Summary: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).
- Cecconello R, Traebert J. Traumatic dental injuries in adolescents from a town in southern Brazil: a cohort study. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2007;5:321-6 pubmed..4% (CI 95% 7.4-19.5) (p = 0.879). The RR among the exposed was 0.93 (CI 95% 0.36-2.38). The incidence of TDI was 13.2%. For males, having increased incisal overjet and inadequate lip coverage were not considered as risks factors. ..
- Pattussi M, Hardy R, Sheiham A. Neighborhood social capital and dental injuries in Brazilian adolescents. Am J Public Health. 2006;96:1462-8 pubmed..55 (95% confidence interval=0.37, 0.81; P=.002) among boys. Social capital may explain inequalities in rates of dental injury, especially among boys. ..
- Traebert J, Almeida I, Marcenes W. Etiology of traumatic dental injuries in 11 to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2003;1:317-23 pubmed..The most common TDI events were physical leisure activities, most TDI occurred at home, and the actions of another person were an important factor in relation to the occurrence of TDI. ..
- Ramos Jorge M, Peres M, Traebert J, Ghisi C, de Paiva S, Pordeus I, et al. Incidence of dental trauma among adolescents: a prospective cohort study. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:159-63 pubmed publisher..A notable difference was observed regarding the incidence of TDI between the case and control groups. Individuals with previous dental trauma had greater chances of developing develop further dental trauma in a 2-year follow-up. ..
- Fakhruddin K, Lawrence H, Kenny D, Locker D. Impact of treated and untreated dental injuries on the quality of life of Ontario school children. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:309-13 pubmed publisher..Restoration of injured teeth improved aesthetics and social interactions but functional deficiencies persisted as a result of periodontal or pulpal pain. ..
- Ranalli D. Sports dentistry and dental traumatology. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18:231-6 pubmed
- Fakhruddin K, Lawrence H, Kenny D, Locker D. Etiology and environment of dental injuries in 12- to 14-year-old Ontario schoolchildren. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:305-8 pubmed publisher..001) was shown between increased caries experience and dental injuries. This should focus attention on possible common-risk factors such as health-related behavioral problems that may affect both dental disease and dental injuries. ..
- Malikaew P, Watt R, Sheiham A. Associations between school environments and childhood traumatic dental injuries. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2003;1:255-66 pubmed..In girls, this protective tendency was only apparent when school environments were both more socially supportive, and physically favourable. ..
- Marcenes W, Murray S. Social deprivation and traumatic dental injuries among 14-year-old schoolchildren in Newham, London. Dent Traumatol. 2001;17:17-21 pubmed..Thus, there is an urgent need to collect local data on dental injuries in order to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the dental health. ..
- Knapik J, Marshall S, Lee R, Darakjy S, Jones S, Mitchener T, et al. Mouthguards in sport activities : history, physical properties and injury prevention effectiveness. Sports Med. 2007;37:117-44 pubmed..Mouthguards should continue to be used in sport activities where there is significant risk of orofacial injury. ..
- Holan G, Peretz B, Efrat J, Shapira Y. Traumatic injuries to the teeth in young individuals with cerebral palsy. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21:65-9 pubmed..This should alert caregivers to carry out a profound investigation of the events that result in dental injuries in disabled individuals and suggest methods to reduce this type of morbidity. ..
- Levin L, Friedlander L, Geiger S. Dental and oral trauma and mouthguard use during sport activities in Israel. Dent Traumatol. 2003;19:237-42 pubmed..It should be a combined duty of dentists and sports physicians and of the coaches to encourage the use of protective devices during training and games. ..
- Patrick D, van Noort R, Found M. Scale of protection and the various types of sports mouthguard. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:278-81 pubmed..From work carried out on laminates and the manufacturing processes of mouthguards, it became apparent that information was lacking to enable athletes make informed decisions about the best oral protection for their chosen sport. ..
