tooth fractures


Summary: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.

Top Publications

  1. Rosa R, Hwas A, Melo D, Valandro L, Kaizer O. Fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth restored with different strategies after mechanical cycling. Gen Dent. 2012;60:e62-8 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that a glass prefabricated core can be an acceptable alternative for the reconstruction of endodontically treated teeth...
  2. Fragou T, Tortopidis D, Kontonasaki E, Evangelinaki E, Ioannidis K, Petridis H, et al. The effect of ferrule on the fracture mode of endodontically treated canines restored with fibre posts and metal-ceramic or all-ceramic crowns. J Dent. 2012;40:276-85 pubmed publisher
  3. Juloski J, Radovic I, Goracci C, Vulicevic Z, Ferrari M. Ferrule effect: a literature review. J Endod. 2012;38:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..If neither of the alternative methods for providing a ferrule can be performed, available evidence suggests that a poor clinical outcome is very likely. ..
  4. Mangold J, Kern M. Influence of glass-fiber posts on the fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated premolars with varying substance loss: an in vitro study. J Prosthet Dent. 2011;105:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear how the amount of substance loss affects whether the fracture strength of endodontically treated and crowned teeth is increased by post placement...
  5. Loomba K, Loomba A, Bains R, Bains V. A proposal for classification of tooth fractures based on treatment need. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:517-29 pubmed
    ..A thorough review of various classifications of tooth fractures shows that, despite an emphasis on traumatic dental injuries, a consensus needs to be arrived at, especially ..
  6. Mora M, Mol A, Tyndall D, Rivera E. In vitro assessment of local computed tomography for the detection of longitudinal tooth fractures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103:825-9 pubmed
    ..0002), whereas the differences between the observers was not (analysis of variance: P = .319). Local CT significantly improves the detection of longitudinal fractures in vitro compared with conventional periapical radiography. ..
  7. Mora M, Mol A, Tyndall D, Rivera E. Effect of the number of basis images on the detection of longitudinal tooth fractures using local computed tomography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2007;36:382-6 pubmed
    ..LCT maintained its efficacy for detecting longitudinal fractures with 60 instead of 180 basis images. Agreement between actual and observed terminal point locations was moderate for LCT60 and LCT180. ..
  8. Ozcopur B, Akman S, Eskitascioglu G, Belli S. The effect of different posts on fracture strength of roots with vertical fracture and re-attached fragments. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37:615-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Prefabricated posts showed similar fracture strength in the sound roots. Customized post systems EverStick and Ribbond showed mostly repairable failure after loading in sound roots or roots with re-attached fragments. ..
  9. Sagsen B, Er O, Kahraman Y, Akdogan G. Resistance to fracture of roots filled with three different techniques. Int Endod J. 2007;40:31-5 pubmed
    ..01) between the experimental groups and the control group. No significant differences were found between the three experimental groups. All the materials used in the present study reinforced the prepared root canals. ..

More Information


  1. Lam P, Palamara J, Messer H. Fracture strength of tooth roots following canal preparation by hand and rotary instrumentation. J Endod. 2005;31:529-32 pubmed
    ..Greater apical enlargement (Lightspeed) or increased canal taper (Greater Taper files) did not increase fracture susceptibility of tooth roots. ..
  2. Hayashi M, Takahashi Y, Imazato S, Ebisu S. Fracture resistance of pulpless teeth restored with post-cores and crowns. Dent Mater. 2006;22:477-85 pubmed
  3. Mohammadi N, Kahnamoii M, Yeganeh P, Navimipour E. Effect of fiber post and cusp coverage on fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars directly restored with composite resin. J Endod. 2009;35:1428-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Root-filled maxillary premolars, restored with direct resin composite with or without fiber post and cusp capping, had similar fracture resistance under static loading. ..
