of three amorphous benzodiazepines, diazepam, temazepam and triazolam was studied using differential scanning calorimetry for ageing temperatures which were below the glass transition temperature, and ageing ..
  23. Listos J, Malec D, Fidecka S. Influence of adenosine receptor agonists on benzodiazepine withdrawal signs in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;523:71-8 pubmed
    ..0 or 60.0 mg/kg, s.c.) with flumazenil (10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice chronically treated with temazepam or diazepam induced the appearance of withdrawal signs: clonic seizures, tonic convulsions and death episodes...
  24. Golden A, Preston R, Barnett S, Llorente M, Hamdan K, Silverman M. Inappropriate medication prescribing in homebound older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1999;47:948-53 pubmed
    ..4%) had two or more. Of particular concern were 285 people prescribed excessive doses of temazepam and zoldipem, 211 people taking first-generation antihistamines, 115 taking doxepin or amitriptyline, 106 taking ..
  25. Wang X, Johansen S, Zhang Y, Jia J, Rao Y, Jiang F, et al. Deposition of diazepam and its metabolites in hair following a single dose of diazepam. Int J Legal Med. 2017;131:131-141 pubmed publisher
    ..data are available on hair concentrations of diazepam and some of its metabolites (nordazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam) following a single controlled dose...
  26. Siddiqi M, Jennings C. A near-fatal overdose of carisoprodol (SOMA): case report. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42:239-40 pubmed
  27. Scott K, Oliver J. Development of a supercritical fluid extraction method for the determination of temazepam in whole blood. J Anal Toxicol. 1997;21:297-300 pubmed
    A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedure for the analysis of temazepam from whole blood was developed...
  28. Feeney G, Gibbs H. Digit loss following misuse of temazepam. Med J Aust. 2002;176:380 pubmed
  29. Aitken C, Higgs P. Severe vein damage caused by Temezepam injecting. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002;26:79 pubmed
  30. Lu X, Yang S. Enantiomer resolution of camazepam and its derivatives and enantioselective metabolism of camazepam by human liver microsomes. J Chromatogr A. 1994;666:249-57 pubmed
    ..Metabolites were formed primarily by hydroxylation and demethylation of the methyl groups at the C3 side chain. All metabolites were found to be optically active, enriched in either the S-enantiomer or the R-enantiomer. ..
  31. Fell A, Noctor T, Mama J, Clark B. Computer-aided optimisation of drug enantiomer separation in chiral high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1988;434:377-84 pubmed
    ..The resolution of the enantiomers of three closely related benzodiazepines, temazepam, oxazepam and lorazepam, is attempted on three new column systems: cellulose triacetate, beta-cyclodextrin and ..
  32. Bucx M, Krijtenburg P, Kox M. Preoperative use of anxiolytic-sedative agents; are we on the right track?. J Clin Anesth. 2016;33:135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..0001), with large between-hospital variation. Midazolam (62.7%), oxazepam (20.2%), and temazepam (7.8%) were most frequently used and were virtually always orally administered 1 hour preoperatively...
  33. Camacho M, Morin C. The effect of temazepam on respiration in elderly insomniacs with mild sleep apnea. Sleep. 1995;18:644-5 pubmed
    This study evaluated the respiratory effect of temazepam in elderly subjects (mean age 65 +/- 3.8 years), with mild sleep apnea...
  34. Dusci L, Good S, Hall R, Ilett K. Excretion of diazepam and its metabolites in human milk during withdrawal from combination high dose diazepam and oxazepam. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;29:123-6 pubmed
    The excretion of diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam in breast milk was studied during withdrawal of a 22-year-old patient from combined high dose diazepam and oxazepam therapy...
  35. Boonkerd S, Detaevernier M, Michotte Y, Vindevogel J. Suppression of chiral recognition of 3-hydroxy-1,4-benzodiazepines during micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with bile salts. J Chromatogr A. 1995;704:238-41 pubmed
    ..peak splitting and broadening were observed for some 3-hydroxy-1,4-benzodiazepines (oxazepam, lorazepam, temazepam and lormetazepam)...