- Naidu R, Juman S, Rafeek R, Singh R, Maharaj K. Oral and dental conditions presenting to medical practitioners in Trinidad and Tobago. Int Dent J. 2008;58:194-8 pubmed..In the context of access to oral care in Trinidad and Tobago, medical practitioners appear to be important providers and may benefit from further training in the diagnosis and management of oral diseases. ..
- Shyama M, Al Mutawa S, Honkala S. Malocclusions and traumatic injuries in disabled schoolchildren and adolescents in Kuwait. Spec Care Dentist. 2001;21:104-8 pubmed..13-1.26) were significant risk factors for the occurrence of traumatic injuries. We concluded that malocclusion and traumatic injuries are more prevalent among these subjects with disabilities than among the healthy population in Kuwait. ..
- AlSarheed M, Bedi R, Hunt N. Traumatised permanent teeth in 11-16-year-old Saudi Arabian children with a sensory impairment attending special schools. Dent Traumatol. 2003;19:123-5 pubmed..However, this was only statistically significant for HI children. Whereas a gender difference was most noticeable for the HI group, with males having higher levels of trauma, this was noticeable by its absence among VI children. ..
- Cetinbas T, Sonmez H. Mouthguard utilization rates during sport activities in Ankara, Turkey. Dent Traumatol. 2006;22:127-32 pubmed..The results show that in Turkey, the use of mouthguards has not become widespread in sports. It can be concluded that regular mouthguard use in sports should be encouraged in Turkey. ..
- Moysés S, Moyses S, McCarthy M, Sheiham A. Intra-urban differentials in child dental trauma in relation to healthy cities policies in Curitiba, Brazil. Health Place. 2006;12:48-64 pubmed..Rank correlation indicated that the relationship between components' scores and dental trauma was statistically significant. The PCA scores explained 42% of the variance for dental trauma. ..
- Nicolau B, Marcenes W, Sheiham A. The relationship between traumatic dental injuries and adolescents' development along the life course. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003;31:306-13 pubmed..It was concluded that adolescents who experienced adverse psychosocial environments along the life course had more traumatic dental injuries than their counterparts who experienced more favourable environments. ..
- Moyses S, Moysés S, Watt R, Sheiham A. Associations between health promoting schools' policies and indicators of oral health in Brazil. Health Promot Int. 2003;18:209-18 pubmed..Our results suggest that some benefit can be obtained for the improvement of the oral health of children living in deprived areas if they attend supportive schools. ..
- Marcenes W, al Beiruti N, Tayfour D, Issa S. Epidemiology of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of 9-12-year-old schoolchildren in Damascus, Syria. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1999;15:117-23 pubmed..5%), followed by traffic accidents (24.1%), collisions with people or inanimate objects (16.0%) and falls (9.1%). In conclusion, traumatic dental injury may pose a serious dental public health problem. ..
- Traebert J, Bittencourt D, Peres K, Peres M, de Lacerda J, Marcenes W. Aetiology and rates of treatment of traumatic dental injuries among 12-year-old school children in a town in southern Brazil. Dent Traumatol. 2006;22:173-8 pubmed..It can be concluded that there is a great treatment need reflecting neglect of TDI treatment. The main causes of TDI were collisions and physical leisure activities. ..
- Perunski S, Lang B, Pohl Y, Filippi A. Level of information concerning dental injuries and their prevention in Swiss basketball--a survey among players and coaches. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21:195-200 pubmed..The results of the survey show that significantly more information and education is required in Swiss basketball not only through sports associations but also through coaches and dentists. ..
- Locker D. Disparities in oral health-related quality of life in a population of Canadian children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35:348-56 pubmed..The data indicate that in this group of children there were socioeconomic disparities in oral health-related quality of life. A potential explanation may be differences in psychological assets and psychosocial resources. ..
- Cortes M, Marcenes W, Sheiham A. Prevalence and correlates of traumatic injuries to the permanent teeth of schoolchildren aged 9-14 years in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Dent Traumatol. 2001;17:22-6 pubmed..0 mm. Finally, children with an adequate lip coverage were 0.56 times (95% CI = 0.44-0.72) less likely to have a traumatic dental injury than those with inadequate lip coverage. ..
