root resorption

Summary

Summary: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Rudolph D, Willes PMG -, Sameshima G. A finite element model of apical force distribution from orthodontic tooth movement. Angle Orthod. 2001;71:127-31 pubmed
    ..The maxillary central incisor was chosen for study because it is one of the teeth at greatest risk for apical root resorption. The material properties of enamel, dentin, PDL, and bone and 5 different load systems (tipping, intrusion, ..
  2. Becker A, Abramovitz I, Chaushu S. Failure of treatment of impacted canines associated with invasive cervical root resorption. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:870-6 pubmed publisher
    To propose invasive cervical root resorption (ICRR) as an unrecognized and/or overlooked etiologic factor in the failure of response of an impacted tooth to orthodontic traction and to underline the importance of cone beam computerized ..
  3. Campos M, Silva K, Gravina M, Fraga M, Vitral R. Apical root resorption: the dark side of the root. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2013;143:492-8 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis of apical root resorption is usually based on routine radiographs...
  4. Brito Junior M, Quintino A, Camilo C, Normanha J, Faria e Silva A. Nonsurgical endodontic management using MTA for perforative defect of internal root resorption: report of a long term follow-up. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:784-8 pubmed publisher
    Internal root resorption is an uncommon lesion following a dental injury. The use of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a conservative approach to repair lesions with periodontal communication...
  5. Ponder S, Benavides E, Kapila S, Hatch N. Quantification of external root resorption by low- vs high-resolution cone-beam computed tomography and periapical radiography: A volumetric and linear analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2013;143:77-91 pubmed publisher
    ..similar to those produced in orthodontic offices have sufficient resolution to accurately quantify root resorption defects...
  6. Patel S, Dawood A, Wilson R, Horner K, Mannocci F. The detection and management of root resorption lesions using intraoral radiography and cone beam computed tomography - an in vivo investigation. Int Endod J. 2009;42:831-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CBCT's superior diagnostic accuracy also resulted in an increased likelihood of correct management of resorption lesions. ..
  7. Wu A, Turk T, Colak C, Elekdag Turk S, Jones A, Petocz P, et al. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 18. The extent of root resorption after the application of light and heavy controlled rotational orthodontic forces for 4 weeks: a microcomputed tomography study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139:e495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..randomized clinical trial was to quantitatively measure and compare the locations, dimensions, and volume of root resorption craters in human premolars after the application of controlled light and heavy rotational orthodontic forces ..
  8. Rego E, Inubushi T, Miyauchi M, Kawazoe A, Tanaka E, Takata T, et al. Ultrasound stimulation attenuates root resorption of rat replanted molars and impairs tumor necrosis factor-? signaling in vitro. J Periodontal Res. 2011;46:648-54 pubmed publisher
    A therapeutic protocol to minimize root resorption induced by tooth replantation has not yet been universally established. In this context, noninvasive modality such as ultrasound therapy have been a focus of increased interest...
  9. Zhao N, Liu Y, Kanzaki H, Liang W, Ni J, Lin J. Effects of local osteoprotegerin gene transfection on orthodontic root resorption during retention: an in vivo micro-CT analysis. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2012;15:10-20 pubmed publisher
    External root resorption (ERR) is a serious complication of orthodontic treatment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene transfection on ERR during retention...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Makedonas D, Lund H, Hansen K. Root resorption diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography after 6 months and at the end of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:389-93 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the prevalence of orthodontically induced root resorption after treatment and the correlation with resorption found after 6 months of treatment...
  2. Shokri A, Mortazavi H, Salemi F, Javadian A, Bakhtiari H, Matlabi H. Diagnosis of simulated external root resorption using conventional intraoral film radiography, CCD, PSP, and CBCT: a comparison study. Biomed J. 2013;36:18-22 pubmed publisher
    Diagnosis of external root resorption (ERR) cavities may be challenging, especially when no clinical signs are seen...
