tooth demineralization


Summary: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.

Top Publications

  1. Le M, Darling C, Fried D. Automated analysis of lesion depth and integrated reflectivity in PS-OCT scans of tooth demineralization. Lasers Surg Med. 2010;42:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that the depth and severity of early lesions can be calculated automatically for rapid analysis of PS-OCT images. ..
  2. Louie T, Lee C, Hsu D, Hirasuna K, Manesh S, Staninec M, et al. Clinical assessment of early tooth demineralization using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2010;42:738-45 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our results indicate that PS-OCT can non-destructively measure early enamel demineralization on the buccal and occulsal surfaces in vivo. ..
  3. Takeshita E, Castro L, Sassaki K, Delbem A. In vitro evaluation of dentifrice with low fluoride content supplemented with trimetaphosphate. Caries Res. 2009;43:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the addition of TMP to the 500-microg F/g dentifrice allowed a similar or larger effect as compared with a standard dentifrice in this in vitro model. ..
  4. Cheng L, ten Cate J. Effect of Galla chinensis on the in vitro remineralization of advanced enamel lesions. Int J Oral Sci. 2010;2:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of Galla chinensis in enhancing the remineralization of dental caries is different from fluoride. ..
  5. Huang S, Gao S, Cheng L, Yu H. Combined effects of nano-hydroxyapatite and Galla chinensis on remineralisation of initial enamel lesion in vitro. J Dent. 2010;38:811-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a significant synergistic effect of combined GCE and nano-HA treatment on promoting the remineralisation of initial enamel lesion. ..
  6. Bueno M, Marsicano J, Sales Peres S. Preventive effect of iron gel with or without fluoride on bovine enamel erosion in vitro. Aust Dent J. 2010;55:177-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect in vitro of experimental gel containing iron and/or fluoride on the erosion of bovine enamel...
  7. Tschoppe P, Zandim D, Sampaio J, Kielbassa A. Saliva substitute in combination with high-concentrated fluoride toothpaste: effects on demineralised dentin in vitro. J Dent. 2010;38:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Under the conditions of this limited protocol, the combination of Saliva natura solutions slightly saturated with respect to OCP in combination with a high-concentrated fluoride toothpaste enabled remineralisation of dentin in vitro. ..
  8. Farah R, Swain M, Drummond B, Cook R, Atieh M. Mineral density of hypomineralised enamel. J Dent. 2010;38:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MIH defects are hypomineralised defects of different severities that follow the natural incremental lines of enamel formation. Cuspal areas are usually only mildly affected and cervical enamel always appears to be sound. ..
  9. Tschoppe P, Kielbassa A, Meyer Lueckel H. Evaluation of the remineralizing capacities of modified saliva substitutes in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05; t-test). An experimental Saliva natura solution (SN 2) with S(OCP)=2 and S(DCPD)=1.4 showed highest remineralizing capacity. Similar or better remineralization could not be achieved with slightly higher or lower saturated solutions. ..

More Information


  1. Zhang L, Xue J, Li J, Zou L, Hao Y, Zhou X, et al. Effects of Galla chinensis on inhibition of demineralization of regular bovine enamel or enamel disposed of organic matrix. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..05). G. chinensis inhibits enamel caries-like demineralization in vitro. However, its potential seems to be weaker compared to sodium fluoride. The organic matrix of enamel was shown to play a substantial role in the observed mechanism. ..
  2. Sassaki K, Vieira A, Rodrigues E, Bergamaschi M, Stock S, Cannon M, et al. Comparison of methods for evaluating mineral loss: hardness versus synchrotron microcomputed tomography. Caries Res. 2009;43:359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..SMCT and hardness measurements gave similar results in areas with higher demineralization, but diverged in areas with lower demineralization. ..
  3. Murakami C, Bonecker M, Correa M, Mendes F, Rodrigues C. Effect of fluoride varnish and gel on dental erosion in primary and permanent teeth. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:997-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the effect of a fluoride varnish and gel on the erosive wear of primary and permanent teeth...