  36. Pham Huy C, Villain Pautet G, Hua H, Chikhi Chorfi N, Galons H, Thevenin M, et al. Separation of oxazepam, lorazepam, and temazepam enantiomers by HPLC on a derivatized cyclodextrin-bonded phase: application to the determination of oxazepam in plasma. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2002;54:287-99 pubmed
    ..liquid chromatography (HPLC) of three racemic 3-hydroxybenzodiazepines, oxazepam (Oxa), lorazepam (Lor), and temazepam (Tem), is a difficult operation because of the spontaneous chiral inversion in polar solvent...
  37. Seddon T, Lockwood G, Chenery R. In vitro drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics of diazepam in cynomolgus monkey hepatocytes during culture for six days. Biochem Pharmacol. 1989;38:2621-30 pubmed
    Diazepam (DZ), N-desmethyl diazepam (NOR) and temazepam (TEM) were used as substrates in drug metabolism studies to characterize the changes in cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase pathways in hepatocytes isolated from cynomolgus monkeys, ..
  38. Bailey A, Hett D. The laryngeal mask airway in resuscitation. Resuscitation. 1994;28:107-10 pubmed
    ..Our results showed no difference in success in maintaining the airway between the three techniques or in the mean expired volumes achieved during successful ventilation. ..
  39. Hopkins W, Pilger J, Storz R, Ambrose A, Hof P, Sherwood C. Planum temporale asymmetries correlate with corpus callosum axon fiber density in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behav Brain Res. 2012;234:248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..As has been reported in human brains, the findings reported here indicate that individual differences in brain asymmetries are associated with variation in interhemispheric connectivity as manifest in axon fiber density and size. ..
  40. Luks A. Which medications are safe and effective for improving sleep at high altitude?. High Alt Med Biol. 2008;9:195-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The available data support the use of either acetazolamide, temazepam, zolpidem or zaleplon in this environment...
  41. Słupski W, Trocha M, Rutkowska M. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between simvastatin and diazepam in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2017;69:943-952 pubmed publisher
    ..Simvastatin (20mg/kg) significantly reduced the area under curve (AUC) of diazepam by 51.6% and temazepam by 54.6%...
  42. Dodd T, Scott R, Woodburn K, Going J. Limb ischaemia after intra-arterial injection of Temazepam gel: histology of nine cases. J Clin Pathol. 1994;47:512-4 pubmed
    To record the histopathological findings associated with intra-arterial injection of Temazepam gel by nine drug misusers...
  43. Bain K, Weschules D, Knowlton C, Gallagher R. Toward evidence-based prescribing at end of life: a comparative review of temazepam and zolpidem for the treatment of insomnia. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2003;20:382-8 pubmed
    A comparative review of temazepam and zolpidem use in managing insomnia in the hospice patient was undertaken to determine whether treatment with temazepam is a more cost-effective approach for this patient population...
  44. Beischlag T, Inaba T. Determination of nonderivatized para-hydroxylated metabolites of diazepam in biological fluids with a GC Megabore column system. J Anal Toxicol. 1992;16:236-9 pubmed
    ..GC) and a Megabore column system capable of simultaneous detection of diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, temazepam, oxazepam, and their para-hydroxylated metabolites...
  45. Martínez de Morentin P, Whittle A, Fernø J, Nogueiras R, Dieguez C, Vidal Puig A, et al. Nicotine induces negative energy balance through hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetes. 2012;61:807-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall these data demonstrate that the effects of nicotine on energy balance involve specific modulation of the hypothalamic AMPK-BAT axis. These targets may be relevant for the development of new therapies for human obesity. ..
  46. Larionov V, Golovenko N, Kravchenko I, Aleksandrova A, Ovcharenko N. [Comparative kinetics of 3-hydroxyphenazepam and its metabolism during transdermal and intravenous administration]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2003;66:53-5 pubmed
    ..75, while the latter decreases by a factor of 1.2 as compared to the case of intravenous drug administration. ..