  3. Crespo Vázquez E, Crespo Abelleira A, Suarez Quintanilla J, Rodriguez Cobos M. Correlation between occlusal contact and root resorption in teeth with periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res. 2011;46:82-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The severity of periodontal disease increases the extension and the depth of the radicular resorption, and the presence of antagonist forces aggravates the resorption. ..
  4. Wang Y, He S, Guo Y, Wang S, Chen S. Accuracy of volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption lacunas based on cone beam computed tomography. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2013;16:169-76 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the accuracy of volumetric measurement of simulated root resorption cavities based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), in comparison with that of Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) which served as the reference...
  5. Nakata K, Naitoh M, Izumi M, Ariji E, Nakamura H. Evaluation of correspondence of dental Computed Tomography imaging to anatomic observation of external root resorption. J Endod. 2009;35:1594-7 pubmed publisher
    ..compact dental CT, the 3D Accuitomo XYZ Slice View Tomograph (3D Accuitomo), was performed for examining the root resorption of a mandibular premolar in a patient who needed endodontic therapy...
  6. Urban D, Mincik J. Monozygotic twins with idiopathic internal root resorption: A case report. Aust Endod J. 2010;36:79-82 pubmed publisher
    This study presents the first case of internal root resorption in monozygotic twins. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of root resorption lesions...
  7. George G, Rajkumar K, Sanjeev K, Mahalaxmi S. Calcium ion diffusion levels from MTA and ApexCal in simulated external root resorption at middle third of the root. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:480-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To simulate external root resorption, defects were created on the external surface of the root at the middle thirds...
  8. Noda K, Arai C, Nakamura Y. Root resorption after experimental tooth movement using superelastic forces in the rat. Eur J Orthod. 2010;32:681-7 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of root resorption in relation to different magnitudes of continuous force during experimental tooth movement using nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy wire. Four force magnitudes of 0.8, 1...
  9. Bartley N, Turk T, Colak C, Elekdag Turk S, Jones A, Petocz P, et al. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 17. Root resorption after the application of 2.5° and 15° of buccal root torque for 4 weeks: a microcomputed tomography study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139:e353-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Root resorption is an undesirable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement. The severity is unpredictable, and, despite extensive research, the etiology remains unknown. Torque has been acknowledged as a risk factor for root resorption...
  10. Brin I, Bollen A. External apical root resorption in patients treated by serial extractions followed by mechanotherapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139:e129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..It was hypothesized that SE followed by mechanotherapy will cause less external apical root resorption (EARR) than orthodontic treatment with late extractions (LE)...
  11. Liou E, Chang P. Apical root resorption in orthodontic patients with en-masse maxillary anterior retraction and intrusion with miniscrews. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:207-12 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of this retrospective study were to investigate the apical root resorption of maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients with en-masse maxillary anterior retraction and intrusion with miniscrews and the factors disposing a ..
  12. Patel S, Ricucci D, Durak C, Tay F. Internal root resorption: a review. J Endod. 2010;36:1107-21 pubmed publisher
    Internal root resorption is the progressive destruction of intraradicular dentin and dentinal tubules along the middle and apical thirds of the canal walls as a result of clastic activities...
  13. Sunku R, Roopesh R, Kancherla P, Perumalla K, Yudhistar P, Reddy V. Quantitative digital subtraction radiography in the assessment of external apical root resorption induced by orthodontic therapy: a retrospective study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2011;12:422-8 pubmed
    ..and after orthodontic treatment in 36 patients and also assess treatment variables and their coorelation with root resorption. A total of 36 consecutive patient files were selected initially...
  14. Alqerban A, Jacobs R, Fieuws S, Nackaerts O, Willems G. Comparison of 6 cone-beam computed tomography systems for image quality and detection of simulated canine impaction-induced external root resorption in maxillary lateral incisors. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;140:e129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..image quality and the radiographic diagnostic accuracy for detection of simulated canine-induced external root resorption lesions in maxillary lateral incisors were compared among 6 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems in ..