- Malikaew P, Watt R, Sheiham A. Prevalence and factors associated with traumatic dental injuries (TDI) to anterior teeth of 11-13 year old Thai children. Community Dent Health. 2006;23:222-7 pubmed..Biting hard material was the most common activity leading to TDI. Traumatic dental injuries are common and are an important dental public health problem in Thailand. ..
- O Malley M, Evans D, Hewson A, Owens J. Mouthguard use and dental injury in sport: a questionnaire study of national school children in the west of Ireland. J Ir Dent Assoc. 2012;58:205-11 pubmed..The dental profession and individual practitioners should promote mouthguard use for children during sport and be advocates for the development of policies in schools and sporting organisations. ..
- Huang B, Marcenes W, Croucher R, Hector M. Activities related to the occurrence of traumatic dental injuries in 15- to 18-year-olds. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:64-8 pubmed publisher..Prevention and treatment of TDI should be emphasised to the public, the health professional and the policy maker. Future investigations into the relationship between TDI related events and their determinants are indicated. ..
- Iso Kungas P, Tornwall J, Suominen A, Lindqvist C, Thoren H. Dental injuries in pediatric patients with facial fractures are frequent and severe. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:396-400 pubmed publisher..This study was carried out to identify the occurrence, type, location, and severity of dental injuries (DIs), as well as predictors for DIs, in pediatric patients with facial fractures...
- Shekhar M, Mohan R. Traumatic dental injuries to primary incisors and the terminal or occlusal plane relationship in Indian preschool children. Community Dent Health. 2011;28:104-6 pubmed
- Andreasen F, Kahler B. Pulpal response after acute dental injury in the permanent dentition: clinical implications-a review. J Endod. 2015;41:299-308 pubmed publisher..In young patients, it is of the utmost importance that pulp vitality be maintained to ensure continued root growth and development and an intact dentition. ..
- Jeger F, Lussi A, Zimmerli B. [Oral jewelry: a review]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2009;119:615-31 pubmed..Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary. ..
- Emerich K, Kaczmarek J. First aid for dental trauma caused by sports activities: state of knowledge, treatment and prevention. Sports Med. 2010;40:361-6 pubmed publisher..When the potentially avoidable financial burden and discomfort of protracted restorative or cosmetic dentistry are taken into account, rarely can such significant morbidity be so easily prevented. ..
- de França Caldas A, Soriano E, Rosenblatt A, de Melo E, de Miranda Coelho L. Dental trauma: an evidence-based approach to care. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:190-3 pubmed publisher..It is imperative that dentists understand the advantages of searching the Internet and learning to use it effectively to guide practice and assist their patients in their pursuit for better oral health. ..
- Cook T, Scott S, Mihai R. Litigation related to airway and respiratory complications of anaesthesia: an analysis of claims against the NHS in England 1995-2007. Anaesthesia. 2010;65:556-63 pubmed publisher..The absence of clinical detail and denominators limit opportunities to learn from such events; much more could be learnt from a closed claim or sentinel event analysis scheme. ..
- Lin S, Sela G, Haik J, Bigman G, Peleg K. Dento-alveolar and maxillofacial injuries among different ethnic groups in Israel. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:328-31 pubmed publisher..Files of 22 558 trauma patients were reviewed. Maxillofacial and tooth injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters...
- Masuda K, Nakano K, Okawa R, Naka S, Matsumoto M, Ooshima T. Successful application of atelocollagen for treatment of perforated teeth. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2011;36:1-4 pubmed..In the permanent teeth, no clinical problems were identified in any of the cases during follow-up periods of 10-60 months. This novel method may enable preservation of perforated primary teeth for a longer duration. ..
- Conti G, Dolci M, Borgonovo A, Maiorana C. Aesthetic restoration of upper lip after removal of post-trauma foreign body (orthodontic bracket). Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2012;13:239-40 pubmed..This case emphasises the importance of accurate management of the traumatic event, through proper diagnosis and therapy of both hard and soft tissues, even if the examination if the patient is performed years after the dental trauma. ..
