Summary: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)
- Vargas Ferreira F, Praetzel J, Ardenghi T. Prevalence of tooth erosion and associated factors in 11-14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. J Public Health Dent. 2011;71:6-12 pubmed publisherPrevalence data about tooth erosion has attracted increasing attention in the dental community; however, population-based studies that assessed the impact of demographic, socioeconomic, and dietetic predictors on tooth erosion are scarce...
- Taji S, Seow W. A literature review of dental erosion in children. Aust Dent J. 2010;55:358-67; quiz 475 pubmed publisher..The associations between erosion and other common conditions in children such as caries and enamel hypoplasia are also discussed. ..
- Yu H, Attin T, Wiegand A, Buchalla W. Effects of various fluoride solutions on enamel erosion in vitro. Caries Res. 2010;44:390-401 pubmed publisher..Under the current experimental setting, the fluoride agents at lower pH had better protective potential. Highly concentrated TiF(4), AmF, and SnF(2) solution was effective in inhibiting erosion of enamel. ..
- Kato M, Leite A, Hannas A, Buzalaf M. Gels containing MMP inhibitors prevent dental erosion in situ. J Dent Res. 2010;89:468-72 pubmed publisher..79 +/- 0.35(b)) and placebo gels (1.77 +/- 0.35(b)) (Friedman and Dunn's tests, p < 0.01). The use of gels delivering MMP inhibitors was shown to prevent erosion and opens a new perspective for protection against dental erosion. ..
- Neves B, Farah A, Lucas E, de Sousa V, Maia L. Are paediatric medicines risk factors for dental caries and dental erosion?. Community Dent Health. 2010;27:46-51 pubmed..8 cP and 412.3 cP. Many paediatric medicines showed high sugar concentration, pH values below the critical value and high titratable acidity values, all of which increase the medicines' cariogenic and erosive potentials. ..
- Caldeira E, Fidalgo T, Passalini P, Marquezan M, Maia L, Nojima M. Effect of fluoride on tooth erosion around orthodontic brackets. Braz Dent J. 2012;23:581-5 pubmedThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride in prevention of tooth erosion around orthodontic brackets under erosive challenge...
- Magalhaes A, Moraes S, Rios D, Buzalaf M. Effect of ion supplementation of a commercial soft drink on tooth enamel erosion. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2009;26:152-6 pubmed publisher..The groups containing Ca (G2 and G6) showed significantly less wear compared to control. In conclusion, the modification of an erosive soft drink with low concentrations of Ca with or without F may reduced its erosive potential. ..
- El Aidi H, Bronkhorst E, Huysmans M, Truin G. Dynamics of tooth erosion in adolescents: a 3-year longitudinal study. J Dent. 2010;38:131-7 pubmed publisherThe aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence, incidence and progression of tooth erosion on both mouth and tooth level over a 3-year period in a sample of adolescents...
- Nikolic R, Kalicanin B, Krstić N. The release of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium from the mineral tissue of teeth under the influence of soft drinks and sour-tasting food. Connect Tissue Res. 2012;53:229-35 pubmed publisher..These studies have shown that under the influence of an acidic medium significant erosion to the tooth enamel ensues and that the eroded surfaces had a radius of 1-5 ?m. ..
- Arnadottir I, Holbrook W, Eggertsson H, Gudmundsdottir H, Jonsson S, Gudlaugsson J, et al. Prevalence of dental erosion in children: a national survey. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2010;38:521-6 pubmed publisher..The rapidly growing prevalence of erosion demonstrated by this nationwide survey emphasizes the need for further research into the aetiology of erosion and possible methods of preventing and treating this emerging dental problem. ..
- Magalhaes A, Wiegand A, Rios D, Buzalaf M, Lussi A. Fluoride in dental erosion. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:158-70 pubmed publisher..Further properly designed in situ or clinical studies are recommended in order to better understand the relative differences in performance of the various fluoride agents and formulations...