  15. Gonzales C, Hotokezaka H, Darendeliler M, Yoshida N. Repair of root resorption 2 to 16 weeks after the application of continuous forces on maxillary first molars in rats: a 2- and 3-dimensional quantitative evaluation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:477-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Root resorption is a side effect of orthodontic treatment that occurs with the removal of hyalinized tissue...
  16. Hansen S, Marshall J, Sedgley C. Comparison of intracanal EndoSequence Root Repair Material and ProRoot MTA to induce pH changes in simulated root resorption defects over 4 weeks in matched pairs of human teeth. J Endod. 2011;37:502-6 pubmed publisher
    ..aggregate (MTA) may provide an alternative to calcium hydroxide in the treatment of external inflammatory root resorption. This in vitro study using human matched pairs of teeth compared white ProRoot MTA (WMTA; (Dentsply Tulsa ..
  17. Kitaura H, Fujimura Y, Yoshimatsu M, Eguchi T, Kohara H, Jang I, et al. An M-CSF receptor c-Fms antibody inhibits mechanical stress-induced root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in mice. Angle Orthod. 2009;79:835-41 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effect of anti-c-Fms antibody on odontoclastogenesis and root resorption in an orthodontic tooth movement mouse model...
  18. Ren H, Chen J, Deng F, Zheng L, Liu X, Dong Y. Comparison of cone-beam computed tomography and periapical radiography for detecting simulated apical root resorption. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and periapical radiography for detecting simulated external apical root resorption (EARR) in vitro...
  19. Marques L, Ramos Jorge M, Rey A, Armond M, Ruellas A. Severe root resorption in orthodontic patients treated with the edgewise method: prevalence and predictive factors. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:384-8 pubmed publisher
    Our aims in this study were to assess the prevalence of severe root resorption and identify possible associations in orthodontic patients treated with the edgewise method...
  20. Lim E, Sameshima G, Petocz P, Darendeliler A. Comparison of Australian and American orthodontic clinical approaches towards root resorption. Aust Orthod J. 2012;28:181-9 pubmed
    ..to assess current diagnostic and clinical approaches to the management of orthodontic patients in relation to root resorption. Groups comprising Australians (Sydney, New South Wales) and North Americans (Los Angeles, California), in ..
  21. Vieira Andrade R, Drumond C, Alves L, Marques L, Ramos Jorge M. Inflammatory root resorption in primary molars: prevalence and associated factors. Braz Oral Res. 2012;26:335-40 pubmed
    This study aimed at determining the prevalence of inflammatory root resorption and associated factors in 1068 primary mandibular molars in 453 children 3 to 12 years of age...
  22. George A, Evans C. Detection of root resorption using dentin and bone markers. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2009;12:229-35 pubmed publisher
    OBJECTIVES - To test the hypothesis that during root resorption, organic matrix proteins and cytokines from the surrounding bone and dentin are released into the gingival crevice...
  23. Li W, Chen F, Zhang F, Ding W, Ye Q, Shi J, et al. Volumetric measurement of root resorption following molar mini-screw implant intrusion using cone beam computed tomography. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60962 pubmed publisher
    Molar intrusion by mini-screw implantation can cause different degrees of root resorption. However, most methods (2-D and 3-D) used for evaluating root resorption have focused on the root length without considering 3-D resorption...
  24. Tyrovola J, Perrea D, Halazonetis D, Dontas I, Vlachos I, Makou M. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:299-311 pubmed
    ..and soluble RANKL in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model...
  25. Lux H, Goetz F, Hellwig E. Case report: endodontic and surgical treatment of an upper central incisor with external root resorption and radicular cyst following a traumatic tooth avulsion. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:e61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The gradual reduction led to a fast recovery of the bony defect and a root canal filling was placed. The 2-year follow-up showed an improved condition. All adjacent teeth remained vital during the course of the treatment...
