tooth discoloration


Summary: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)

Top Publications

  1. Kim J, Kim Y, Shin S, Park J, Jung I. Tooth discoloration of immature permanent incisor associated with triple antibiotic therapy: a case report. J Endod. 2010;36:1086-91 pubmed publisher
    ..experiment with human extracted teeth was performed to determine which of the 3 antibiotics caused the tooth discoloration. Another experiment was then carried out to examine whether a currently used dentin bonding agent would ..
  2. Lenherr P, Allgayer N, Weiger R, Filippi A, Attin T, Krastl G. Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic materials: a laboratory study. Int Endod J. 2012;45:942-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ± 4.2) was detected (P = 0.032). Materials used in endodontics may stain teeth. Therefore, the choice of material should not rely solely on biological and functional criteria, but also take aesthetic considerations into account. ..
  3. Kumaraguru J, Flanagan S, Greeley S, Nuboer R, Støy J, Philipson L, et al. Tooth discoloration in patients with neonatal diabetes after transfer onto glibenclamide: a previously unreported side effect. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1428-30 pubmed publisher
    OBJECTIVE To assess if tooth discoloration is a novel side effect of sulfonylurea therapy in patients with permanent neonatal diabetes due to mutations in KCNJ11...
  4. Heinrich Weltzien R, Monse B, van Palenstein Helderman W. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2009;37:182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The interplay between black stain, caries, oral microflora and diet remains unclear and urges further research. ..
  5. Belobrov I, Parashos P. Treatment of tooth discoloration after the use of white mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endod. 2011;37:1017-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report describes the treatment of tooth discoloration caused by white MTA (WMTA) used for the management of a complicated crown fracture.
  6. Ioannidis K, Mistakidis I, Beltes P, Karagiannis V. Spectrophotometric analysis of coronal discolouration induced by grey and white MTA. Int Endod J. 2013;46:137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the specific alterations in tooth colour with white and grey MTA when used to fill pulp chambers...
  7. Andreasen F. Transient root resorption after dental trauma: the clinician's dilemma. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2003;15:80-92 pubmed
    ..Correct diagnostic techniques and patient selection enable the clinician to decide when endodontic therapy is appropriate and when intelligent observation is the "treatment" of choice. ..
  8. Pushpanjali K, Khanal S, Niraula S. The relationship of dental extrinsic stains with the concentration of trace elements in water sources in a district of Nepal. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2004;2:33-7 pubmed
    ..The results revealed an association between DES with age, POR, and Fe levels in water. The positive correlation between stain distribution by ward and levels of Fe in water indicated the causative role of Fe in stains. ..
  9. Soparkar P, Newman M. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2001;22:25-8 pubmed
    ..Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. ..

More Information


  1. Partovi M, Al Havvaz A, Soleimani B. In vitro computer analysis of crown discolouration from commonly used endodontic sealers. Aust Endod J. 2006;32:116-9 pubmed
    ..Endofill and ZnOE caused the greatest discolouration and Apatite root canal sealer III caused the least discolouration after 9 months. The most discolouration during the test periods occurred in the cervical third of the crown...
  2. Soparkar P, Newman M. A clinical investigation to evaluate reduction in dental stain provided by the once-daily use of a breath mint or chewing gum. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2001;22:33-5 pubmed
    ..Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline for both groups. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 51% at 4 weeks. ..
  3. Proctor G, Pramanik R, Carpenter G, Rees G. Salivary proteins interact with dietary constituents to modulate tooth staining. J Dent Res. 2005;84:73-8 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that some salivary proteins, including proline-rich protein, can mediate increased staining of enamel by red-wine- and black-tea-derived polyphenols. ..
  4. Guan Y, Lath D, Lilley T, Willmot D, Marlow I, Brook A. The measurement of tooth whiteness by image analysis and spectrophotometry: a comparison. J Oral Rehabil. 2005;32:7-15 pubmed
    ..For extracted teeth, both instrumental methods used in this work did not confirm a whitening effect for 2-min brushing with toothpaste, but did show significant whitening results for bleaching with 15% hydrogen peroxide. ..