  47. Abrahamowicz M, Bartlett G, Tamblyn R, du Berger R. Modeling cumulative dose and exposure duration provided insights regarding the associations between benzodiazepines and injuries. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006;59:393-403 pubmed
    ..to analyze the risk of fall related injuries among the elderly new users of three benzodiazepines (nitrazepam, temazepam, and flurazepam) in Quebec...
  48. Bones J, Thomas K, Paull B. Using environmental analytical data to estimate levels of community consumption of illicit drugs and abused pharmaceuticals. J Environ Monit. 2007;9:701-7 pubmed
    ..Other substances detected included morphine, Tempazepam and the primary metabolite of methadone. ..
  49. Heinz W, Grau A, Ulrich A, Helle Beyersdorf A, Zirkel J, Schirmer D, et al. Impact of benzodiazepines on posaconazole serum concentrations. A population-based pharmacokinetic study on drug interaction. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012;28:551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For benzodiazepines, the major metabolic pathway involves oxidation, but some, including lorazepam and temazepam, undergo conjugation to glucuronic acid...
  50. Bain G, Rudkin G, Comley A, Heptinstall R, Chittleborough M. Digitally assisted acromioplasty: the effect of interscalene block on this new surgical technique. Arthroscopy. 2001;17:44-9 pubmed
    ..Digitally assisted acromioplasty is simple to perform and does not violate the deltoid insertion. ..
  51. Hack J, Gilliland M, Meggs W. Images in emergency medicine. Activated charcoal aspiration. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48:522, 531 pubmed
  52. Iraqi A, Hughes T. Visual hallucination and temazepam: an unusual case. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54:1627-8 pubmed
  53. Djeridane Y, Touitou Y. Effects of diazepam and its metabolites on nocturnal melatonin secretion in the rat pineal and Harderian glands. A comparative in vivo and in vitro study. Chronobiol Int. 2003;20:285-97 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of diazepam (DZP) and its three metabolites: nordiazepam (NZP), oxazepam (OZP), and temazepam (TZP) on pineal gland nocturnal melatonin secretion...
  54. Voshaar R, van Balkom A, Zitman F. Zolpidem is not superior to temazepam with respect to rebound insomnia: a controlled study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004;14:301-6 pubmed
    This randomised controlled trial was conducted to compare zolpidem to an equivalent dose of temazepam with respect to subjective rebound insomnia after cessation of 4 weeks of treatment in chronic insomnia (zolpidem 10 mg, n=79; ..
  55. Deng Y, Wu J, Lloyd T, Chi C, Olah T, Unger S. High-speed gradient parallel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with fully automated sample preparation for bioanalysis: 30 seconds per sample from plasma. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16:1116-23 pubmed
    ..The method was cross-validated with a conventional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay. ..
  56. Holden J, Hughes I, Tree A. Benzodiazepine prescribing and withdrawal for 3234 patients in 15 general practices. Fam Pract. 1994;11:358-62 pubmed
    ..There was no relation between success at benzodiazepine cessation and initial levels of prescribing, nor with practice size. Younger patients were significantly more likely to stop benzodiazepines than those over the age of 65. ..
  57. Acikgöz A, Karim N, Giri S, Schmidt Heck W, Bader A. Two compartment model of diazepam biotransformation in an organotypical culture of primary human hepatocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;234:179-91 pubmed publisher
    ..fold increase in oxazepam-content which correlates with the increased availability of the precursor metabolites (temazepam and desmethyldiazepam)...
  58. Stanley R, Tiller J, Adrian J. The psychomotor effects of single and repeated doses of hypnotic benzodiazepines. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987;2:317-23 pubmed
    ..5 mg) and temazepam (10 mg). There were substantial inter-individual variations...
  59. Mellman T, Bustamante V, David D, Fins A. Hypnotic medication in the aftermath of trauma. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63:1183-4 pubmed
  60. Grunstein R. Insomnia. Diagnosis and management. Aust Fam Physician. 2002;31:995-1000 pubmed
    ..Good evidence exists for the efficacy of hypnotics for short term insomnia but long term data is currently lacking. Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem) have less adverse effects and similar efficacy to benzodiazepines. ..