  26. Güzeler I, Uysal S, Cehreli Z. Management of trauma-induced inflammatory root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate obturation: two-year follow up. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26:501-4 pubmed publisher
    Inflammatory root resorption is a serious complication of dental trauma, which leads to progressive loss of the root structure...
  27. Bjerklin K, Guitirokh C. Maxillary incisor root resorption induced by ectopic canines. Angle Orthod. 2011;81:800-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the long-term clinical and radiographic effects of maxillary incisor root resorption in cases of ectopic canines treated during the late 1970s and 1980s in Jönköping, Sweden.
  28. Leite V, Conti A, Navarro R, Almeida M, Oltramari Navarro P, Almeida R. Comparison of root resorption between self-ligating and conventional preadjusted brackets using cone beam computed tomography. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:1078-82 pubmed publisher
    To compare the magnitude of external apical root resorption (EARR) of incisors in patients undergoing the initial phase of orthodontic treatment with two sets of brackets...
  29. Martins D, Tibola D, Janson G, Maria F. Effects of intrusion combined with anterior retraction on apical root resorption. Eur J Orthod. 2012;34:170-5 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the influence of intrusion mechanics combined with anterior retraction on root resorption of the maxillary incisors...
  30. Rego E, Inubushi T, Kawazoe A, Miyauchi M, Tanaka E, Takata T, et al. Effect of PGE? induced by compressive and tensile stresses on cementoblast differentiation in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:1238-46 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to clarify the mechanisms underlying orthodontically induced root resorption by characterizing the role of PGE(2) induced by compressive stress (CS) and tensile stress (TS) on cementoblast metabolism in vitro.
  31. Lund H, Grondahl K, Hansen K, Gröndahl H. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment. A prospective study using cone beam CT. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:480-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the incidence and severity of root resorption during orthodontic treatment by means of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to explore factors affecting orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR)...
  32. Yoshimatsu M, Kitaura H, Fujimura Y, Kohara H, Morita Y, Eguchi T, et al. Inhibitory effects of IL-12 on experimental tooth movement and root resorption in mice. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphatase (TRAP) and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) staining, and measurements of the root resorption area. In the IL-12-treated mice, tooth movement and root resorption appeared to be reduced...
  33. Estrela C, Bueno M, de Alencar A, Mattar R, Valladares Neto J, Azevedo B, et al. Method to evaluate inflammatory root resorption by using cone beam computed tomography. J Endod. 2009;35:1491-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate a method to measure inflammatory root resorption (IRR) by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans.
  34. Nakano Y, Yamaguchi M, Fujita S, Asano M, Saito K, Kasai K. Expressions of RANKL/RANK and M-CSF/c-fms in root resorption lacunae in rat molar by heavy orthodontic force. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study focused on the expressions of RANKL/RANK and M-CSF/c-fms in root resorption area during experimental tooth movement in rats...
  35. Sreeja R, Minal C, Madhuri T, Swati P, Vijay W. A scanning electron microscopic study of the patterns of external root resorption under different conditions. J Appl Oral Sci. 2009;17:481-6 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to examine if there are qualitative differences in the appearance of external root resorption patterns of primary teeth undergoing physiologic resorption and permanent teeth undergoing pathological root ..
  36. Iglesias Linares A, Yañez Vico R, Ballesta Mudarra S, Ortiz Ariza E, Ortega Rivera H, Mendoza Mendoza A, et al. Postorthodontic external root resorption is associated with IL1 receptor antagonist gene variations. Oral Dis. 2012;18:198-205 pubmed publisher
    External apical root resorption (EARR) is a frequent iatrogenic effect of orthodontic treatment. Patients with genetic variants in the interleukin 1 gene have been related to an increased risk of suffering EARR...
  37. Bernardes R, de Paulo R, Pereira L, Duarte M, Ordinola Zapata R, de Azevedo J. Comparative study of cone beam computed tomography and intraoral periapical radiographs in diagnosis of lingual-simulated external root resorptions. Dent Traumatol. 2012;28:268-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to a lack of symptoms and difficult visualization in routine intraoral radiographs, diagnosis of external root resorptions can be challenging...