  4. Bardow A, Nyvad B, Nauntofte B. Relationships between medication intake, complaints of dry mouth, salivary flow rate and composition, and the rate of tooth demineralization in situ. Arch Oral Biol. 2001;46:413-23 pubmed
    ..17--0.30 ml/min (n=9), and group 3 had one >0.30 ml/min (n=9). The rate of tooth demineralization was determined as mineral loss assessed by quantitative microradiography of human root surfaces, exposed ..
  5. Thomas R, Ruben J, ten Bosch J, Huysmans M. Effect of ethylene oxide sterilization on enamel and dentin demineralization in vitro. J Dent. 2007;35:547-51 pubmed
    ..8microm; 95% CI: -15.1 to -4.4microm). The small effect of sterilization on demineralized enamel is considered to be irrelevant for in situ studies of de- and remineralization. ..
  6. Wiegand A, Krieger C, Attin R, Hellwig E, Attin T. Fluoride uptake and resistance to further demineralisation of demineralised enamel after application of differently concentrated acidulated sodium fluoride gels. Clin Oral Investig. 2005;9:52-7 pubmed
  7. Aoba T. Solubility properties of human tooth mineral and pathogenesis of dental caries. Oral Dis. 2004;10:249-57 pubmed
    ..In order to develop devices efficient for optimizing remineralization in the lesion body, it is a critical question how, and to what extent, fluoride can compensate for the activity of any inhibitors in the mineralizing media. ..
  8. Sales Peres S, Pessan J, Buzalaf M. Effect of an iron mouthrinse on enamel and dentine erosion subjected or not to abrasion: an in situ/ex vivo study. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:128-32 pubmed
    ..Rinsing with an iron solution after an erosive attack, followed or not by an abrasive episode, may be a viable alternative to reduce the loss of dental structure. ..
  9. Wiegand A, Attin T. Influence of fluoride on the prevention of erosive lesions--a review. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2003;1:245-53 pubmed
    ..In particular, high-concentrated fluoride applications are able to increase abrasion resistance and decrease the development of erosions in enamel and dentin. ..
  10. Ganss C, Klimek J, Brune V, Schurmann A. Effects of two fluoridation measures on erosion progression in human enamel and dentine in situ. Caries Res. 2004;38:561-6 pubmed
    ..0 microm. All differences were statistically significant (p < or = 0.001). The results indicate that intensive fluoridation is effective in preventing enamel and dentine from mineral loss even under severely erosive conditions. ..
  11. Meyer Lueckel H, Tschoppe P, Hopfenmuller W, Stenzel W, Kielbassa A. Effect of polymers used in saliva substitutes on demineralized bovine enamel and dentin. Am J Dent. 2006;19:308-12 pubmed
    ..For the dentin specimens stored in the solution containing mucin/xylit the mineral loss was significantly decreased compared to the other mucin groups as well as to the CMC/xylit solution (P< 0.05; Bonferroni post hoc test). ..
  12. Chen H, Chang C, Liu J, Chuang S, Yang J. Effect of fluoride containing bleaching agents on enamel surface properties. J Dent. 2008;36:718-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The fluoridated bleaching agents produced less demineralization of surface morphology and microhardness. The addition of fluoride did not impede the whitening effect. ..
  13. Kielbassa A. In situ induced demineralization in irradiated and non-irradiated human dentin. Eur J Oral Sci. 2000;108:214-21 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that (in vitro) irradiated dentine is not more susceptible to caries than non-irradiated, if adequate oral hygiene techniques are implemented. ..
  14. Kawasaki K, Ruben J, Tsuda H, Huysmans M, Takagi O. Relationship between mineral distributions in dentine lesions and subsequent remineralization in vitro. Caries Res. 2000;34:395-403 pubmed
    ..Although a high concentration of fluoride was very effective in low-mineral lesions, it produced hyperremineralization on well-mineralized subsurface lesions so that it prevented effective remineralization especially in deeper lesions. ..
  15. Kielbassa A, Shohadai S, Schulte Mönting J. Effect of saliva substitutes on mineral content of demineralized and sound dental enamel. Support Care Cancer. 2001;9:40-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, administration of products similar to the last named can be recommended for dentate patients with salivary gland hypofunction. ..