  5. Addy M, Mahdavi S, Loyn T. Dietary staining in vitro by mouthrinses as a comparative measure of antiseptic activity and predictor of staining in vivo. J Dent. 1995;23:95-9 pubmed
    ..A 0.1% chlorhexidine rinse stained slightly more than a 0.2%. A phenolic/essential oil product produced some staining but zinc, triclosan and other essential oil rinses did not stain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  6. Macpherson L, Stephen K, Joiner A, Schafer F, Huntington E. Comparison of a conventional and modified tooth stain index. J Clin Periodontol. 2000;27:854-9 pubmed
  7. Saba C, Solidani M, Berlutti F, Vestri A, Ottolenghi L, Polimeni A. Black stains in the mixed dentition: a PCR microbiological study of the etiopathogenic bacteria. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2006;30:219-24 pubmed
    ..Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella melaninogenica, were not involved in both in black stain subjects and in the control. On the contrary, Actinomyces could be involved in the pigmentation process...
  8. Parsons J, Walton R, Ricks Williamson L. In vitro longitudinal assessment of coronal discoloration from endodontic sealers. J Endod. 2001;27:699-702 pubmed
    A major cause of tooth discoloration may be sealer remnants in the chamber. The objective of this study was to evaluate, longitudinally, coronal discoloration from four sealers...
  9. Sulieman M. An overview of tooth discoloration: extrinsic, intrinsic and internalized stains. Dent Update. 2005;32:463-4, 466-8, 471 pubmed
    The causes of tooth discoloration are varied and complex but are usually classified as being either intrinsic, extrinsic or internalized in nature...
  10. Watts A, Addy M. Tooth discolouration and staining: a review of the literature. Br Dent J. 2001;190:309-16 pubmed
    ..In some instances, the mechanism of staining may have an effect on the outcome of treatment and influence the treatment options the dentist will be able to offer to patients. ..
  11. Mankodi S, Conforti N, Berkowitz H. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2001;22:29-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. ..
  12. Alkhatib M, Holt R, Bedi R. Prevalence of self-assessed tooth discolouration in the United Kingdom. J Dent. 2004;32:561-6 pubmed
    ..Evidence based approaches are needed for the appropriate management of patients who demand treatment of mild discolouration. ..
  13. Neuhaus K, Rodrigues J, Seemann R, Lussi A. Detection of proximal secondary caries at cervical class II-amalgam restoration margins in vitro. J Dent. 2012;40:493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to BW, LFpen enhances the detection of secondary caries lesions at the cervical margin of amalgam restorations that do not extend below the cementum-enamel junction. ..
  14. Preissner S, Kostka E, Blunck U. A noninvasive treatment of amelogenesis imperfecta. Quintessence Int. 2013;44:303-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report describes a noninvasive technique with adhesively inserted occlusal composite resin crowns. ..
  15. Swift E, Heymann H, Wilder A, Barker M, Gerlach R. Effects of duration of whitening strip treatment on tooth color: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Dent. 2009;37 Suppl 1:e51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Twice-daily use of 6% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips resulted in teeth becoming lighter and less yellow versus baseline and placebo during initial 2-week use, with no evidence of placebo response during sustained (Weeks 2-6) use. ..
  16. Herrera L, Pulgar R, Santana J, Cardona J, Guillén A, Rojas I, et al. Prediction of color change after tooth bleaching using fuzzy logic for Vita Classical shades identification. Appl Opt. 2010;49:422-9 pubmed publisher
  17. Roh W, Kang S, Kim S. Multidisciplinary approach for a patient with dentinogenesis imperfecta and anterior trauma. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;138:352-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report describes the multidisciplinary treatment of a 17-year-old girl whose Class II Division 1 malocclusion was complicated by dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and maxillary anterior trauma. ..