  38. Baysal A, Karadede I, Hekimoglu S, Ucar F, Ozer T, Veli I, et al. Evaluation of root resorption following rapid maxillary expansion using cone-beam computed tomography. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:488-94 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the root resorption after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)...
  39. Llamas Carreras J, Amarilla A, Solano E, Velasco Ortega E, Rodríguez Varo L, Segura Egea J. Study of external root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root filled teeth compared with their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Int Endod J. 2010;43:654-62 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether root filled teeth and those with vital pulps exhibit a similar degree of external root resorption (ERR) as a consequence of orthodontic treatment.
  40. Sehr K, Bock N, Serbesis C, Hönemann M, Ruf S. Severe external apical root resorption--local cause or genetic predisposition?. J Orofac Orthop. 2011;72:321-31 pubmed publisher
    Current data suggest that a large extent of the variation in orthodontic root resorption may be explained by differences in individual genetic predisposition. This would imply, however, a similar root resorption reaction in all teeth...
  41. Alqerban A, Jacobs R, Souza P, Willems G. In-vitro comparison of 2 cone-beam computed tomography systems and panoramic imaging for detecting simulated canine impaction-induced external root resorption in maxillary lateral incisors. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:764.e1-11; discussion 764-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnostic accuracy for detection of simulated canine-induced external root resorption lesions in maxillary lateral incisors was compared between conventional 2-dimensional panoramic radiographic ..
  42. Sirisoontorn I, Hotokezaka H, Hashimoto M, Gonzales C, Luppanapornlarp S, Darendeliler M, et al. Orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in ovariectomized rats treated by systemic administration of zoledronic acid. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2012;141:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of zoledronic acid, a potent and novel bisphosphonate, on tooth movement and orthodontically induced root resorption in osteoporotic animals systemically treated with zoledronic acid as similarly used in postmenopausal ..
  43. Bastos Lages E, Drummond A, Pretti H, Costa F, Lages E, Gontijo A, et al. Association of functional gene polymorphism IL-1beta in patients with external apical root resorption. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:542-6 pubmed publisher
    External apical root resorption (EARR) is a frequent complication of orthodontic treatment. Interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) is a potent stimulus for bone resorption and osteoclastic cell recruitment during orthodontic tooth movement...
  44. Motokawa M, Sasamoto T, Kaku M, Kawata T, Matsuda Y, Terao A, et al. Association between root resorption incident to orthodontic treatment and treatment factors. Eur J Orthod. 2012;34:350-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in association with treatment factors...
  45. Asgary S, Nosrat A, Seifi A. Management of inflammatory external root resorption by using calcium-enriched mixture cement: a case report. J Endod. 2011;37:411-3 pubmed publisher
    Inflammatory external root resorption is one of the major complications after replantation of avulsed teeth...
  46. Alqerban A, Jacobs R, Fieuws S, Willems G. Comparison of two cone beam computed tomographic systems versus panoramic imaging for localization of impacted maxillary canines and detection of root resorption. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:93-102 pubmed publisher
    The diagnostic accuracy for the localization of impacted canines and the detection of canine-induced root resorption of maxillary incisors were compared between conventional radiographic procedures using one two-dimensional (2D) ..
  47. Weltman B, Vig K, Fields H, Shanker S, Kaizar E. Root resorption associated with orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;137:462-76; discussion 12A pubmed publisher
    This systematic review evaluated root resorption as an outcome for patients who had orthodontic tooth movement...
  48. Jiang R, McDonald J, Fu M. Root resorption before and after orthodontic treatment: a clinical study of contributory factors. Eur J Orthod. 2010;32:693-7 pubmed publisher
    This clinical study evaluated factors related to root resorption before (T1) and after (T2) orthodontic treatment...