  16. Kielbassa A, Wrbas K, Schulte Mönting J, Hellwig E. Correlation of transversal microradiography and microhardness on in situ-induced demineralization in irradiated and nonirradiated human dental enamel. Arch Oral Biol. 1999;44:243-51 pubmed
    ..In naturally induced caries lesions, MH values can be converted to mineral volume percent using the equation [21.19 + 3.66 x square root of KHN]. This equation fits the data with a reliable correlation coefficient (r2=0.915). ..
  17. Meyer Lueckel H, Schulte Mönting J, Kielbassa A. The effect of commercially available saliva substitutes on predemineralized bovine dentin in vitro. Oral Dis. 2002;8:192-8 pubmed
    ..05; Wilcoxon). Thus, the use of neither Glandosane nor biotène can be recommended in dentate patients with severe xerostomia. ..
  18. Justino L, Tames D, Demarco F. In situ and in vitro effects of bleaching with carbamide peroxide on human enamel. Oper Dent. 2004;29:219-25 pubmed
    ..The adverse effects of carbamide peroxide on enamel were evident in specimens bleached in vitro but were not seen in situ. The presence of saliva could prevent the demineralizing effect of bleaching gel in situ. ..
  19. Featherstone J. The science and practice of caries prevention. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000;131:887-99 pubmed
    ..Antibacterial therapy must be used to combat a high bacterial challenge. For practical caries management and prevention or reversal of dental caries, the sum of the preventive factors must outweigh the pathological factors. ..
  20. Tezel H, Ertas O, Ozata F, Dalgar H, Korkut Z. Effect of bleaching agents on calcium loss from the enamel surface. Quintessence Int. 2007;38:339-47 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that 35% HP with light and 38% HP may cause significantly more loss of Ca2+ from the enamel surfaces than 10% CP. Also, 10% CP does not vary significantly from the control. ..
  21. Thomas R, Ruben J, De Vries J, Ten Bosch J, Huysmans M. Transversal wavelength-independent microradiography, a method for monitoring caries lesions over time, validated with transversal microradiography. Caries Res. 2006;40:281-91 pubmed
    ..96) for both enamel and dentin. The slopes of the regression lines were between 0.99 and 1.02 except for DeltaZ in dentine, which was 0.89. It was concluded that T-WIM is a suitable method for TMR on thick samples. ..
  22. Kielbassa A, Hellwig E, Meyer Lueckel H. Effects of irradiation on in situ remineralization of human and bovine enamel demineralized in vitro. Caries Res. 2006;40:130-5 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that neither irradiation nor abrasion influenced in vitro demineralization or in situ remineralization of the human specimens, whereas abrasion hampered demineralization in irradiated, bovine specimens. ..
  23. Yamaguchi K, Miyazaki M, Takamizawa T, Inage H, Moore B. Effect of CPP-ACP paste on mechanical properties of bovine enamel as determined by an ultrasonic device. J Dent. 2006;34:230-6 pubmed
    ..It could be concluded that the inorganic components contained in high concentrations in CPP-ACP acted to enhance remineralization of the enamel structure. ..
  24. Rodrigues J, Marchi G, Ambrosano G, Heymann H, Pimenta L. Microhardness evaluation of in situ vital bleaching on human dental enamel using a novel study design. Dent Mater. 2005;21:1059-67 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the carrier, Cabopol 934P, also resulted in similar reduction in enamel microhardness even when administrated alone as a placebo. ..
  25. Meyer Lueckel H, Bitter K, Kielbassa A. Effect of a fluoridated food item on enamel in situ. Caries Res. 2007;41:350-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, fluorides added to food items seem to be efficacious to inhibit enamel demineralization in plaque-covered enamel but might be less effective if oral hygiene is adequate. ..
  26. Anderson P, Hector M, Rampersad M. Critical pH in resting and stimulated whole saliva in groups of children and adults. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2001;11:266-73 pubmed
    ..The results of this study show that from thermodynamic considerations alone, there is increased risk of demineralization in children compared with adults. ..