  18. Valerio S. A study of the morphology of provisional restorations: a guide to predictable and aesthetic integration. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 2007;19:497-9 pubmed
  19. Makin S. Stannous fluoride dentifrices. Am J Dent. 2013;26 Spec No A:3A-9A pubmed
  20. Tirlet G, Chabouis H, Attal J. Infiltration, a new therapy for masking enamel white spots: a 19-month follow-up case series. Eur J Esthet Dent. 2013;8:180-90 pubmed
    ..The clinical results, although not perfect, satisfied the patients entirely. Erosion infiltration could be a promising alternative for minimally invasive treatment in similar situations. ..
  21. Gontijo I, Navarro R, Ciamponi A, Zezell D. Whitening techniques using the diode laser and halogen lamp in human devitalized primary teeth. J Dent Child (Chic). 2008;75:164-7 pubmed
    ..Laser activation of the whitening agent was not more effective than halogen light activation for root canal-treated deciduous teeth. ..
  22. Benbachir N, Ardu S, Krejci I. Indications and limits of the microabrasion technique. Quintessence Int. 2007;38:811-5 pubmed
    ..In more severe cases, megabrasion combined with a minimally invasive adhesive resin composite restoration may present a valuable alternative to microabrasion. ..
  23. Cannon H, Broffitt B, Levy S, Warren J. Longitudinal changes in parental satisfaction: mixed dentition esthetics. J Dent Child (Chic). 2010;77:166-73 pubmed
    ..Improvement in parental satisfaction with overall appearance was related to higher socioeconomic status and having begun orthodontic treatment. ..
  24. Ramos Jorge M, Tataounoff J, Corrêa Faria P, Alcântara C, Ramos Jorge J, Marques L. Non-accidental collision followed by dental trauma: associated factors. Dent Traumatol. 2011;27:442-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that the non-accidental collisions happened especially at school and in indoor environments with a concrete, tiled or ceramic floor. ..
  25. Daou M, Tavernier B, Meyer J. Two-year clinical evaluation of three restorative materials in primary molars. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2009;34:53-8 pubmed
    ..A variety of alternatives to amalgam are now available for use in Class I and Class II restorations in primary teeth, including glass ionomer cements, compomers and resin modified glass ionomer cements (RMGIC)...
  26. Lorenz K, Noack B, Herrmann N, Hoffmann T. Tooth staining potential of experimental amine fluoride/stannous fluoride mouth rinse formulations-a randomized crossover forced staining study. Clin Oral Investig. 2015;19:1039-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the limitations of the model, mouth rinse C has a promising potential of causing less tooth discoloration than other AmF/SnF2 rinses...
  27. Vieira G, Arakaki Y, Caneppele T. Spectrophotometric assessment of the effects of 10% carbamide peroxide on enamel translucency. Braz Oral Res. 2008;22:90-5 pubmed
    ..It was observed that the bleaching procedure significantly changes the enamel translucency, making it more opaque. ..
  28. Canger E, Celenk P, Yenisey M, Odyakmaz S. Amelogenesis imperfecta, hypoplastic type associated with some dental abnormalities: a case report. Braz Dent J. 2010;21:170-4 pubmed
    ..The patient received instructions on cleansing of the subpontic and interproximal areas. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 3 months and then at 6 months. No esthetic or functional problems were seen after the follow up period. ..
  29. Oomen J, Smits B, Swinkels D, Schreurs B, Bloem B, Hendriks M. A toxic shot from the hip. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:353-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with excision of the femoral head and debridement of the hip followed by a total hip, in combination with chelating therapy, led to a remarkable remission. ..
  30. Santos B, Cardoso M, Almeida I. Pulp canal obliteration following trauma to primary incisors: a 9-year clinical study. Pediatr Dent. 2011;33:399-402 pubmed
    ..Moreover, there was no association between PCO and secondary pulp necrosis. ..
  31. Majorana A, Bardellini E, Ravelli A, Plebani A, Polimeni A, Campus G. Implications of gluten exposure period, CD clinical forms, and HLA typing in the association between celiac disease and dental enamel defects in children. A case-control study. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2010;20:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..93%). The presence of HLA DR 52-53 and DQ7antigens significantly increased the risk of DED (P = 0.0017) in coeliac children. Our results confirmed a possible correlation between HLA antigens and DED. ..