  49. Castro I, Alencar A, Valladares Neto J, Estrela C. Apical root resorption due to orthodontic treatment detected by cone beam computed tomography. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:196-203 pubmed publisher
    To determine the frequency of apical root resorption (ARR) due to orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a sample of 1256 roots from 30 patients. All patients had Class I malocclusion with crowding...
  50. Barbagallo L, Jones A, Petocz P, Darendeliler M. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 10. Comparison of the effects of invisible removable thermoplastic appliances with light and heavy orthodontic forces on premolar cementum. A microcomputed-tomography study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;133:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The amount of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption generated by such appliances has not been investigated...
  51. van Loenen M, Dermaut L, Degrieck J, De Pauw G. Apical root resorption of upper incisors during the torquing stage of the tip-edge technique. Eur J Orthod. 2007;29:583-8 pubmed
    ..of this study was to investigate whether treatment with the Tip-Edge appliance resulted in more apical root resorption (ARR) of the central and lateral incisors during the torquing (third stage) than the non-torquing phases (..
  52. Owman Moll P, Kurol J. Root resorption after orthodontic treatment in high- and low-risk patients: analysis of allergy as a possible predisposing factor. Eur J Orthod. 2000;22:657-63 pubmed
    The development of excessive root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement is an adverse side-effect, which is of great concern...
  53. Cohenca N, Simon J, Mathur A, Malfaz J. Clinical indications for digital imaging in dento-alveolar trauma. Part 2: root resorption. Dent Traumatol. 2007;23:105-13 pubmed
    ..complications of dento-alveolar trauma are pulp necrosis, pulp canal obliteration, periapical pathosis and root resorption. Different types of root resorption have been identified with traumatic injuries...
  54. Harris E, Boggan B, Wheeler D. Apical root resorption in patients treated with comprehensive orthodontics. J Tenn Dent Assoc. 2001;81:30-3 pubmed
    External apical root resorption (EARR) is a common--but seldom extreme--consequence of orthodontic treatment. Incisors are most at risk, perhaps because of their single roots and because they typically are moved farther than other teeth...
  55. Ramanathan C, Hofman Z. Root resorption during orthodontic tooth movements. Eur J Orthod. 2009;31:578-83 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to compare the extent of maxillary incisor root resorption during different orthodontic tooth movements using three different techniques, namely the basal intrusion arch, the three component arch, and levelling ..
  56. Levin L, Bryson E, Caplan D, Trope M. Effect of topical alendronate on root resorption of dried replanted dog teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2001;17:120-6 pubmed
    ..Soaking in alendronate also resulted in significantly less loss in root mass due to resorption compared to those teeth soaked in HBSS without alendronate. ..
  57. Dudic A, Giannopoulou C, Leuzinger M, Kiliaridis S. Detection of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment by using panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography of super-high resolution. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;135:434-7 pubmed publisher
    Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of orthodontic treatment. We compared panoramic radiography (OPT) with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in evaluating orthodontically induced apical root resorption.
  58. Alqerban A, Jacobs R, Lambrechts P, Loozen G, Willems G. Root resorption of the maxillary lateral incisor caused by impacted canine: a literature review. Clin Oral Investig. 2009;13:247-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Root resorption of maxillary lateral incisors caused by erupting canines is well known and a relatively common phenomenon...
  59. Janson G, De Luca Canto G, Martins D, Henriques J, de Freitas M. A radiographic comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment with 3 different fixed appliance techniques. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000;118:262-73 pubmed
    Apical root resorption is an undesirable, but frequent side effect of orthodontic treatment, and therefore improvements in orthodontic techniques and materials are in constant development to decrease it...
  60. Wierzbicki T, El Bialy T, Aldaghreer S, Li G, Doschak M. Analysis of orthodontically induced root resorption using micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT). Angle Orthod. 2009;79:91-6 pubmed publisher
    To establish a protocol for assessing orthodontically induced tooth root resorption (OITRR) in human premolars using micro-computed tomography...