  27. Lynch R. Model parameters and their influence on the outcome of in vitro demineralisation and remineralisation studies. Monogr Oral Sci. 2006;19:65-85 pubmed
  28. Zou L, Zhang L, Li J, Hao Y, Cheng L, Li W, et al. Effect of Galla chinensis extract and chemical fractions on demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro. J Dent. 2008;36:999-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined with its anti-bacterial properties, the demineralization inhibition of GCE suggests that this material could be a useful source for the development of promising anti-cariogenic agents. ..
  29. Jiang T, Ma X, Wang Z, Tong H, Hu J, Wang Y. Beneficial effects of hydroxyapatite on enamel subjected to 30% hydrogen peroxide. J Dent. 2008;36:907-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggested that combination of HA and HP was effective in tooth whitening. HA could significantly reduce the microhardness loss of enamel caused by 30% HP and keep enamel surface morphology almost unchanged. ..
  30. Yamazaki H, Margolis H. Enhanced enamel remineralization under acidic conditions in vitro. J Dent Res. 2008;87:569-74 pubmed
    ..Results obtained are noted to reflect inherent differences in lesion type and the properties of the solutions studied. ..
  31. Meyer Lueckel H, Chatzidakis A, Kielbassa A. Effect of various calcium/phosphates ratios of carboxymethylcellulose-based saliva substitutes on mineral loss of bovine enamel in vitro. J Dent. 2007;35:851-7 pubmed
    ..01; Bonferroni). A saturation with respect to octacalciumphosphate of 3.2 and a pH of 6.5 enables CMC-based solutions to remineralise bovine enamel in vitro. ..
  32. Tschoppe P, Meyer Lueckel H, Toll R, Kielbassa A. [In vitro analysis of an new saliva substitute (Saliva natura) on enamel and dentin]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2007;86:723-7 pubmed
    ..Since Saliva natura has a demineralizing effect on dentin, a further improvement regarding the remineralizing capacity would be desirable. ..
  33. Huysmans M, Chew H, Ellwood R. Clinical studies of dental erosion and erosive wear. Caries Res. 2011;45 Suppl 1:60-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper discusses potential methods of investigating erosion and erosive wear in vivo and the difficulties associated with clinical studies. ..
  34. Wu J, Fried D. High contrast near-infrared polarized reflectance images of demineralization on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces at lambda = 1310-nm. Lasers Surg Med. 2009;41:208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The results of the study suggest that NIR reflectance imaging is a promising new method for acquiring high contrast images of early demineralization on tooth surfaces. ..
  35. Bedran Russo A, Ravindran S, George A. Imaging analysis of early DMP1 mediated dentine remineralization. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58:254-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a possible bio-inspired strategy to promote remineralization of dentine for reparative and regenerative purposes. ..
  36. Arthur R, Waeiss R, Hara A, Lippert F, Eckert G, Zero D. A defined-multispecies microbial model for studying enamel caries development. Caries Res. 2013;47:318-24 pubmed publisher
    ..An effect of sucrose concentration on caries development was found only in the presence of the lowest fluoride concentration. ..
  37. Fujita K, Ma S, Aida M, Maeda T, Ikemi T, Hirata M, et al. Effect of reacted acidic monomer with calcium on bonding performance. J Dent Res. 2011;90:607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the unreacted 10-MDP polymer within the adhesive layer did not decrease the mean bond strength, despite the application of 20,000x thermo-cycling. ..
  38. Kamburoglu K, Murat S, Yuksel S, Cebeci A, Paksoy C. Occlusal caries detection by using a cone-beam CT with different voxel resolutions and a digital intraoral sensor. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:e63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At all voxel sizes, CBCT images can be considered a tool for use in the diagnosis of occlusal caries. ..
  39. Ding Y, Estrella M, Hu Y, Chan H, Zhang H, Kim J, et al. Fam83h is associated with intracellular vesicles and ADHCAI. J Dent Res. 2009;88:991-6 pubmed publisher
    ..FAM83H is the first gene involved in the etiology of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) that does not encode a secreted protein. ..