  32. Mendoza Mendoza A, Solano Reina E, Iglesias Linares A, Garcia Godoy F, Abalos C. Retrospective long-term evaluation of autotransplantation of premolars to the central incisor region. Int Endod J. 2012;45:88-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Autotransplantation of donor teeth, at the stage of ½ to ¾ of their expected root length, can provide a successful treatment solution for over 14?years. ..
  33. Scholtanus J, Ozcan M, Huysmans M. Penetration of amalgam constituents into dentine. J Dent. 2009;37:366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Darkly discolored dentine as found underneath amalgam restorations contains amalgam corrosion products and is demineralised. Therefore it must be considered a different substrate for clinical procedures than sound dentine. ..
  34. Hughes N, Maggio B, Sufi F, Mason S, Kleber C. A comparative clinical study evaluating stain removal efficacy of a new sensitivity whitening dentifrice compared to commercially available whitening dentifrices. J Clin Dent. 2009;20:218-22 pubmed
    ..Significant differences between the two marketed sensitivity whitening dentifrices were demonstrated in favor of the new Sensodyne Sensitivity Whitening dentifrice. ..
  35. Kim Y, Kwon H, Kim B. Effect of nano-carbonate apatite to prevent re-stain after dental bleaching in vitro. J Dent. 2011;39:636-42 pubmed publisher
    ..05). SEM showed that n-CAP particles were deposited regularly on the damaged surface compared to the other groups. 10% n-CAP could significantly maintain the initial colour and protect the damaged enamel structure after bleaching. ..
  36. Savi A, Manfredi M, Tamani M, Fazzi M, Pizzi S. Use of customized fiber posts for the aesthetic treatment of severely compromised teeth: a case report. Dent Traumatol. 2008;24:671-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This clinical case describes the use of posts during the prosthetic rehabilitation of severely compromised teeth in the anterior segment. ..
  37. Nosrat A, Homayounfar N, Oloomi K. Drawbacks and unfavorable outcomes of regenerative endodontic treatments of necrotic immature teeth: a literature review and report of a case. J Endod. 2012;38:1428-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Criteria for case selection in regenerative endodontic treatments should be determined. ..
  38. McGlashan N, Chelkowska E, Sasananan S. A survey of goiter morbidity in Ban Mae Toen, northwest Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:1200-8 pubmed
    ..The control villages had significantly (p < 0.01) fewer cases of discoloration of teeth than the BMT population. The morbidity seen in Ban Mae Toen suggests the need for urgent enquiry into the etiology of this morbidity. ..
  39. Ghavamnasiri M, Ameri H, Chasteen J, Mofrad A, Hashemi B. Correlation between dental arch location and clinical success rate of total etch and self-etch adhesives in ClassV composite restorations. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2012;20:26-30 pubmed
    ..05) was found regarding postoperative sensitivity or marginal discoloration between two adhesives. Retention loss was associated only with self-etch adhesives. No association was found between clinical success and dental arch location. ..
  40. Roshan S, Setien V, Nelson P. Tooth whitening: a clinical review. Tex Dent J. 2008;125:602-13 pubmed
  41. Kelleher M, Djemal S, Al Khayatt A, Ray Chaudhuri J, Briggs P, Porter R. Bleaching and bonding for the older patient. Dent Update. 2011;38:294-6, 298-300, 302-3 pubmed
  42. Auschill T, Schneider Del Savio T, Hellwig E, Arweiler N. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy, tolerability, and long-term color stability of two bleaching techniques: 18-month follow-up. Quintessence Int. 2012;43:683-94 pubmed
    ..05). Both techniques demonstrated significant and comparable levels of tooth shade improvement after 2 weeks and 18 months. Each treatment caused similar, transient oral adverse effects. ..