  61. Stebler T, Guentert T. Determination of diazepam and nordazepam in milk and plasma in the presence of oxazepam and temazepam. J Chromatogr. 1991;564:330-7 pubmed
    ..nordazepam in the milk and plasma of humans and rabbits in the presence of their major metabolites, oxazepam and temazepam. Flurazepam was used as an internal standard...
  62. Walsh J, Mahowald M. Avoiding the blanket approach to insomnia. Targeted therapy for specific causes. Postgrad Med. 1991;90:211-4, 217-9, 223-4 pubmed
    ..Use of effective treatment strategies tailored to the situation can make treating insomnia a gratifying experience instead of a frustrating one. ..
  63. Liu Z, Short J, Rose A, Ren S, Contel N, Grossman S, et al. The simultaneous determination of diazepam and its three metabolites in dog plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2001;26:321-30 pubmed
    ..and specific LC/MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of diazepam and its three metabolites, oxazepam, temazepam and desmethyldiazepam, in dog plasma is described...
  64. Martin F, Siddle D. The interactive effects of alcohol and temazepam on P300 and reaction time. Brain Cogn. 2003;53:58-65 pubmed
    The present research investigated the separate and interactive effects of the minor tranquilizer, temazepam, and a low dose of alcohol on the amplitude and latency of P300 and on reaction time...
  65. Maringka M, Giri S, Nieber K, Acikgöz A, Bader A. Biotransformation of diazepam in a clinically relevant flat membrane bioreactor model using primary porcine hepatocytes. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2011;25:343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated diazepam clearance and all major metabolites of diazepam, such as oxazepam, temazepam, and desmethyldiazepam, in conventional single gel and organotypical sandwich models and compared them to the ..
  66. Dordunoo S, Ford J, Rubinstein M. Physical stability of solid dispersions containing triamterene or temazepam in polyethylene glycols. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1997;49:390-6 pubmed
    The effect of storage on the physical stability of solid dispersions of triamterene or temazepam in polyethylene glycols was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle-size analysis and dissolution methods...
  67. Oechsler S, Skopp G. An in vitro approach to estimate putative inhibition of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine glucuronidation. Int J Legal Med. 2010;124:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..glucuronidation, substrates were incubated with drugs (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, lamotrigine, oxazepam, and temazepam), which are extensively cleared by glucuronidation as well as are often used during maintenance treatment...
  68. Chiba K, Horii H, Chiba T, Kato Y, Hirano T, Ishizaki T. Development and preliminary application of high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of urinary metabolites of diazepam in humans. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1995;668:77-84 pubmed
    ..method for the measurement of diazepam (DZP) and its major metabolites, N-desmethyldiazepam (DMDZP), temazepam (TZP) and oxazepam (OZP) in urine was developed...
  69. Erman M, Loewy D, Scharf M. Comparison of temazepam 7.5 mg with temazepam 15 mg for the treatment of transient insomnia. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20:441-9 pubmed
    To demonstrate the equivalent efficacy of temazepam 7.5 mg and temazepam 15 mg for the treatment of transient insomnia. This was a double-blind, parallel group, multicenter study...
  70. Wilson S, Rich A, Rich N, Potokar J, Nutt D. Evaluation of actigraphy and automated telephoned questionnaires to assess hypnotic effects in insomnia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:77-84 pubmed
    ..took part in a 5-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of 2 weeks of administration of temazepam 20 mg on sleep. Outcome measures were actigraphy and daily St Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaires (SMHSQ)...
  71. Glover S, Allen K. Measurement of benzodiazepines in urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: confirmation of samples screened by immunoassay. Ann Clin Biochem. 2010;47:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and quantitate the six most common benzodiazepines/metabolites (diazepam, nitrazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and 7-aminonitrazepam) was developed together with a qualitative screening method for a further 11 ..
  72. Beischlag T, Kalow W, Mahon W, Inaba T. Diazepam metabolism by rat and human liver in vitro: inhibition by mephenytoin. Xenobiotica. 1992;22:559-67 pubmed
    ..parameters were obtained for the formation of p-hydroxydiazepam (p-hydroxy-DZP), N-desmethyldiazepam (NDZ), and temazepam (TMZ) from diazepam (DZP) in rat liver fractions...