  40. McKay S, Farah R, Broadbent J, Tayles N, Halcrow S. Is it health or the burial environment: differentiating between hypomineralised and post-mortem stained enamel in an archaeological context. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64573 pubmed publisher
    ..This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions. ..
  41. Hosoya Y, Tadokoro K, Otani H, Hidaka K, Inoue T, Miyazaki M, et al. Effect of ammonium hexafluorosilicate application for arresting caries treatment on demineralized primary tooth enamel. J Oral Sci. 2013;55:115-21 pubmed
    ..Results of this study suggest the possibility that AHF treatment arrests caries, although further study will be required to confirm this result. ..
  42. Schmidlin P, Zobrist K, Attin T, Wegehaupt F. In vitro re-hardening of artificial enamel caries lesions using enamel matrix proteins or self-assembling peptides. J Appl Oral Sci. 2016;24:31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that EMD and SAP were able to improve the hardness profiles when applied to deep demineralized artificial lesions. However, further research is needed to verify and improve this observed effect. ..
  43. Diamanti I, Koletsi Kounari H, Mamai Homata E, Vougiouklakis G. Effect of fluoride and of calcium sodium phosphosilicate toothpastes on pre-softened dentin demineralization and remineralization in vitro. J Dent. 2010;38:671-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Schlueter N, Hardt M, Lussi A, Engelmann F, Klimek J, Ganss C. Tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in enamel: an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue-loss, and scanning electron micrograph study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of tin-containing solutions seems to depend mainly on the incorporation of tin into enamel...
  45. Uysal T, Amasyali M, Koyuturk A, Ozcan S. Effects of different topical agents on enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets: an in vivo and in vitro study. Aust Dent J. 2010;55:268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo and in vitro evaluations indicated that CPP-ACP and fluoride containing agents successfully inhibited caries around orthodontic brackets. ..
  46. Xu Z, Neoh K, Amaechi B, Kishen A. Monitoring bacterial-demineralization of human dentine by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. J Dent. 2010;38:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This investigation highlighted EIS as a potential technique to monitor biofilm formation and bacterial-induced demineralization in situ. ..
  47. Avraamova O, Ippolitov Y, Plotnikova Y, Seredin P, Goloshapov D, Aloshina E. [Increased oral fluid remineraling function by endogenous and exogenous saturation methods of its mineral complexes]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2017;96:6-11 pubmed publisher
  48. Huang Y, Duan Y, Qian Y, Huang R, Yang Z, Li Y, et al. Remineralization efficacy of a toothpaste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on enamel surface. Am J Dent. 2013;26:291-7 pubmed
    ..The Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief group presented significantly greater remineralization than the other toothpaste groups, while the Crest toothpaste group showed the lowest remineralization ability. ..
  49. Flury S, Koch T, Peutzfeldt A, Lussi A, Ganss C. The effect of a tin-containing fluoride mouth rinse on the bond between resin composite and erosively demineralised dentin. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Bond strength of resin composite to eroded dentin was not negatively influenced by treatment with a tin-containing fluoride mouth rinse. ..
  50. Nurrohman H, Nikaido T, Takagaki T, Sadr A, Waidyasekera K, Kitayama S, et al. Dentin bonding performance and ability of four MMA-based adhesive resins to prevent demineralization along the hybrid layer. J Adhes Dent. 2012;14:339-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Dentin bonding performance after thermocycling was material dependent in MMA-based adhesive resins. The ABRZ formation was only observed in the self-etching systems. ..
  51. Ana P, Tabchoury C, Cury J, Zezell D. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser and professional fluoride application on enamel demineralization and on fluoride retention. Caries Res. 2012;46:441-51 pubmed publisher
    ..5 J/cm2 was able to decrease hardness loss, even though no additive effect with APF was observed. In addition, laser treatment increased the formation and retention of CaF2 on dental enamel. ..
  52. Schlueter N, Glatzki J, Klimek J, Ganss C. Erosive-abrasive tissue loss in dentine under simulated bulimic conditions. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:1176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that brushing of dentine after impact of acid and enzymes resulted in an increased tissue loss; however, the matrix persisted on the surface despite enzymatic treatment and brushing with forces of up to 400g. ..