  4. Spazzin A, Galafassi D, de Meira Júnior A, Braz R, Garbin C. Influence of post and resin cement on stress distribution of maxillary central incisors restored with direct resin composite. Oper Dent. 2009;34:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher elastic modulus cement created higher stress levels within itself. The cement thicknesses did not present significant changes. ..
  5. Naumann M, Metzdorf G, Fokkinga W, Watzke R, Sterzenbach G, Bayne S, et al. Influence of test parameters on in vitro fracture resistance of post-endodontic restorations: a structured review. J Oral Rehabil. 2009;36:299-312 pubmed publisher
    ..01 to 150 mm min(-1). The reviewed studies were heterogeneous in test design regarding the used test parameters. A methodological standardization of in vitro testing of post-endodontic restorations is recommended. ..
  6. Clavijo V, Reis J, Kabbach W, Silva A, Oliveira Junior O, Andrade M. Fracture strength of flared bovine roots restored with different intraradicular posts. J Appl Oral Sci. 2009;17:574-8 pubmed
    ..Although further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary, the results of this study showed that the use of direct and indirect anatomic posts in flared roots could be an alternative to cast metal post-and-core. ..
  7. Pereira J, Neto T, Porto V, Pegoraro L, do Valle A. Influence of the remaining coronal structure on the resistance of teeth with intraradicular retainer. Braz Dent J. 2005;16:197-201 pubmed
    ..When the dental crown was not completely removed, the amount of remaining coronal dentin did not significantly affect the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth with intraradicular retainer. ..
  8. Ng C, Al Bayat M, Dumbrigue H, Griggs J, Wakefield C. Effect of no ferrule on failure of teeth restored with bonded posts and cores. Gen Dent. 2004;52:143-6 pubmed
    ..001) between the ferrule and nonferrule groups' load to failure. For the ferrule group, root fracture was the predominant mode of failure; in the nonferrule group, debonding failures were predominant. ..
  9. Kivanç B, Alacam T, Görgül G. Fracture resistance of premolars with one remaining cavity wall restored using different techniques. Dent Mater J. 2010;29:262-7 pubmed
    ..05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that the presence and type of post did not influence the fracture load and failure mode of maxillary premolar teeth with one remaining cavity wall...
  10. Forberger N, Göhring T. Influence of the type of post and core on in vitro marginal continuity, fracture resistance, and fracture mode of lithia disilicate-based all-ceramic crowns. J Prosthet Dent. 2008;100:264-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The placement of a post-and-core foundation did not influence the pattern of failure. ..
  11. Yilmaz Y, Guler C, Sahin H, Eyuboglu O. Evaluation of tooth-fragment reattachment: a clinical and laboratory study. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26:308-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Fragment reattachment can be used to treat fractured teeth successfully in children and adolescents. ..
  12. Dikbas I, Tanalp J, Ozel E, Koksal T, Ersoy M. Evaluation of the effect of different ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors incorporating fiber posts, composite cores and crown restorations. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2007;8:62-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, there is no significant change in the resistance of teeth with fiber posts regardless of which ferrule design is incorporated. The property of these types of posts is an additional advantage in clinical practice. ..
  13. Ulusoy O, Genç O, Arslan S, Alacam T, Görgül G. Fracture resistance of roots obturated with three different materials. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104:705-8 pubmed
    ..05). The use of AH26 + gutta-percha increased the fracture resistance of instrumented root canals compared with Resilon + Epiphany and Ketac-Endo Aplicap + gutta-percha. ..
  14. Salameh Z, Sorrentino R, Papacchini F, Ounsi H, Tashkandi E, Goracci C, et al. Fracture resistance and failure patterns of endodontically treated mandibular molars restored using resin composite with or without translucent glass fiber posts. J Endod. 2006;32:752-5 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the resistance of endodontically treated mandibular molars restored with composite resins is mainly affected by the number of residual walls. Using fiber-reinforced posts optimized fracture patterns. ..