  43. Olsson H, Asklöw B, Johansson E, Slotte C. Rinsing with alcohol-free or alcohol-based chlorhexidine solutions after periodontal surgery. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, pilot study. Swed Dent J. 2012;36:91-9 pubmed
    ..To conclude, alcohol-free and alcohol-based chlorhexidine showed the same plaque inhibitory effect in periodontal patients after periodontal surgery. Both rinses were well tolerated by the patients. ..
  44. Colak I, Markovic D, Petrovic B, Peric T, Milenkovic A. A retrospective study of intrusive injuries in primary dentition. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In comparison with moderate or severe intrusions, mildly intruded teeth took less time to re-erupt. Mildly intruded teeth exhibited less complications in comparison with moderately and severely intruded teeth. ..
  45. Oltramari Navarro P, Titarelli J, Marsicano J, Henriques J, Janson G, Lauris J, et al. Effectiveness of 0.50% and 0.75% chlorhexidine dentifrices in orthodontic patients: a double-blind and randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the use of dentifrices with lower concentration of chlorhexidine can reduce the risk of tooth staining without compromising its effectiveness in controlling gingivitis and bleeding in orthodontic patients. ..
  46. Bazzi J, Bindo M, Rached R, Mazur R, Vieira S, de Souza E. The effect of at-home bleaching and toothbrushing on removal of coffee and cigarette smoke stains and color stability of enamel. J Am Dent Assoc. 2012;143:e1-7 pubmed
    ..Six percent hydrogen peroxide at-home bleaching was effective in removing stains caused by coffee or cigarette smoke. However, continued frequent consumption of coffee can increase the staining susceptibility of enamel. ..
  47. Duss C, Lang N, Cosyn J, Persson G. A randomized, controlled clinical trial on the clinical, microbiological, and staining effects of a novel 0.05% chlorhexidine/herbal extract and a 0.1% chlorhexidine mouthrinse adjunct to periodontal surgery. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:988-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The test CHX rinse resulted in less tooth staining. At the study endpoint, similar and high counts of periodontal pathogens were found. ..
  48. Kulas A, Illge C, Bekes K, Eckert A, Fuhrmann R, Hirsch C. Structural color changes in permanent enamel of patients with cleft lip and palate: a case-control study. J Orofac Orthop. 2016;77:45-51 pubmed publisher
  49. Thickett E, Cobourne M. New developments in tooth whitening. The current status of external bleaching in orthodontics. J Orthod. 2009;36:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of a British Orthodontic Society survey of Specialist and Practitioner Groups regarding current usage patterns of tooth whitening products are presented. ..
  50. Garcia Martin J, González García M, Seoane Lestón J, Llorente Pendas S, Díaz Martín J, Garcia Pola M. Prevalence of black stain and associated risk factors in preschool Spanish children. Pediatr Int. 2013;55:355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of black stain did not differ significantly between non-emigrant and immigrant children in Spain. ..
  51. Akarslan Z, Sadik B, Erten H, Karabulut E. Dental esthetic satisfaction, received and desired dental treatments for improvement of esthetics. Indian J Dent Res. 2009;20:195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Many of the Turkish patients surveyed in the study were dissatisfied and desired the improvement of dental esthetics. Therefore, dentists should consider this as an important dimension in their practice. ..
  52. Takemoto S, Hattori M, Yoshinari M, Kawada E, Oda Y. Discoloration of titanium alloy in acidic saline solutions with peroxide. Dent Mater J. 2013;32:19-24 pubmed
  53. Li Y. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017;148:S20-S26 pubmed publisher
    b>Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both...
  54. Neuhaus K, Graf M, Lussi A, Katsaros C. Late infiltration of post-orthodontic white spot lesions. J Orofac Orthop. 2010;71:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Infiltration by repeated etching might be a viable approach even for inactive WSLs. Controlled clinical trials are needed to investigate the long-term performance of this technique. ..
  55. Oginni A, Adekoya Sofowora C, Kolawole K. Evaluation of radiographs, clinical signs and symptoms associated with pulp canal obliteration: an aid to treatment decision. Dent Traumatol. 2009;25:620-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the findings of this study, endodontic treatment should be initiated in teeth with tenderness to percussion, PAI scores > or =3 and a negative response to sensibility testing. ..