- Kato M, Leite A, Hannas A, Oliveira R, Pereira J, Tjäderhane L, et al. Effect of iron on matrix metalloproteinase inhibition and on the prevention of dentine erosion. Caries Res. 2010;44:309-16 pubmed publisher..05 +/- 0.02 mum). Since FeSO(4) was able to inhibit MMP in vitro, it is possible that the prevention of dentine wear by the FeSO(4) gel in situ might be due to MMP inhibition, which should be investigated in further studies. ..
- Mulic A, Tveit A, Wang N, Hove L, Espelid I, Skaare A. Reliability of two clinical scoring systems for dental erosive wear. Caries Res. 2010;44:294-9 pubmed publisher..The greatest difficulties were found when scoring enamel lesions, especially initial lesions, while good agreement was observed when examining sound surfaces (score 0) and dentine lesions (score 3)...
- Wiegand A, Hiestand B, Sener B, Magalhaes A, Roos M, Attin T. Effect of TiF4, ZrF4, HfF4 and AmF on erosion and erosion/abrasion of enamel and dentin in situ. Arch Oral Biol. 2010;55:223-8 pubmed publisher..The protective effect of the fluoride solutions was similar in enamel and dentin. Tetrafluorides and AmF are able to reduce erosion and erosion plus abrasion in situ and are almost equally effective. ..
- Kato M, Buzalaf M. Iron supplementation reduces the erosive potential of a cola drink on enamel and dentin in situ. J Appl Oral Sci. 2012;20:318-22 pubmed..Iron has been suggested to reduce the erosive potential of cola drinks in vitro...
- Kato M, Lancia M, Sales Peres S, Buzalaf M. Preventive effect of commercial desensitizing toothpastes on bovine enamel erosion in vitro. Caries Res. 2010;44:85-9 pubmed publisher..These in vitro results suggest that the presence of fluoride or desensitizing substances in toothpastes, alone or in combination, can reduce erosion of enamel, but this is not valid for all the formulations. ..
- Piangprach T, Hengtrakool C, Kukiattrakoon B, Kedjarune Leggat U. The effect of salivary factors on dental erosion in various age groups and tooth surfaces. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140:1137-43 pubmed..Salivary factors including flow rate, urea, buffering capacity and neutralization capability help prevent dental erosion. The protective level of saliva varies by age and tooth experiences. ..
- Lussi A, von Salis Marincek M, Ganss C, Hellwig E, Cheaib Z, Jaeggi T. Clinical study monitoring the pH on tooth surfaces in patients with and without erosion. Caries Res. 2012;46:507-12 pubmed publisher..05). Saliva parameters showed no significant differences between the two patient groups except for a lower buffering capacity at pH 5.5 in the erosion group. ..
- Lussi A, Schlueter N, Rakhmatullina E, Ganss C. Dental erosion--an overview with emphasis on chemical and histopathological aspects. Caries Res. 2011;45 Suppl 1:2-12 pubmed publisher..The chemical mechanisms of erosion are also summarised in this review. Special attention is given to the microscopic and macroscopic histopathology of erosion...
- Ganss C, Lussi A, Sommer N, Klimek J, Schlueter N. Efficacy of fluoride compounds and stannous chloride as erosion inhibitors in dentine. Caries Res. 2010;44:248-52 pubmed publisher..The strikingly different outcomes in the two experiments suggest reconsidering current methodologies for investigating anti-erosive strategies in dentine. ..
- Hasselkvist A, Johansson A, Johansson A. Dental erosion and soft drink consumption in Swedish children and adolescents and the development of a simplified erosion partial recording system. Swed Dent J. 2010;34:187-95 pubmed..The hypothesis that dental erosion would be higher in boys than girls and that it would show a correlation with soft drink intake was confirmed...
- Pradeep A, Sharma A. Comparison of clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate to a dentifrice containing potassium nitrate and to a placebo on dentinal hypersensitivity: a randomized clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1167-73 pubmed publisher..Under the conditions of a clinical trial, the calcium sodium phosphosilicate group showed comparable reduction in the symptoms of dentin hypersensitivity. ..
- West N, Davies M, Amaechi B. In vitro and in situ erosion models for evaluating tooth substance loss. Caries Res. 2011;45 Suppl 1:43-52 pubmed publisher..The aims of this paper are to give guidance to the researcher on evidence-based in vitro and in situ erosive tooth wear methodology and to suggest best practice given current knowledge. ..