  15. Zogheib L, Pereira J, do Valle A, de Oliveira J, Pegoraro L. Fracture resistance of weakened roots restored with composite resin and glass fiber post. Braz Dent J. 2008;19:329-33 pubmed
    ..There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the weakened groups. The results of this study showed that thicker root dentin walls significantly increase the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. ..
  16. Akkayan B. An in vitro study evaluating the effect of ferrule length on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced and zirconia dowel systems. J Prosthet Dent. 2004;92:155-62 pubmed
    ..There are few published studies analyzing the effects of different ferrule lengths of endodontically treated teeth in relationship to newly developed fiber-reinforced and zirconia dowel systems...
  17. Schafer E, Zandbiglari T, Schäfer J. Influence of resin-based adhesive root canal fillings on the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated roots: an in vitro preliminary study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103:274-9 pubmed
    ..05). The roots obturated with RealSeal were significantly stronger than those obturated with gutta-percha and AHPlus (P<.05). An obturation with RealSeal significantly increases the fracture resistance of instrumented roots. ..
  18. Belli S, Erdemir A, Yildirim C. Reinforcement effect of polyethylene fibre in root-filled teeth: comparison of two restoration techniques. Int Endod J. 2006;39:136-42 pubmed
    ..However, when the fibre was placed on the occlusal surface of the restoration in buccal to lingual direction, significantly higher fracture resistance was observed. ..
  19. Newman M, Yaman P, Dennison J, Rafter M, Billy E. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with composite posts. J Prosthet Dent. 2003;89:360-7 pubmed
    ..However, the mode of failure or deflection of the fiber-reinforced composite posts is protective to the remaining tooth structure. ..
  20. Torbjörner A, Fransson B. A literature review on the prosthetic treatment of structurally compromised teeth. Int J Prosthodont. 2004;17:369-76 pubmed
    ..Favorable occlusal prosthesis design is probably more important for survival of structurally compromised endodontically treated teeth than is the type of post used. ..
  21. Zhi Yue L, Yu Xing Z. Effects of post-core design and ferrule on fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. J Prosthet Dent. 2003;89:368-73 pubmed
    ..Those prepared with a 2-mm dentin ferrule more effectively enhanced the fracture strength of custom cast post-core restored endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. ..
  22. Ichim I, Kuzmanovic D, Love R. A finite element analysis of ferrule design on restoration resistance and distribution of stress within a root. Int Endod J. 2006;39:443-52 pubmed
    ..Crown-lengthening did not alter the levels or pattern of stress within compared with conventional ferrule preparations. ..
  23. Ng C, Dumbrigue H, Al Bayat M, Griggs J, Wakefield C. Influence of remaining coronal tooth structure location on the fracture resistance of restored endodontically treated anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent. 2006;95:290-6 pubmed
  24. Nam S, Chang H, Min K, Lee Y, Cho H, Bae J. Effect of the number of residual walls on fracture resistances, failure patterns, and photoelasticity of simulated premolars restored with or without fiber-reinforced composite posts. J Endod. 2010;36:297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the photoelastic stress distribution was analyzed...
  25. Marchi G, Paulillo L, Pimenta L, De Lima F. Effect of different filling materials in combination with intraradicular posts on the resistance to fracture of weakened roots. J Oral Rehabil. 2003;30:623-9 pubmed
    ..None of the materials evaluated were capable of achieving the fracture resistance recorded for unweakened controls. ..
  26. Pereira J, de Ornelas F, Conti P, do Valle A. Effect of a crown ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts. J Prosthet Dent. 2006;95:50-4 pubmed
    ..The results of this study showed that an increased amount of coronal dentin significantly increases the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. ..
  27. Kruzic J, Nalla R, Kinney J, Ritchie R. Mechanistic aspects of in vitro fatigue-crack growth in dentin. Biomaterials. 2005;26:1195-204 pubmed
    ..These results are deemed to be of importance for an improved understanding of fatigue-related failures in teeth. ..