- Feltracco P, Gaudio R, Barbieri S, Tiano L, Iacobone M, Viel G, et al. The perils of dental vacation: possible anaesthetic and medicolegal consequences. Med Sci Law. 2013;53:19-23 pubmed publisher..However, if prosthetic devices or conservative treatments are not applied correctly, it should be noted that durability may be poorer than expected, but iatrogenic damage may also be caused. ..
- Ross C, Scheetz J, Crim G, Caicedo R, Morelli J, Clark S. Variables affecting endodontic recall. Int Endod J. 2009;42:214-9 pubmed publisher..The type of treated tooth had no effect on patient recall rate. Forty-nine per cent of patients returned for recall after a minimum of 6 months with patient age, patient gender and pulp status affecting the rate of recall significantly. ..
- Lin S, Guttmacher Z, Steif M, Braun R. [Apical root end resection (Apicoectomy) as treatment option in cases of dental trauma in young patient]. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993). 2011;28:30-4, 73 pubmed..One-year follow-up revealed complete healing of the area. Apical root end resection might serve as a viable treatment option in cases of dental trauma in young patient in carefully selected patients. ..
- Hashim R. Dental trauma management awareness among primary school teachers in the Emirate of Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2011;12:99-102 pubmed
- Choi D, Badner V, Yeroshalmi F, Margulis K, Dougherty N, Kreiner Litt G. Dental trauma management by New York City school nurses. J Dent Child (Chic). 2012;79:74-8 pubmed..Ninety percent of nurses surveyed were interested in receiving further education in the management of dental trauma. This survey indicates that a gap of knowledge exists in the ability of school nurses to handle dental trauma. ..
- Kramer P, Feldens C, Ferreira S, Bervian J, Rodrigues P, Peres M. Exploring the impact of oral diseases and disorders on quality of life of preschool children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2013;41:327-35 pubmed publisher..Oral health policies should be included into general health programs based on common risk approach. ..
- Hua M, Brady J, Li G. The epidemiology of upper airway injury in patients undergoing major surgical procedures. Anesth Analg. 2012;114:148-51 pubmed publisher..Patients with difficult airways as indicated by Mallampati classes III and IV are at significantly increased risk of sustaining airway injury during anesthesia for major surgical procedures. ..
- Miamoto C, Ramos Jorge M, Ferreira M, Oliveira M, Vieira Andrade R, Marques L. Dental trauma in individuals with severe cerebral palsy: prevalence and associated factors. Braz Oral Res. 2011;25:319-23 pubmed..81 [1.19-12.24]). The prevalence of dental trauma among individuals with cerebral palsy was high. A lack of lip seal was identified as a factor directly associated to this prevalence. ..
- Lin S, Zadik Y, Levin L. [Dental trauma and dental practitioners' role in disaster events]. Harefuah. 2010;149:461-5, 479 pubmed..Proper education and preparation will lead to better treatment and disaster event management. ..
- Traebert J, Traiano M, Armênio R, Barbieri D, de Lacerda J, Marcenes W. Knowledge of lay people and dentists in emergency management of dental trauma. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:277-83 pubmed publisher..A greater importance should be placed on TDI through educational campaigns aiming schoolteachers and parents and also through undergraduation and postgraduation dental curricula in order of improving its management. ..
- Abbott P, Heah S. Internal bleaching of teeth: an analysis of 255 teeth. Aust Dent J. 2009;54:326-33 pubmed publisher..Glass ionomer cement/composite restorations were effective at preventing further discolouration. Patient age and tooth type did not affect treatment outcome and no cases of external invasive resorption were observed. ..
- Batista A, Marques L, Batista A, Falci S, Ramos Jorge M. Urban-rural differences in oral and maxillofacial trauma. Braz Oral Res. 2012;26:132-8 pubmed..According to these data, it seems reasonable to assume that specific preventive public policy for urban and rural areas must respect the differences of each region. ..