- Magalhaes A, Wiegand A, Rios D, Hannas A, Attin T, Buzalaf M. Chlorhexidine and green tea extract reduce dentin erosion and abrasion in situ. J Dent. 2009;37:994-8 pubmed publisher..Thus, the possible MMP-inhibitors tested in this study seem to be a promising preventive measure to reduce dentin erosion-abrasion, but their mechanism of action needs to be investigated in further studies. ..
- Mulic A, Tveit A, Hove L, Skaare A. Dental erosive wear among Norwegian wine tasters. Acta Odontol Scand. 2011;69:21-6 pubmed publisher..Half of the wine tasters had no erosive wear and, for the other half, there was no relationship between the duration of their professional life and the extent of erosive wear. ..
- Hemingway C, White A, Shellis R, Addy M, Parker D, Barbour M. Enamel erosion in dietary acids: inhibition by food proteins in vitro. Caries Res. 2010;44:525-30 pubmed publisher..The citrate ion may play an active stabilising role, since erosion reduction was less in the other acids. In conclusion, casein and, to a lesser extent, ovalbumin show promise as potential anti-erosive additives to drinks...
- Schlueter N, Hardt M, Lussi A, Engelmann F, Klimek J, Ganss C. Tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in enamel: an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue-loss, and scanning electron micrograph study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:427-34 pubmed publisher..The efficacy of tin-containing solutions seems to depend mainly on the incorporation of tin into enamel...
- Bartlett D. Etiology and prevention of acid erosion. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2009;30:616-20 pubmed..Prevention using fluoride toothpastes, dietary modifications, and calcium-based products probably have a significant clinical effect in reducing the risk of developing acid erosion. ..
- Gurgel C, Rios D, de Oliveira T, Tessarolli V, Carvalho F, Machado M. Risk factors for dental erosion in a group of 12- and 16-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2011;21:50-7 pubmed publisher..The results indicate that there was no correlation between dental erosion and the risk factors analysed among adolescents in Bauru/Brazil and further investigations are necessary to clarify the multifactorial etiology of this condition. ..
- Shellis R, Barbour M, Jones S, Addy M. Effects of pH and acid concentration on erosive dissolution of enamel, dentine, and compressed hydroxyapatite. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:475-82 pubmed publisher..The variation in response of the dissolution rate to acid concentration/buffer capacity with respect to pH and tissue type might complicate attempts to predict erosive potential from solution composition. ..
- Murakami C, Bonecker M, Correa M, Mendes F, Rodrigues C. Effect of fluoride varnish and gel on dental erosion in primary and permanent teeth. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:997-1001 pubmed publisher..To assess the effect of a fluoride varnish and gel on the erosive wear of primary and permanent teeth...
- Hove L, Holme B, Øgaard B, Willumsen T, Tveit A. The protective effect of TiF4, SnF2 and NaF on erosion of enamel by hydrochloric acid in vitro measured by white light interferometry. Caries Res. 2006;40:440-3 pubmed..7), NaF 5.3 (SD 0.4), and 7.0 (SD 0.3) for the control specimens. Compared to the control, TiF(4) protected the enamel surface from acid attack almost completely (88%), while SnF2 reduced the etch depth after 6 min by 50% and NaF by 25%...
- Auad S, Waterhouse P, Nunn J, Steen N, Moynihan P. Dental erosion amongst 13- and 14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. Int Dent J. 2007;57:161-7 pubmed..No statistically significant association was observed between erosion, gender and socioeconomic factors. ..
- Mathew T, Casamassimo P, Hayes J. Relationship between sports drinks and dental erosion in 304 university athletes in Columbus, Ohio, USA. Caries Res. 2002;36:281-7 pubmed..The most significant predictor of erosion was found to be not belonging to the African race (p < 0.0001). The results of this study reveal no relationship between consumption of sports drinks and dental erosion. ..