  28. Mitsui F, Marchi G, Pimenta L, Ferraresi P. In vitro study of fracture resistance of bovine roots using different intraradicular post systems. Quintessence Int. 2004;35:612-6 pubmed
    ..All prefabricated intraradicular post systems evaluated presented similar resistance to fracture when compared to cast posts and cores, and among the prefabricated ones, titanium and carbon-fiber posts could be best indicated. ..
  29. Grandini S, Sapio S, Simonetti M. Use of anatomic post and core for reconstructing an endodontically treated tooth: a case report. J Adhes Dent. 2003;5:243-7 pubmed
    ..The luting procedure described can be proposed as a clinical technique for routine use when the prepared root canal is too wide or not perfectly round. ..
  30. Arunpraditkul S, Saengsanon S, Pakviwat W. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: three walls versus four walls of remaining coronal tooth structure. J Prosthodont. 2009;18:49-53 pubmed publisher
  31. Solomon C, Osman Y. Aesthetic restoration of the compromised root: a case report. SADJ. 2003;58:370, 373-6, 381 pubmed
    ..The paper reports on a case where a wide flared root canal was rehabilitated with composite resin using a light-transmitting post. ..
  32. Yoldas O, Akova T, Uysal H. An experimental analysis of stresses in simulated flared root canals subjected to various post-core applications. J Oral Rehabil. 2005;32:427-32 pubmed
    ..001; anova and Tukey's post hoc test). It was concluded that the resin reinforcement of root canals before post-core applications reduces the stresses at the cervical part of the root surfaces. ..
  33. Soares C, Pizi E, Fonseca R, Martins L. Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests. Braz Oral Res. 2005;19:11-6 pubmed
    ..05). The results showed that root embedment method and periodontal ligament simulation have a significant effect on fracture resistance. Artificial periodontal ligament modified the fracture modes. ..
  34. Giovani A, Vansan L, de Sousa Neto M, Paulino S. In vitro fracture resistance of glass-fiber and cast metal posts with different lengths. J Prosthet Dent. 2009;101:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the glass-fiber post represents a viable alternative to the cast metal post, increasing the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated canines. ..
  35. Amaral M, Favarin Santini M, Wandscher V, Villaça Zogheib L, Valandro L. Effect of coronal macroretentions and diameter of a glass-FRC on fracture resistance of bovine teeth restored with fiber posts. Minerva Stomatol. 2009;58:99-106 pubmed
    ..A direct relation between the diameter of the fiber post and the fracture strength seems likely. Coronal macroretentions reduced fracture strength in thinner fiber posts. ..
  36. Garbin C, Spazzin A, Meira Júnior A, Loretto S, Lyra A, Braz R. Biomechanical behaviour of a fractured maxillary incisor restored with direct composite resin only or with different post systems. Int Endod J. 2010;43:1098-107 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare stress distribution between a fractured maxillary central incisor restored with direct composite resin only (CR) or associated with different post materials, using finite element analysis...
  37. Varvara G, Perinetti G, Di Iorio D, Murmura G, Caputi S. In vitro evaluation of fracture resistance and failure mode of internally restored endodontically treated maxillary incisors with differing heights of residual dentin. J Prosthet Dent. 2007;98:365-72 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the failure mode was favorable for almost all of the CFP and control groups, while it was catastrophic in most of the CCPC group. ..
  38. Cecchin D, Farina A, Guerreiro C, Carlini Júnior B. Fracture resistance of roots prosthetically restored with intra-radicular posts of different lengths. J Oral Rehabil. 2010;37:116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that it is not necessary to perform excessive intra-radicular post-space preparation to improve the fracture resistance of roots...
  39. Karapinar Kazandag M, Sunay H, Tanalp J, Bayirli G. Fracture resistance of roots using different canal filling systems. Int Endod J. 2009;42:705-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The fracture resistance of roots using ActiV GP + lateral compaction Gutta-percha was significantly reduced compared with the AH-Plus + Gutta-percha group. ..