  53. Cantore R, Petrou I, Lavender S, Santarpia P, Liu Z, Gittins E, et al. In situ clinical effects of new dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine and fluoride on enamel de- and remineralization and plaque metabolism. J Clin Dent. 2013;24 Spec no A:A32-44 pubmed
  54. Tezvergil Mutluay A, Seseogullari Dirihan R, Feitosa V, Cama G, Brauer D, Sauro S. Effects of Composites Containing Bioactive Glasses on Demineralized Dentin. J Dent Res. 2017;96:999-1005 pubmed publisher
  55. Maia L, Filho H, Araújo M, Ruellas A, Araújo M. Incorporation of metal and color alteration of enamel in the presence of orthodontic appliances. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:889-93 pubmed publisher
    ..001). There was chromium and nickel incorporation into enamel and tooth color change when corrosion of orthodontic appliances was associated with cycling process. The null hypothesis is rejected. ..
  56. Poggio C, Lombardini M, Dagna A, Chiesa M, Bianchi S. Protective effect on enamel demineralization of a CPP-ACP paste: an AFM in vitro study. J Dent. 2009;37:949-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In group 3 no statistically significant difference was registered between exposed and not exposed halves of the specimens. The use of a CPP-ACP paste had a protective effect on enamel demineralization in an in vitro model. ..
  57. Kim Y, Yiu C, Kim J, Gu L, Kim S, Weller R, et al. Failure of a glass ionomer to remineralize apatite-depleted dentin. J Dent Res. 2010;89:230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis was rejected; mineral concentration alone is not a sufficient endpoint for assessing the success of contemporary remineralization strategies. ..
  58. Uysal T, Amasyali M, Koyuturk A, Ozcan S, Sagdic D. Amorphous calcium phosphate-containing orthodontic composites. Do they prevent demineralisation around orthodontic brackets?. Aust Orthod J. 2010;26:10-5 pubmed
    ..ACP-containing orthodontic composite resins may reduce the enamel decalcification found in patients with poor oral hygiene. ..
  59. Levy F, Magalhaes A, Gomes M, Comar L, Rios D, Buzalaf M. The erosion and abrasion-inhibiting effect of TiF(4) and NaF varnishes and solutions on enamel in vitro. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2012;22:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSION. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the TiF(4) varnish seems to be a promising treatment to reduce enamel loss under mild erosive and abrasive conditions in vitro. ..
  60. de Melo M, Goes D, de Moraes M, Santiago S, Rodrigues L. Effect of chlorhexidine on the bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to sound and demineralized dentin. Braz Oral Res. 2013;27:218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the degree of dentin demineralization affects the bond strength of self-etching adhesives, but the use of CHX does not modify this effect. ..
  61. Antonio A, Iorio N, Pierro V, Candreva M, Farah A, Dos Santos K, et al. Inhibitory properties of Coffea canephora extract against oral bacteria and its effect on demineralisation of deciduous teeth. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:556-64 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our data suggest that light roasted C. canephora extract is beneficial as an anticariogenic substance. ..
  62. Ogodescu A, Ogodescu E, Talpoş S, Zetu I. [Resin infiltration of white spot lesions during the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2011;115:1251-7 pubmed
    ..This is especially important for patients with long periods of treatment like interdisciplinary orthodontic-orthognathic surgery cases or patients that are refractory to oral hygiene measures. ..
  63. da Silva Barbosa P, da Ana P, Poiate I, Zezell D, de Sant Anna G. Dental enamel irradiated with a low-intensity infrared laser and photoabsorbing cream: a study of microhardness, surface, and pulp temperature. Photomed Laser Surg. 2013;31:439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the combination of cream and laser light possibly promoted protein denaturation of the tooth enamel organic matrix, which possibly decreased the loss of hardness without causing pulp damage. ..