- Bendo C, Paiva S, Torres C, Oliveira A, Goursand D, Pordeus I, et al. Association between treated/untreated traumatic dental injuries and impact on quality of life of Brazilian schoolchildren. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2010;8:114 pubmed publisher..However, children with a TDI in the anterior teeth experienced a negative impact on social wellbeing, mainly with regard to avoiding smiling or laughing and being concerned about what other people may think or say. ..
- Lienert N, Zitzmann N, Filippi A, Weiger R, Krastl G. Teledental consultations related to trauma in a Swiss telemedical center: a retrospective survey. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26:223-7 pubmed publisher..Telemedicial services can be helpful for cases related to dental trauma and may provide valuable support when a dentist is not available. ..
- Bourguignon C, Sigurdsson A. Preventive strategies for traumatic dental injuries. Dent Clin North Am. 2009;53:729-49, vii pubmed publisher..This article reviews the etiology and preventive strategy regarding dental injuries, and examines the role and manufacture of appliances, especially mouthguards, in preventive dentistry. ..
- Scheuber S, Bosshardt D, Bragger U, von Arx T. [Implant therapy following trauma of the anterior teeth – a new method for alveolar ridge preservation after post-traumatic ankylosis and external root resorption]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2013;123:417-39 pubmed..The additional histological assessment confirms the diagnosis and the choice of treatment. ..
- Zadik Y, Levin L. Does a free-of-charge distribution of boil-and-bite mouthguards to young adult amateur sportsmen affect oral and facial trauma?. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:69-72 pubmed publisher..However, free distribution to young amateur sportsmen does not affect oral and dental trauma unless accompanied by education and motivation. ..
- Oyedele T, Folayan M, Adekoya Sofowora C, Oziegbe E. Co-morbidities associated with molar-incisor hypomineralisation in 8 to 16 year old pupils in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. BMC Oral Health. 2015;15:37 pubmed publisher..Screening for children with MIH may help facilitate prompt access to treatment. ..
- Rasmusson C, Koch G. Assessment of traumatic injuries to primary teeth in general practise and specialized paediatric dentistry. Dent Traumatol. 2010;26:129-32 pubmed publisher..However, the rate of sequelae in permanent successors was the same in both. ..
- Medeiros R, Mucha J. Immediate vs late orthodontic extrusion of traumatically intruded teeth. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:380-5 pubmed publisher..A high rate of success was reported in the literature in traumatically intruded teeth orthodontically extruded, either immediate or late. ..
- Rao A, Rao A, Shenoy R. Splinting--when and how?. Dent Update. 2011;38:341-2, 344-6 pubmed..This article is relevant for clinicians who treat traumatic injuries as it should help them to decide on the type of splint to be used and the period of immobilization. ..
- Martin L, Mhyre J, Shanks A, Tremper K, Kheterpal S. 3,423 emergency tracheal intubations at a university hospital: airway outcomes and complications. Anesthesiology. 2011;114:42-8 pubmed publisher..7; 95% CI, 1.1-20.4). During emergent nonoperative intubation, specific clinical situations are associated with an increased risk of airway complication and may provide a starting point for allocation of experienced first responders. ..
- Mesgarzadeh A, Shahamfar M, Hefzollesan A. Evaluating knowledge and attitudes of elementary school teachers on emergency management of traumatic dental injuries: a study in an Iranian urban area. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2009;7:297-308 pubmed..Educational campaigns to improve their knowledge and awareness seem crucial for this group of adults who are usually the first to respond in cases of dental trauma accidents in schools. ..
- Kageyama K, Kimura S, Takeshita J, Nakajima Y, Ibuki T, Sawa T. [Survey of patients at the preoperative evaluation clinic (PAC)]. Masui. 2014;63:208-14 pubmed..We thought that it is necessary to explain the complications of anesthesia even if it is the second anesthesia for patients. ..
- Takeda T, Ishigami K, Mishima O, Karasawa K, Kurokawa K, Kajima T, et al. Easy fabrication of a new type of mouthguard incorporating a hard insert and space and offering improved shock absorption ability. Dent Traumatol. 2011;27:489-95 pubmed publisher..The purpose of this article is to describe the method by which the Hard & Space mouthguard may easily be fabricated. We believe that this new type of mouthguard has the potential to reduce sports-related dental injuries. ..