- Davies R, Hunter L, Loyn T, Rees J. Sour sweets: a new type of erosive challenge?. Br Dent J. 2008;204:E3; discussion 84-5 pubmed..27 microm of deciduous enamel. All the sour sweets tested were found to be erosive, some more so than orange juice. This information will be of use to clinicians when counseling younger patients with tooth surface loss. ..
- Coombes J. Sports drinks and dental erosion. Am J Dent. 2005;18:101-4 pubmed..Other factors such as drinking habit and salivary production may be more important determinants of dental erosion. ..
- Zandim D, Correa F, Rossa Junior C, Sampaio J. In vitro evaluation of the effect of natural orange juices on dentin morphology. Braz Oral Res. 2008;22:176-83 pubmed..The data suggest that certain natural orange juices are more effective in terms of smear layer removal and dentinal tubules exposure than others. ..
- Hunter M, Hughes J, Parker D, West N, Newcombe R, Addy M. Development of low erosive carbonated fruit drinks. 1. Evaluation of two experimental orange drinks in vitro and in situ. J Dent. 2003;31:253-60 pubmed..However, the methodologies in vitro and in situ somewhat unusually do not correlate in ranking the erosivity of drinks. The results of this study should therefore be viewed with caution, further research being clearly warranted. ..
- Featherstone J, Lussi A. Understanding the chemistry of dental erosion. Monogr Oral Sci. 2006;20:66-76 pubmed..Values of the strength of acid (pKa) and for the anion-calcium interaction and the mechanisms of interaction with the tooth mineral on the surface and underneath are described in detail. ..
- Lussi A, Jaeggi T. Chemical factors. Monogr Oral Sci. 2006;20:77-87 pubmed..There is no clear-cut critical pH for erosion as there is for caries. Even at a low pH, it is possible that other factors are strong enough to prevent erosion. ..
- West N, Hughes J, Parker D, Moohan M, Addy M. Development of low erosive carbonated fruit drinks 2. Evaluation of an experimental carbonated blackcurrant drink compared to a conventional carbonated drink. J Dent. 2003;31:361-5 pubmed
- Wiegand A, Attin T. Occupational dental erosion from exposure to acids: a review. Occup Med (Lond). 2007;57:169-76 pubmed..Evidence for occupational dental erosion is limited to battery and galvanizing workers, while data for other occupational groups need to be confirmed by further studies. ..
- Azzopardi A, Bartlett D, Watson T, Sherriff M. The surface effects of erosion and abrasion on dentine with and without a protective layer. Br Dent J. 2004;196:351-4; discussion 339 pubmed..For patients with uncontrolled erosion or tooth wear, applying a dentine bonding agent to exposed dentine is a practical option to prevent further damage. ..
- Wiegand A, Laabs K, Gressmann G, Roos M, Magalhaes A, Attin T. Protection of short-time enamel erosion by different tetrafluoride compounds. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:497-502 pubmed publisher..TiF(4), ZrF(4) and HfF(4) might protect enamel against short-time erosion, but protection was more enhanced by ZrF(4) and HfF(4) compared to TiF(4) application overtime. ..
- Lussi A, Hellwig E, Zero D, Jaeggi T. Erosive tooth wear: diagnosis, risk factors and prevention. Am J Dent. 2006;19:319-25 pubmed..To provide an overview on diagnosis, risk factors and prevention of erosive tooth wear, which is becoming an increasingly important factor when considering the long- term health of the dentition...
- Vieira A, Overweg E, Ruben J, Huysmans M. Toothbrush abrasion, simulated tongue friction and attrition of eroded bovine enamel in vitro. J Dent. 2006;34:336-42 pubmed..4+/-0.7microm). This was not the case for er/abr/remin group (p=0.075). The results suggest that the three forms of mechanical insults remove to varying extent the softened layer formed by the erosion challenges. ..
- Oginni O, Olusile A. The prevalence, aetiology and clinical appearance of tooth wear: the Nigerian experience. Int Dent J. 2002;52:268-72 pubmed..To establish the prevalence and severity of tooth wear among Nigerians and to compare the pattern and aetiology with findings of earlier studies in Western populations...
