Summary: Inflammation of the NASOPHARYNX, usually including its mucosa, related lymphoid structure, and glands.

Top Publications

  1. Brook I. Microbial dynamics of purulent nasopharyngitis in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:1047-53 pubmed
    This review presents the microbiological dynamic and therapeutic options in the management of purulent nasopharyngitis (NPT)...
  2. Ozono S, Ueda T, Hoshi S, Yamaguchi A, Maeda H, Fukuyama Y, et al. The efficacy and safety of degarelix, a GnRH antagonist: a 12-month, multicentre, randomized, maintenance dose-finding phase II study in Japanese patients with prostate cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012;42:477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common adverse events were injection site reactions; other adverse events included hot flush, nasopharyngitis, weight increase and pyrexia...
  3. Wang F, Lu J, Peng X, Wang J, Liu X, Chen X, et al. Integrated analysis of microRNA regulatory network in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with deep sequencing. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016;35:17 pubmed publisher
    ..used to screen differentially expressed miRNAs in laser-microdessected biopsies between 12 NPC and 8 chronic nasopharyngitis patients. The result was validated by real-time PCR on 201 NPC and 25 chronic nasopharyngitis patients...
  4. Poelmans J, Tack J, Feenstra L. Chronic middle ear disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a causal relation?. Otol Neurotol. 2001;22:447-50 pubmed
    ..It is reasoned that the GERD leads to nasopharyngitis and this to a chronic ear problem. All the patients responded favorably to anti-GERD therapy...
  5. Bissler J, Kingswood J, Radzikowska E, Zonnenberg B, Belousova E, Frost M, et al. Everolimus long-term use in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex: Four-year update of the EXIST-2 study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180939 pubmed publisher
    ..4%), acne (25.9%), aphthous stomatitis and nasopharyngitis (each 21.4%). Ten (8.9%) patients withdrew because of an adverse event...
  6. Parker F, Bousquet C, Hladky J, Cosson S, Laporte J. [Unilateral lesions of basal ganglia nuclei in children during myxovirus para-influenzae infection]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 1989;145:245-7 pubmed
    ..Virologic investigations showed a recent infection due to myxovirus para influenzae. Angiography demonstrated no focal vascular disease. The course was favorable with full recovery. ..
  7. Chen J, Yang P, Xiao Y, Zhang Y, Liu J, Xie D, et al. Overexpression of ?-sma-positive fibroblasts (CAFs) in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Predicts Poor Prognosis. J Cancer. 2017;8:3897-3902 pubmed publisher
    ..the differential expression of ?-sma-positive fibroblasts (CAFs) in nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs), nasopharyngitis, metastatic tissues of NPCs and its prognostic value in NPCs...
  8. Grimmer I, Boenke S, Poller S. [Bacterial colonization of the nasopharynx in a comparison of home reared and day care children]. Padiatr Grenzgeb. 1990;29:K1-3 pubmed
    ..In vitro the efficiency of erythromycine against bacteria of the nose-pharynx-area is broader then that of Penicilline and the combination Trimethoprime plus Sulfonamide. ..
  9. Leonardi C, Langley R, Papp K, Tyring S, Wasel N, Vender R, et al. Adalimumab for treatment of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis of the hands and feet: efficacy and safety results from REACH, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Arch Dermatol. 2011;147:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Adverse events in both groups were generally mild to moderate. In both periods combined, nasopharyngitis (27% and 13% for adalimumab- and placebo-treated patients, respectively) was most frequently reported...