  64. Ogura K, Tanaka R, Shibata Y, Miyazaki T, Hisamitsu H. In vitro demineralization of tooth enamel subjected to two whitening regimens. J Am Dent Assoc. 2013;144:799-807 pubmed
    ..OB confers to enamel significant resistance to in vitro demineralization. Dentists should supervise the nightguard HB process. ..
  65. Soviero V, Haubek D, Trindade C, Da Matta T, Poulsen S. Prevalence and distribution of demarcated opacities and their sequelae in permanent 1st molars and incisors in 7 to 13-year-old Brazilian children. Acta Odontol Scand. 2009;67:170-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Among children with demarcated opacities in 1st molars, 20 (20%) had post-eruptive breakdown. A high prevalence of demarcated opacities, possibly resulting in disintegration of the tooth crown, has been found in Brazilian children. ..
  66. Rošin Grget K, Peros K, Sutej I, Basić K. The cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride. Acta Med Acad. 2013;42:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..e. during acid production. Thus, a constant supply of low levels of fluoride in biofilm/saliva/dental interference is considered the most beneficial in preventing dental caries. ..
  67. Kaplowitz G. An update on the dangers of soda pop. Dent Assist. 2011;80:14-6, 18-20, 22-3 passim; quiz 29-31 pubmed
    ..The dental team has the expertise and training to intervene with diet counseling, home care instructions and professionally applied fluoride to decrease the potential ravages of soda pop. ..
  68. Behnan S, Arruda A, Gonzalez Cabezas C, Sohn W, Peters M. In-vitro evaluation of various treatments to prevent demineralization next to orthodontic brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;138:712.e1-7; discussion 712-3 pubmed publisher
  69. Durmusoglu O, Tagtekin D, Yanikoglu F. Clinical evaluation of demineralization and remineralization of intact root surface lesions in the clinic by a quantitative light-induced fluorescence system. Lasers Med Sci. 2012;27:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Teeth with root surface caries can be kept by controlling their remineralization. ..
  70. Haliloğlu B, Guran T, Atay Z, Abali S, Mornet E, Bereket A, et al. Infantile loss of teeth: odontohypophosphatasia or childhood hypophosphatasia. Eur J Pediatr. 2013;172:851-3 pubmed publisher
    ..V128M) mutation. This mutation was previously observed in a series of patients with severe hypophosphatasia, pointing out the possible role of other genetic or environmental factors in the modulation of the hypophosphatasia phenotype. ..
  71. Hellen A, Mandelis A, Finer Y, Amaechi B. Quantitative evaluation of the kinetics of human enamel simulated caries using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence. J Biomed Opt. 2011;16:071406 pubmed publisher
    ..PTR-LUM sensitivity to changes in tooth mineralization coupled with opto-thermophysical property extraction illustrates the technique's potential for nondestructive quantification of enamel caries. ..
  72. Hellak A, Riepe E, Seubert A, Korbmacher Steiner H. Enamel demineralization after different methods of interproximal polishing. Clin Oral Investig. 2015;19:1965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Whenever the outermost layer of enamel is reduced, the practitioner must expect an increase in demineralization. Subsequent polishing does not appear to affect the amount of demineralization. ..
  73. Akin M, Basciftci F. Can white spot lesions be treated effectively?. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:770-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of CPP-ACP can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse for postorthodontic remineralization. Microabrasion is an effective treatment for cosmetic improvement of long-standing white spot lesions. ..
  74. Peters M. Strategies for noninvasive demineralized tissue repair. Dent Clin North Am. 2010;54:507-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Some are already available in clinical practice. Studies, however, have yet to show conclusive evidence of clinical efficacy. None have shown to be more effective than fluoride and protection by sealant. ..
  75. DenBesten P, Li W. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:81-96 pubmed publisher
    ..As further studies are done, we will better understand the mechanisms responsible for dental fluorosis. ..
  76. Huang S, Gao S, Cheng L, Yu H. Remineralization potential of nano-hydroxyapatite on initial enamel lesions: an in vitro study. Caries Res. 2011;45:460-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also suggest that both the particle- and ion-mediated remineralization pathways in nano-HA may contribute to the repair of demineralized enamel. ..