- Chadwick R, Mitchell H, Manton S, Ward S, Ogston S, Brown R. Maxillary incisor palatal erosion: no correlation with dietary variables?. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2005;29:157-63 pubmedThe objectives of the study were to examine a relationship between tooth erosion affecting the palatal aspects of permanent maxillary central incisors with dietary, behavioral and medical variables...
- Schlueter N, Ganss C, De Sanctis S, Klimek J. Evaluation of a profilometrical method for monitoring erosive tooth wear. Eur J Oral Sci. 2005;113:505-11 pubmed..The method is indicated for special dental care in cases of severe dental erosion (e.g. eating disorders) and for clinical studies. ..
- Dugmore C, Rock W. The progression of tooth erosion in a cohort of adolescents of mixed ethnicity. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2003;13:295-303 pubmedTo establish the prevalence of tooth erosion in a sample of 12-year-old children and to monitor changes over the subsequent 2 years...
- Bartlett D. Retrospective long term monitoring of tooth wear using study models. Br Dent J. 2003;194:211-3; discussion 204 pubmed..Minimal progression of tooth wear was observed on study casts with only 7.3% of surfaces involved. In this sample, tooth wear was a slow, minimally progressive process. ..
- Amaechi B, Higham S. Dental erosion: possible approaches to prevention and control. J Dent. 2005;33:243-52 pubmed..Effective counselling on erosion preventive regimes should involve all healthcare personnel, dentists, doctors, pharmacist, nurses/hygienists and clinical psychologists. ..
- Al Hiyasat A, Khasawneh S, Khader Y. Tooth wear among psychiatric patients: prevalence, distribution, and associated factors. Int J Prosthodont. 2006;19:403-9 pubmed..Patients' psychiatric condition and prescribed medication may be considered factors that influence tooth wear. ..
- Pace F, Pallotta S, Tonini M, Vakil N, Bianchi Porro G. Systematic review: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and dental lesions. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008;27:1179-86 pubmed publisher..The inspection of the oral cavity in search for DEs should become a routine manoeuvre in patients with GERD. ..
- Bardsley P, Taylor S, Milosevic A. Epidemiological studies of tooth wear and dental erosion in 14-year-old children in North West England. Part 1: The relationship with water fluoridation and social deprivation. Br Dent J. 2004;197:413-6; discussion 399 pubmed..Fluoridation and use of fluoridated toothpaste twice a day provide added protection from dental erosion. The risk of tooth wear is greater with increasing affluence. ..
- Wiegand A, Bliggenstorfer S, Magalhaes A, Sener B, Attin T. Impact of the in situ formed salivary pellicle on enamel and dentine erosion induced by different acids. Acta Odontol Scand. 2008;66:225-30 pubmed publisher..To investigate and compare the protective impact of the in situ formed salivary pellicle on enamel and dentine erosion caused by different acids at pH 2.6...
- West N. Dentine hypersensitivity. Monogr Oral Sci. 2006;20:173-89 pubmed..The basic principles of treatment are altering fluid flow in the dentinal tubules with tubule occlusion or modifying or blocking pulpal nerve response, chemically with agents like potassium or physically...
- Taiwo J, Ogunyinka A, Onyeaso C, Dosumu O. Tooth wear in the elderly population in South East Local Government area in Ibadan, Nigeria. Odontostomatol Trop. 2005;28:9-14 pubmed..Common habits such as crushing of bones and chewing of sticks for routine oral hygiene care could be contributing factors to tooth wear in this environment. ..
- Moazzez R, Anggiansah A, Bartlett D. The association of acidic reflux above the upper oesophageal sphincter with palatal tooth wear. Caries Res. 2005;39:475-8 pubmed..In this group of patients presenting with symptoms of reflux, gastric acid passed through the upper oesophageal sphincter and increased the potential for erosion. ..
- Barbour M, Parker D, Allen G, Jandt K. Human enamel erosion in constant composition citric acid solutions as a function of degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite. J Oral Rehabil. 2005;32:16-21 pubmed..000 caused twice as much enamel softening as that with DS = 0.032. This demonstrates that it may be possible to design a soft drink with a low erosive potential and a good taste by a small change in DS, at a typical drink pH. ..