  61. Konoo T, Kim Y, Gu G, King G. Intermittent force in orthodontic tooth movement. J Dent Res. 2001;80:457-60 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to examine tooth movement, osteoclasts, and root resorption in rats following several one-hour activations...
  62. Apajalahti S, Peltola J. Apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment -- a retrospective study. Eur J Orthod. 2007;29:408-12 pubmed
    The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence and severity of apical root resorption in patients treated with different orthodontic appliances and to evaluate the effect of treatment duration on the degree of apical root ..
  63. Sameshima G, Sinclair P. Predicting and preventing root resorption: Part II. Treatment factors. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001;119:511-5 pubmed
    ..of this study was to determine which treatment factors are most clearly identified with external apical root resorption that is detectable on periapical radiographs at the end of orthodontic treatment...
  64. Nishimura M, Chiba M, Ohashi T, Sato M, Shimizu Y, Igarashi K, et al. Periodontal tissue activation by vibration: intermittent stimulation by resonance vibration accelerates experimental tooth movement in rats. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;133:572-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone was counted by using TRAP staining, and the amount of root resorption was measured in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin...
  65. Zhang D, Goetz W, Braumann B, Bourauel C, Jaeger A. Effect of soluble receptors to interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha on experimentally induced root resorption in rats. J Periodontal Res. 2003;38:324-32 pubmed
    ..interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the course of mechanically induced root resorption was investigated...
  66. Pandis N, Nasika M, Polychronopoulou A, Eliades T. External apical root resorption in patients treated with conventional and self-ligating brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;134:646-51 pubmed publisher
    Our aim was to comparatively investigate the amount of external apical root resorption (EARR) between conventional and passive self-ligating brackets.
  67. Blumenthal N, Koh Kunst G, Alves M, Miranda D, Sorensen R, Wozney J, et al. Effect of surgical implantation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in a bioabsorbable collagen sponge or calcium phosphate putty carrier in intrabony periodontal defects in the baboon. J Periodontol. 2002;73:1494-506 pubmed
    ..of this study is to evaluate regeneration of alveolar bone, cementum, periodontal ligament, and associated root resorption and ankylosis following surgical implantation of rhBMP-2 in an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) or a calcium ..
  68. Spurrier S, Hall S, Joondeph D, Shapiro P, Riedel R. A comparison of apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment in endodontically treated and vital teeth. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990;97:130-4 pubmed
    ..study was to determine whether vital and endodontically treated incisors exhibit a similar severity of apical root resorption in response to orthodontic treatment...
  69. Tsuchiya M, Akiba Y, Takahashi I, Sasano Y, Kashiwazaki J, Tsuchiya S, et al. Comparison of expression patterns of cathepsin K and MMP-9 in odontoclasts and osteoclasts in physiological root resorption in the rat molar. Arch Histol Cytol. 2008;71:89-100 pubmed
    b>Root resorption lacunae are principally formed by odontoclasts. While these cells develop from the same origin as osteoclasts, odontoclasts normally have fewer nuclei and a less clear zone compared with osteoclasts...
  70. Scott P, DiBiase A, Sherriff M, Cobourne M. Alignment efficiency of Damon3 self-ligating and conventional orthodontic bracket systems: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;134:470.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Incisor root resorption was not clinically significant and did not differ between systems...
  71. Keinan D, Heling I, Stabholtz A, Moshonov J. Rapidly progressive internal root resorption: a case report. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:546-9 pubmed publisher
    The etiology of internal root resorption is not fully understandable, trauma and chronic pulpitis are considered the main risk factors. Usually the process is asymptomatic and diagnosed upon routine radiographic examination...
  72. Gonzales C, Hotokezaka H, Yoshimatsu M, Yozgatian J, Darendeliler M, Yoshida N. Force magnitude and duration effects on amount of tooth movement and root resorption in the rat molar. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothesis that there is no difference in the effect of different continuous moderate to very heavy forces on root resorption or amount of tooth movement...