  56. Milnar F. Considering biomodification and remineralization techniques as adjuncts to vital tooth-bleaching regimens. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2007;28:234-6, 238-40 pubmed
  57. Daou M, Tavernier B, Meyer J. Clinical evaluation of four different dental restorative materials: one-year results. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2008;118:290-5 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that RMGIC is a suitable alternative to Amlg for restorations in primary teeth. Restrictions should be considered for the materials with more secondary caries (HVGIC) and higher marginal discoloration (PMC). ..
  58. Farah R, Drummond B, Swain M, Williams S. Linking the clinical presentation of molar-incisor hypomineralisation to its mineral density. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2010;20:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..99 (P < 0.001), and 0.83 (P < 0.001) for the LF and MD. The degree of staining of MIH enamel, as assessed visually or by LF, may be used clinically to reflect the severity of the defect. ..
  59. Zimmerli B, Jeger F, Lussi A. Bleaching of nonvital teeth. A clinically relevant literature review. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2010;120:306-20 pubmed
    ..The risk of cervical root resorption should be discussed with the patient. There is a strong correlation between root resorption and dental trauma. ..
  60. Kumar S, Patel S, Tadakamadla J, Tibdewal H, Duraiswamy P, Kulkarni S. Effectiveness of a mouthrinse containing active ingredients in addition to chlorhexidine and triclosan compared with chlorhexidine and triclosan rinses on plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus and extrinsic staining. Int J Dent Hyg. 2013;11:35-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Supragingival calculus deposition was least in triclosan + NaF group followed by CHX + triclosan + NaF + ZnCl(2) and CHX. More than half of the subjects reported adverse events during the experimental phase. ..
  61. Borges A, Caneppele T, Masterson D, Maia L. Is resin infiltration an effective esthetic treatment for enamel development defects and white spot lesions? A systematic review. J Dent. 2017;56:11-18 pubmed publisher
    To determine if resin infiltration is an effective treatment for improving the esthetic appearance of tooth discoloration resulting from development defects of enamel (EDD) and white spot lesions (WSL) by means of a systematic review...
  62. Da Costa J, Vargas M, Swift E, Anderson E, Ritter S. Color and contrast ratio of resin composites for whitened teeth. J Dent. 2009;37 Suppl 1:e27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Awareness of the optical properties of the composites allows the operator to choose the appropriate materials to mimic the remaining tooth structure. ..
  63. Nasim I, Neelakantan P, Sujeer R, Subbarao C. Color stability of microfilled, microhybrid and nanocomposite resins--an in vitro study. J Dent. 2010;38 Suppl 2:e137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients should also be educated on the possibility of the restoration to undergo staining under the influence of beverages. ..
  64. Lauridsen E, Hermann N, Gerds T, Ahrensburg S, Kreiborg S, Andreasen J. Combination injuries 2. The risk of pulp necrosis in permanent teeth with subluxation injuries and concomitant crown fractures. Dent Traumatol. 2012;28:371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3-19.5), P < 0.0001]. ? A concomitant crown fracture and no response to EPT at the initial examination may be used to identify teeth at increased risk of PN following subluxation injury. ..
  65. Horton S, Barker J. Rural Mexican immigrant parents' interpretation of children's dental symptoms and decisions to seek treatment. Community Dent Health. 2009;26:216-21 pubmed
  66. Garan A, Akyuz S, Oztürk L, Yarat A. Salivary parameters and caries indices in children with black tooth stains. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2012;36:285-8 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that low caries tendency seen in children with black tooth stain may be associated with high salivary calcium and buffering capacity. ..
  67. Liao Q, Ye W, Yue J, Zhao X, Zhang L, Zhang L, et al. Self-repaired Process of a Traumatized Maxillary Central Incisor with Pulp Infarct after Horizontal Root Fracture Monitored by Laser Doppler Flowmetry Combined with Tissue Oxygen Monitor. J Endod. 2017;43:1218-1222 pubmed publisher
    ..Without other clinical signs besides tooth discoloration and an absence of response to pulp sensitivity testing, the complete self-repair of pulp can be expected in ..