  73. Ramesh M, Roberts G. Use of night-time benzodiazepines in an elderly inpatient population. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2002;27:93-7 pubmed
    ..Benzodiazepines were prescribed for 20% of patients with 94% of prescriptions being for temazepam. Of the 54 patients prescribed benzodiazepines during admission, 57% were not taking a benzodiazepine at home ..
  74. Grassi M, Colombo1 I, Lapasin R. Drug release from an ensemble of swellable crosslinked polymer particles. J Control Release. 2000;68:97-113 pubmed
    ..polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) particles and two different model drugs, MAP (medroxyprogesterone acetate) and TEM (Temazepam). MAP and TEM were chosen because of their completely different dissolution behaviours in water...
  75. Watts M, Geraghty R, Moore A, Saunders J, Swift C. Premedication for bronchoscopy in older patients: a double-blind comparison of two regimens. Respir Med. 2005;99:220-6 pubmed
    ..We compared a novel premedication regimen-oral temazepam plus nebulised Lignocaine (new treatment) to an established regimen of intravenous alfentanyl (control)...
  76. Irving R, Dickson S. The detection of sedatives in hair and nail samples using tandem LC-MS-MS. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;166:58-67 pubmed
    Drug screening methods were developed to detect alprazolam, clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, midazolam, oxazepam, temazepam, triazolam, zopiclone, and selected metabolites in human hair and nail samples employing liquid-liquid extraction ..
  77. Dresler T, Ehlis A, Plichta M, Richter M, Jabs B, Lesch K, et al. Panic disorder and a possible treatment approach by means of high-frequency rTMS: a case report. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10:991-7 pubmed publisher
  78. Billiot E, Billiot F, Warner I. Optimization of 12 chiral analytes with 8 polymeric surfactants. J Chromatogr Sci. 2008;46:757-63 pubmed
    ..No inference can be necessarily drawn about surfactants containing other types of amino acids such as threonine and serine, which contain extra heteroatoms, or phenylalanine that has an aromatic moiety...
  79. Lagas J, Wilhelm A, Vos R, van den Dool E, van der Heide Y, Huissoon S, et al. Toxicokinetics of a dipyridamole (Persantin) intoxication: case report. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30:74-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of a 51-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital after ingestion of large doses of dipyridamole (12 g), temazepam (1 g) and oxazepam (0.2 g) with suicidal intent...
  80. Degenhardt L, Roxburgh A, van Beek I, Hall W, Robinson M, Ross J, et al. The effects of the market withdrawal of temazepam gel capsules on benzodiazepine injecting in Sydney, Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2008;27:145-51 pubmed publisher
    This study assessed the impact on benzodiazepine injection among IDU in Sydney of removing temazepam gel capsule preparations from the Australian market...
  81. Deighan C, Wong K, Mclaughlin K, Harden P. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure resulting from alcohol and drug abuse. QJM. 2000;93:29-33 pubmed
    ..Abuse of the gel formulation of temazepam has been a particular problem in the West of Scotland...
  82. Evans C, Sebastian J. Serotonin syndrome. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:e20 pubmed
    ..This case report demonstrates signs and symptoms associated with their overdose and illustrates the importance of recognition of this syndrome to instigate appropriate treatment for the patient. ..
  83. Verster J, Volkerts E. Effects of zolpidem and temazepam on driving ability. Sleep Med. 2004;5:609-10; author reply 611 pubmed
  84. O Neal C, Poklis A. Commentary on: Dou C, Bournique J, Zinda M, Gnezda M, Nally A, Salamone S. Comparison of rates of hydrolysis of lorazepam-glucuronide, oxazepam-glucuronide and temazepam-glucuronide catalyzed by E. coli beta-glucuronidase using the on-line benzodiaze. J Forensic Sci. 2002;47:427-8 pubmed
  85. Fu S, Molnar A, Bowron P, Lewis J, Wang H. Reduction of temazepam to diazepam and lorazepam to delorazepam during enzymatic hydrolysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;400:153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..reductive transformation also occurs in other benzodiazepines with a hydroxyl group at the C3 position such as temazepam and lorazepam...