  73. Cholia S, Wilson P, Makdissi J. Multiple idiopathic external apical root resorption: report of four cases. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2005;34:240-6 pubmed
    Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is an unusual condition that may present in a cervical or an apical form...
  74. Esteves T, Ramos A, Pereira C, Hidalgo M. Orthodontic root resorption of endodontically treated teeth. J Endod. 2007;33:119-22 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, radiographically, whether there is similarity in the apical root resorption found in endodontically treated teeth and untreated teeth when they are submitted to orthodontic treatment...
  75. Davies K, Schneider G, Southard T, Hillis S, Wertz P, Finkelstein M, et al. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001;120:339-47 pubmed
    ..understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement...
  76. Haselden K, Hobkirk J, Goodman J, Jones S, Hemmings K. Root resorption in retained deciduous canine and molar teeth without permanent successors in patients with severe hypodontia. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2001;11:171-8 pubmed
    ..Lower canines have a predictable life span that appears to be good, as do upper canines, but of lesser duration than lower canines. Molars have poorer and less predictable life spans. ..
  77. Abuabara A. Biomechanical aspects of external root resorption in orthodontic therapy. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:E610-3 pubmed
    External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical factors...
  78. Pizzo G, Licata M, Guiglia R, Giuliana G. Root resorption and orthodontic treatment. Review of the literature. Minerva Stomatol. 2007;56:31-44 pubmed
    The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the literature on the root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment...
  79. Weiland F. Constant versus dissipating forces in orthodontics: the effect on initial tooth movement and root resorption. Eur J Orthod. 2003;25:335-42 pubmed
    ..scanning microscopic study was to compare the effects of two frequently used archwires on tooth movement and root resorption. A total of 84 premolars in 27 individuals (10 boys, 17 girls, with a mean age of 12...
  80. Faltin R, Faltin K, Sander F, Arana Chavez V. Ultrastructure of cementum and periodontal ligament after continuous intrusion in humans: a transmission electron microscopy study. Eur J Orthod. 2001;23:35-49 pubmed
    ..Thus, a reduction of continuous force magnitude should be considered to preserve the integrity of tissues. ..
  81. Meikle M. The tissue, cellular, and molecular regulation of orthodontic tooth movement: 100 years after Carl Sandstedt. Eur J Orthod. 2006;28:221-40 pubmed
    ..Orthodontic tooth movement involves two interrelated processes: (1) deflection or bending of the alveolar bone and (2) remodelling of the periodontal tissues. ..
  82. Brezniak N, Wasserstein A. Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption. Part I: The basic science aspects. Angle Orthod. 2002;72:175-9 pubmed
    Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) or, as it is better known, root resorption, is an unavoidable pathologic consequence of orthodontic tooth movement...
  83. Jager A, Kunert D, Friesen T, Zhang D, Lossdörfer S, Gotz W. Cellular and extracellular factors in early root resorption repair in the rat. Eur J Orthod. 2008;30:336-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells with a defined osteoblastic phenotype seemed to be of minor importance in this repair process...
  84. Kereshanan S, Stephenson P, Waddington R. Identification of dentine sialoprotein in gingival crevicular fluid during physiological root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement. Eur J Orthod. 2008;30:307-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Root resorption is an unwanted effect of orthodontic tooth movement...
  85. Heimisdottir K, Bosshardt D, Ruf S. Can the severity of root resorption be accurately judged by means of radiographs? A case report with histology. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2005;128:106-9 pubmed
    b>Root resorption of lateral incisors caused by the pressure of erupting canines is a well-known but relatively rare problem in orthodontics and general dentistry. It is usually diagnosed on radiographs...
  86. Balducci L, Ramachandran A, Hao J, Narayanan K, Evans C, George A. Biological markers for evaluation of root resorption. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:203-8 pubmed
    External apical root resorption is a pathologic consequence of orthodontic tooth movement. Cementum and dentin are removed from the root surface while active force is present...