  68. Trakyali G, Ozdemir F, Arun T. Enamel colour changes at debonding and after finishing procedures using five different adhesives. Eur J Orthod. 2009;31:397-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Colour changes of orthodontic bonding systems induced by photoageing cannot be clinically observed. Polishing with Stainbuster eliminates enamel surface roughness, which may improve light reflection. ..
  69. Bizhang M, Müller M, Phark J, Barker M, Gerlach R. Clinical trial of long-term color stability of hydrogen peroxide strips and sodium percarbonate film. Am J Dent. 2007;20 Spec No A:23A-27A pubmed
  70. Sensabaugh C, Sagel M. Stannous fluoride dentifrice with sodium hexametaphosphate: review of laboratory, clinical and practice-based data. J Dent Hyg. 2009;83:70-8 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the research shows this stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice provides multiple benefits to meet the oral health and cosmetic needs of patients. ..
  71. Lehmann K, Igiel C, Schmidtmann I, Scheller H. Four color-measuring devices compared with a spectrophotometric reference system. J Dent. 2010;38 Suppl 2:e65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Devices C and D showed higher precision than devices A and B. ..
  72. Yui K, Rodrigues J, Mancini M, Balducci I, Gonçalves S. Ex vivo evaluation of the effectiveness of bleaching agents on the shade alteration of blood-stained teeth. Int Endod J. 2008;41:485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Sodium perborate associated with both 10% and 35% carbamide peroxide was more effective than when associated with distilled water. ..
  73. Nehme M, Mason S, Hughes N, Targett D, Parkinson C, Tyson Johnson D, et al. A randomized clinical study investigating the staining profile of an experimental stannous fluoride dentifrice. Am J Dent. 2013;26 Spec No A:32A-38A pubmed
    ..This imbalance was not considered to impact the other study analyses. Study treatments were well tolerated. ..
  74. Armstrong D, Shen G, Petocz P, Darendeliler M. Excess adhesive flash upon bracket placement. A typodont study comparing APC PLUS and Transbond XT. Angle Orthod. 2007;77:1101-8 pubmed
    ..The addition of a coloring agent to assist in the visualization of the excess adhesive does not reduce the amount of excessive adhesive around orthodontic brackets. ..
  75. Holan G, Rahme M, Ram D. Parents' attitude toward their children's appearance in the case of esthetic defects of the anterior primary teeth. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2009;34:141-5 pubmed
    ..Parents are interested in a conservative treatment for preserving esthetically damaged incisors, but will be less enthusiastic to replace extracted or missing teeth with an esthetic device. ..
  76. He T, Dunavent J, Fiedler S, Baker R. A randomized clinical study to assess the extrinsic staining profiles of stannous- and triclosan-containing dentifrices. Am J Dent. 2010;23 Spec No B:22B-26B pubmed
    ..145) in stain accumulation at either time point between the experimental stannous groups and the Colgate Total group by any Lobene stain measure (composite, extent, intensity). All dentifrices were well-tolerated. ..
  77. Jowett A, Marlow I, Rawlinson A. A double blind randomised controlled clinical trial comparing a novel anti-stain and calculus reducing dentifrice with a standard fluoride dentifrice. J Dent. 2013;41:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Sodium polyaspartate toothpaste was more effective than a control toothpaste at preventing dental stain formation and maybe helpful in controlling staining between episodes of scaling and polishing. ..
  78. Gimeno I, Riutord P, Tauler P, Tur J, Pons A. The whitening effect of enzymatic bleaching on tetracycline. J Dent. 2008;36:795-800 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of peroxidase increased the decoloration rate of extracted teeth obtained with carbamide. Enzymes such as peroxidase could be used as whitening catalysts to increase the rate of tetracycline decoloration. ..