  40. Hayashi M, Sugeta A, Takahashi Y, Imazato S, Ebisu S. Static and fatigue fracture resistances of pulpless teeth restored with post-cores. Dent Mater. 2008;24:1178-86 pubmed publisher
  41. D Arcangelo C, De Angelis F, Vadini M, D Amario M, Caputi S. Fracture resistance and deflection of pulpless anterior teeth restored with composite or porcelain veneers. J Endod. 2010;36:153-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A fiber post restoration can be suggested when endodontic treatment is associated with veneer restoration. Veneer restorations seem to be an optimal choice also for endodontically treated teeth. ..
  42. Tan P, Aquilino S, Gratton D, Stanford C, Tan S, Johnson W, et al. In vitro fracture resistance of endodontically treated central incisors with varying ferrule heights and configurations. J Prosthet Dent. 2005;93:331-6 pubmed
    ..5 to 2 mm) ferrule heights. Both the 2-mm ferrule and nonuniform ferrule groups were more fracture resistant than the group that lacked a ferrule. ..
  43. Teixeira F, Teixeira E, Thompson J, Trope M. Fracture resistance of roots endodontically treated with a new resin filling material. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004;135:646-52 pubmed
  44. Maccari P, Cosme D, Oshima H, Burnett L, Shinkai R. Fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth with flared root canals and restored with different post systems. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2007;19:30-6; discussion 37 pubmed
    ..Under the conditions of this study, cast posts are preferable to restore endodontically treated teeth with flared canals and no ferrule. ..
  45. Fokkinga W, Kreulen C, Le Bell Rönnlöf A, Lassila L, Vallittu P, Creugers N. Fracture behavior of structurally compromised non-vital maxillary premolars restored using experimental fiber reinforced composite crowns. Am J Dent. 2006;19:326-32 pubmed
    ..Incorporation of a glass fiber fabric, however, has a beneficial effect on the failure mode. ..
  46. Cho H, Michalakis K, Kim Y, Hirayama H. Impact of interproximal groove placement and remaining coronal tooth structure on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary anterior teeth. J Prosthodont. 2009;18:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The inclusion of interproximal grooves on the cast dowel and cores of endodontically treated anterior teeth with 1-2 mm of remaining coronal tooth structure does not significantly lower the failure threshold. ..
  47. Cohen S, Blanco L, Berman L. Vertical root fractures: clinical and radiographic diagnosis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134:434-41 pubmed
    ..VRFs can be detected early by listening to the patient's chief complaints, carefully examining periapical and bitewing radiographs and performing a thorough clinical examination. ..
  48. Schiavetti R, Sannino G. In vitro evaluation of ferrule effect and depth of post insertion on fracture resistance of fiber posts. Comput Math Methods Med. 2012;2012:816481 pubmed publisher
    ..The ferrule effect in the endodontically treated teeth positively affects the fracture strength of the fiber post. Conversely, post depth insertion did not affect the resistance to fracture. ..
  49. Rocca G, Saratti C, Cattani Lorente M, Feilzer A, Scherrer S, Krejci I. The effect of a fiber reinforced cavity configuration on load bearing capacity and failure mode of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM resin composite overlay restorations. J Dent. 2015;43:1106-1115 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of FRCs to reinforce the "core" of devitalized molars against vertical fractures under static loads seems useless when the thickness of the CAD/CAM composite overlay restoration is high. ..
  50. Kapferer I, Beier U. Lateral lower lip piercing--prevalence of associated oral complications: a split-mouth cross-sectional study. Quintessence Int. 2012;43:747-52 pubmed
    ..001). Lateral lower lip piercing is associated with significantly higher plaque accumulation on adjacent teeth. A small percentage of lateral lower lip piercings may cause tooth chipping or buccal recession in adjacent teeth. ..