- de Sousa D, de Sousa R, Pinto D, Neto J, de Carvalho C, de Almeida P. Antibacterial effects of chemomechanical instrumentation and calcium hydroxide in primary teeth with pulp necrosis. Pediatr Dent. 2011;33:307-11 pubmed..They showed a limited efficacy, however, and did not prevent bacterial regrowth after endodontic therapy in primary teeth with pulp necrosis secondary to trauma. ..
- Bijelic J, Garoushi S, Vallittu P, Lassila L. Short fiber reinforced composite in restoring severely damaged incisors. Acta Odontol Scand. 2013;71:1221-31 pubmed publisher..The use of SFC as a restorative material for fabricating the direct composite post-core-crown restorations of severely damaged incisors provided improved load-bearing capacity than CC used alone or with FRC post reinforcement. ..
- Walton R. Outcomes. Pediatr Dent. 2013;35:160-3 pubmed..Revitalization and regeneration are relatively new procedures. To date, there is a lack of high levels of evidence to be able to substantiate whether these are clinically feasible to become a routine in practice. ..
- Reyes E, Barrow S, McLeod D. Crown lengthening with removable orthodontics: a combined approach for ideal esthetics. Gen Dent. 2011;59:362-6 pubmed..The report emphasizes the general dentist's complete control over each treatment sequence. ..
- Bücher K, Neumann C, Hickel R, Kuhnisch J. Traumatic dental injuries at a German university clinic 2004-2008. Dent Traumatol. 2013;29:127-33 pubmed publisher..International and national healthcare associations and teachers in under- and postgraduate education should put effort on increasing the awareness of the guidelines. ..
- Lieger O, Graf C, El Maaytah M, von Arx T. Impact of educational posters on the lay knowledge of school teachers regarding emergency management of dental injuries. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:406-12 pubmed publisher..Teachers, who worked in the area with poster distribution, had better knowledge in handling tooth injuries. For the management of tooth fractures the portion of teachers, who knew the correct handling procedure, was ..
- Garbin C, Guimarães E Queiroz A, Rovida T, Garbin A. Occurrence of traumatic dental injury in cases of domestic violence. Braz Dent J. 2012;23:72-6 pubmed..The aggression in all cases occurred in the form of punches and slaps. Fracture was the most common type of traumatic dental injury, and the most frequently injured teeth were the incisors. ..
- Berger T, Kenny D, Casas M, Barrett E, Lawrence H. Effects of severe dentoalveolar trauma on the quality-of-life of children and parents. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:462-9 pubmed publisher..Severe dental injuries produce initial and ongoing pain. Detrimental effects on the QoL of both children and parents are still present at one-year and these long-term effects are different for children and parents. ..
- Taiwo O, Jalo H. Dental injuries in 12-year old Nigerian students. Dent Traumatol. 2011;27:230-4 pubmed publisher..05). The prevalence of traumatized teeth among 12-year-olds in Nigeria was comparable to other studies. Being male and having an overjet >6mm were associated with a higher probability of having a traumatized tooth. ..
- Mohammadi Z. Local applications of tetracyclines in endodontics and dental trauma: a review. Dent Today. 2009;28:95-6, 98, 100-1; quiz 101 pubmed
- Robson F, Ramos Jorge M, Bendo C, Vale M, Paiva S, Pordeus I. Prevalence and determining factors of traumatic injuries to primary teeth in preschool children. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:118-22 pubmed publisher..It was concluded that the prevalence of dental injuries in preschool children is high in Belo Horizonte, Brazil and constitutes a public health problem. ..
- Frayer D, Fiore I, Lalueza Fox C, Radovcic J, Bondioli L. Right handed Neandertals: Vindija and beyond. J Anthropol Sci. 2010;88:113-27 pubmed
- Levin L. Pulp and periradicular testing. Pediatr Dent. 2013;35:113-9 pubmed..Pulpal and periradicular tests in the trauma patient should be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic observations to arrive at a diagnosis and treatment plan. ..