  79. Dozic A, Voit N, Zwartser R, Khashayar G, Aartman I. Color coverage of a newly developed system for color determination and reproduction in dentistry. J Dent. 2010;38 Suppl 2:e50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..01). The newly developed color determination and color reproduction system could cover the range of human teeth, used in this study, below the level of perceptibility (?E?1.6) better than four other available contemporary systems. ..
  80. de Baat C, Zweers P, van Loveren C, Vissink A. [Medicaments and oral healthcare 5. Adverse effects of -medications and over-the-counter drugs on teeth]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2017;124:485-491 pubmed publisher
    Intrinsic tooth discoloration may occur as an adverse effect of fluoride and tetracyclines...
  81. Teixeira C, Santos Felippe M, Tadeu Felippe W, Silva Sousa Y, Sousa Neto M. The role of dentists in diagnosing osteogenesis imperfecta in patients with dentinogenesis imperfecta. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139:906-14; quiz 994 pubmed
    ..In cases in which DI is diagnosed, patients should be examined carefully and the occurrence of OI should be considered since, in its mild form, it might be misdiagnosed. ..
  82. Bussell R, Deery C. Case report: Blue chromogenic dental staining in child with West syndrome. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2010;11:298-300 pubmed
    ..However, these may have altered the oral flora such that growth of pigmented bacteria, normally absent from the oral cavity, was favoured, causing generalised extrinsic staining. ..
  83. Travassos A, Rocha Gomes Torres C, Borges A, Barcellos D. In vitro assessment of chemical activation efficiency during in-office dental bleaching. Oper Dent. 2010;35:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..002). Groups GM, CM and RA showed significantly higher means than the control group. The presence of some chemical activators is capable of resulting in a significant increase in tooth shade variation. ..
  84. Ramos J, Palma P, Nascimento R, Caramelo F, Messias A, Vinagre A, et al. 1-year In Vitro Evaluation of Tooth Discoloration Induced by 2 Calcium Silicate-based Cements. J Endod. 2016;42:1403-7 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to compare tooth discoloration that occurs in teeth filled with ProRoot MTA (DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) or Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France) over the course of 1 year...
  85. Tolvanen M, Lahti S, Miettunen J, Hausen H. Relationship between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior among 15-16-year-old adolescents: a structural equation modeling approach. Acta Odontol Scand. 2012;70:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge had a smaller effect on behavior than on attitudes. Our results support theories about the causal knowledge-attitudes-behavior chain, also for adolescents' oral health-related behaviors. ..
  86. Kishi A, Otsuki M, Sadr A, Ikeda M, Tagami J. Effect of light units on tooth bleaching with visible-light activating titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Dent Mater J. 2011;30:723-9 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the light source influenced the efficiency of the tooth bleaching with VL-TiO(2)...
  87. Kishta Derani M, Neiva G, Yaman P, Dennison J. In vitro evaluation of tooth-color change using four paint-on tooth whiteners. Oper Dent. 2007;32:394-8 pubmed
    ..ABB and MSW did not significantly lighten the teeth, as measured by either method of evaluation after two weeks of the bleaching regimen. ..
  88. Pedro R, Pomarico L, Villardi M, Maia L. Adverse effects associated with the clinical use of 4% TiF? on teeth enamel: case report. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2011;32:e66-8 pubmed
    ..The clinical outcome was unexpected. ..
  89. Cardoso P, Reis A, Loguercio A, Vieira L, Baratieri L. Clinical effectiveness and tooth sensitivity associated with different bleaching times for a 10 percent carbamide peroxide gel. J Am Dent Assoc. 2010;141:1213-20 pubmed
    ..In this study, the difference in bleaching speed between the eight- and one-hour application times after 16 days was small, and the results showed less tooth sensitivity for patients in the one-hour group. ..
  90. Sommer S, Kramer P, Magagnin K, Tovo M. Unusual case of green pigmentation in human teeth resulting from neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Gen Dent. 2008;56:e21-3 pubmed
    ..The reported case confirms the relevance of a medical history in establishing a diagnosis of green pigmentation. ..