  51. Khedmat S, Rouhi N, Drage N, Shokouhinejad N, Nekoofar M. Evaluation of three imaging techniques for the detection of vertical root fractures in the absence and presence of gutta-percha root fillings. Int Endod J. 2012;45:1004-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, as the radiation dose of MDCT is higher than CBCT, the technique could be considered at variance with the principles of ALARA. ..
  52. Shima H, Matsuzaka K, Kokubu E, Inoue T. Regenerative capability of dental pulp cells after crown fracture. Dent Traumatol. 2013;29:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study demonstrates that dental pulp stem cells derived from fractured teeth differentiate to osteogenic or odontogenic cells. ..
  53. Ulusoy A, Tunc E, Cil F, Isci D, Lütfioğlu M. Multidisciplinary treatment of a subgingivally fractured tooth with indirect composite restoration: a case report. J Dent Child (Chic). 2012;79:79-83 pubmed
    ..A clinical and radiographic evaluation at a follow-up appointment 1 year later confirmed that the technique used in this case can be a good option for restoring anterior teeth with subgingival fractures. ..
  54. Akgun O, Altun C, Guven G, Basak F. Ribbond for treatment of complicated crown fractures: report of 3 cases. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2012;37:149-52 pubmed
    ..In this report, we describe endodontic and restorative treatments using Ribbond for 3 female patients with horizontal complicated crown fractures of the maxillary incisors. ..
  55. Huggons N, Bell R, Puchalski S. Radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of nonneoplastic equine mandibular disease. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2011;52:53-60 pubmed
    ..CT provides ancillary information to radiographs in horses with dental infection or a nonneoplastic mass of the mandible. ..
  56. Hand D, Burbridge L, Cole B. Interdisciplinary management in the paediatric patient: restoration of a complicated crown-root fracture. Dent Update. 2012;39:280-4 pubmed
    ..The approach resulted in utilizing the patient's own tooth fragment to facilitate restoration back into successful function and aesthetics with the absence of any pathological changes. ..
  57. Seo D, Yi Y, Shin S, Park J. Analysis of factors associated with cracked teeth. J Endod. 2012;38:288-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics, distribution, and associated factors of longitudinal fractured teeth according to the well-defined criteria of the American Association of Endodontists (AAE)...
  58. Ferreira R, Bahrami G, Isidor F, Wenzel A, Haiter Neto F, Groppo F. Detection of vertical root fractures by cone-beam computerized tomography in endodontically treated teeth with fiber-resin and titanium posts: an in vitro study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;115:e49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..88; P < .001) were observed for i-CAT in roots with fiber-resin posts than with other combinations. The diagnostic performance for detecting vertical fractures was higher for roots with fiber-resin than with titanium posts. ..
  59. Anchieta R, Rocha E, Watanabe M, de Almeida E, Freitas Júnior A, Martini A, et al. Recovering the function and esthetics of fractured teeth using several restorative cosmetic approaches. Three clinical cases. Dent Traumatol. 2012;28:166-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In all three cases, excellent functional and esthetic results were achieved by use of these treatment modalities. The patients were very satisfied with the results. ..
  60. Oskoee S, Oskoee P, Navimipour E, Ajami A, Zonuz G, Bahari M, et al. The effect of composite fiber insertion along with low-shrinking composite resin on cuspal deflection of root-filled maxillary premolars. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13:595-601 pubmed
    ..Using preimpregnated glass fibers along with silorane-based composite resin may lead to better results in cuspal deflection and fracture resistance of endodonticallytreated maxillary premolars. ..
  61. Anand P, Ashok S, Nandakumar K, Varghese N, Kamath K. Surgical exposure and crown lengthening for management of complicated fractures of maxillary anterior teeth. A case report. N Y State Dent J. 2013;79:41-6 pubmed
    ..And management of such tooth fractures often requires an interdisciplinary approach involving endodontic, periodontic and restorative procedures...