- Muñoz J, Herreros B, Sanchiz V, Amoros C, Hernandez V, Pascual I, et al. Dental and periodontal lesions in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2003;35:461-7 pubmed..The fact that the prevalence of caries and periodontal lesions is similar in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and in healthy volunteers suggests a lack of relationship with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. ..
- Lussi A. Erosive tooth wear - a multifactorial condition of growing concern and increasing knowledge. Monogr Oral Sci. 2006;20:1-8 pubmed..These measures can only be initiated when the risk factors are known and interactions between them are present. A scheme is proposed which allows the possible risk factors and their relation to each other to be examined. ..
- Dugmore C, Rock W. Awareness of tooth erosion in 12 year old children and primary care dental practitioners. Community Dent Health. 2003;20:223-7 pubmedTo compare the knowledge of tooth erosion in a sample of 12 year old children with that of the dentists responsible for their care and also to compare the giving and receiving of advice concerning erosion...
- Francisconi L, Honorio H, Rios D, Magalhaes A, Machado M, Buzalaf M. Effect of erosive pH cycling on different restorative materials and on enamel restored with these materials. Oper Dent. 2008;33:203-8 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, there were only subtle differences among the materials, and these differences were not able to protect the surrounding enamel from erosion. ..
- Jaeggi T, Lussi A. [Erosion in early school-age children]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2004;114:876-81 pubmed..Early detection of the lesions is important. Preventive measures have to be initiated to stop or at least to diminish the erosive process. ..
- Dugmore C, Rock W. The prevalence of tooth erosion in 12-year-old children. Br Dent J. 2004;196:279-82; discussion 273 pubmedTo establish the prevalence of tooth erosion in a representative sample of 12-year-old children in Leicestershire and Rutland. To determine if gender, ethnic group, deprivation or caries experience influences the prevalence of erosion...
- Gregg T, Mace S, West N, Addy M. A study in vitro of the abrasive effect of the tongue on enamel and dentine softened by acid erosion. Caries Res. 2004;38:557-60 pubmed..The results suggest that the tongue could exert an abrasive effect on dental tissues softened by erosion, thereby increasing the overall loss of tooth substance. ..
- Zero D, Lussi A. Erosion--chemical and biological factors of importance to the dental practitioner. Int Dent J. 2005;55:285-90 pubmed..Frequent application of high concentration topical fluoride may be of some benefit in preventing further demineralisation and increase the abrasion resistance of erosion lesions. ..
- Mahoney E, Kilpatrick N. Dental erosion: part 1. Aetiology and prevalence of dental erosion. N Z Dent J. 2003;99:33-41 pubmed..In this article we identify the prevalence of dental erosion and its main causative factors, and in Part II we will discuss the management of dental erosion. ..
- Lussi A, Jaeggi T. Dental erosion in children. Monogr Oral Sci. 2006;20:140-51 pubmed..But also behavioral factors like unusual eating and drinking habits, the consumption of designer drugs and socio-economic aspects are of importance. ..
- Wiegand A, Stock A, Attin R, Werner C, Attin T. Impact of the acid flow rate on dentin erosion. J Dent. 2007;35:21-7 pubmed..Under the conditions of this study, both duration of demineralisation and acid flow rate but not pre-treatment with distilled water or saliva influence the extent of dentin erosion. ..
- Chikte U, Naidoo S, Kolze T, Grobler S. Patterns of tooth surface loss among winemakers. SADJ. 2005;60:370-4 pubmed..Frequent exposure of the teeth to wine, as occurs among wine tasters, is deleterious to enamel, and constitutes an occupational hazard. Erosion is an occupational risk for wine tasters. ..
- van t Spijker A, Rodriguez J, Kreulen C, Bronkhorst E, Bartlett D, Creugers N. Prevalence of tooth wear in adults. Int J Prosthodont. 2009;22:35-42 pubmed..The predicted percentage of adults presenting with severe tooth wear increases from 3% at the age of 20 years to 17% at the age of 70 years. Increasing levels of tooth wear are significantly associated with age. ..