More Information


  1. Heald A, Auckenthaler R, Borst F, Delaspre O, Germann D, Matter L, et al. Adult bacterial nasopharyngitis: a clinical entity?. J Gen Intern Med. 1993;8:667-73 pubmed
    To investigate bacterial nasopharyngitis as a cause of adult upper respiratory infection. Prospective case series. Walk-in medical clinic of a university hospital...
  2. Onakoya P, Adoga A, Adoga A, Galadima C, Nwaorgu O. An unusual rhino-pharyngeal foreign body. West Afr J Med. 2005;24:89-91 pubmed
    ..This case highlights the fact that both a deliberate and an accidental foreign body in an adult nasal cavity can get impacted as well as the significance for its early removal. ..
  3. Huang L, Xu X, Hao Y, Chen J, Li L, Cheng J, et al. Overexpression of CSF-1R in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2015;56:1279-83 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the expression of CSF-1R in nasopharyngeal carcinoma to nasopharyngitis for assessing the role CSF-1/CSF-1R in nasopharyngeal carcinoma...
  4. Rynnel Dagöö B, Agren K. The nasopharynx and the middle ear. Inflammatory reactions in middle ear disease. Vaccine. 2000;19 Suppl 1:S26-31 pubmed
    ..Increasing evidence supports the role of serum antibody in protecting the middle ear cavity from disease. There is evidence for a minor immunologic defect in a number of children with recurrent episodes of AOM. ..
  5. Ruggeri C, Barberio G, Pajno G, Putorti A, Morabito L, Pollicino A, et al. [An assessment of middle ear involvement in children with allergic rhinitis: a comparison with chronic hypertrophic adenoiditis]. Pediatr Med Chir. 1990;12:491-3 pubmed
    ..For this reason the allergic rhinitis, because it may cause OME, must be treated in order to limit the negative effects of allergic nasal obstruction on the functionality of the middle ear. ..
  6. Tan A, Thang S, Padhy A. Differentiating suspected nasopharyngeal infection from carcinoma using dual-tracer and multiple time-point technetium-99m sestamibi and white blood cell SPECT/CT imaging. Nucl Med Commun. 2011;32:416-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Shao P, Hsueh P, Chang Y, Lu C, Lee P, Lee C, et al. Chromobacterium violaceum infection in children: a case of fatal septicemia with nasopharyngeal abscess and literature review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21:707-9 pubmed
    ..He received intravenous cefazolin therapy for 2 days, followed by penicillin, oxacillin and netilmicin. However, no improvement was noted, and he died on the fifth days of illness. ..
  8. Houlton J, Donaldson A, Zimmer L, Seiden A. Intranasal drug-induced fungal rhinopharyngitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2012;2:130-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognizing that this process is primarily fungal in origin is paramount to successful treatment, as most patients respond well to antifungal therapy when compliant with treatment. ..
  9. Ruprecht A, Dolan K. The nasopharynx in oral and maxillofacial radiology. I. Benign lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991;72:484-91 pubmed
  10. Fenton J, Kieran S. Re: Nasopharyngitis is a clinical sign of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Am J Rhinol. 2007;21:135; author reply 135 pubmed
  11. Jiang W, Califano J. Mitochondrial mutations and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther. 2004;3:1275-6 pubmed
  12. Connolly Y, Littler E, Sun N, Chen X, Huang P, Stacey S, et al. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus thymidine kinase: a characteristic marker for the serological detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2001;91:692-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, results from patients with chronic nasopharyngitis (CNP) suggest that individuals with both symptoms of CNP and an elevated TK ELISA value may be at increased ..
  13. Morsy T, El Sharkawy I, Lashin A. Human nasopharyngeal linguatuliasis (Pentasomida) caused by Linguatula serrata. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 1999;29:787-90 pubmed
    ..Symptomatic treatment was given followed by a single dose of praziquantel after identification of the causative parasite. Human linguatuliasis (pentastomiasis) was discussed. ..
  14. White C, Foshee W. Upper respiratory tract infections in adolescents. Adolesc Med. 2000;11:225-49 pubmed
    ..Adolescents experience two to four episodes of viral nasopharyngitis annually...
  15. Dagan R, Melamed R, Muallem M, Piglansky L, Greenberg D, Abramson O, et al. Reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci during the second year of life by a heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1996;174:1271-8 pubmed
    ..14%, P = .042). Conjugate pneumococcal vaccines may reduce spread of pneumococci in the community. ..
  16. Yi H, Li Y, Zhong R. [Expression, genetic and epigenetic alterations of LTF gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2010;32:729-33 pubmed
    ..detected in NPC cell lines HNE1, HNE2, HNE3, CNE1, CNE2, 5-8F, 6-10B cells and tissues of 15 cases of chronic nasopharyngitis by RT-PCR. The LTF protein level was analyzed by Western blotting in 6-10B cells...
  17. Takahashi N, Nakaseko C, Kobayashi Y, Miyamura K, Ono C, Koide Y, et al. Long-term treatment with bosutinib in a phase 1/2 study in Japanese chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant/intolerant to prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Int J Hematol. 2017;106:398-410 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common adverse events (>50%) reported were diarrhea (95%), nasopharyngitis (57%), and rash (57%)...
  18. Rickels K, Mathew S, Banov M, Zimbroff D, Oshana S, Parsons E, et al. Effects of PRX-00023, a novel, selective serotonin 1A receptor agonist on measures of anxiety and depression in generalized anxiety disorder: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:235-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results support further clinical investigation of higher doses of PRX-00023 in anxiety and depression. ..
  19. Hashida K, Shiomori T, Hohchi N, Kitamura T, Udaka T, Suzuki H. [Survey of nasopharyngeal carriage of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants at day care centers]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 2006;109:821-9 pubmed
    ..Further prospective studies are needed to determine upper respiratory tract infection in infants at day care centers and to evaluate carriage, epidemiology, and the drug-resistance rates of these pathogens. ..
  20. Zeppa J, Wakabayashi A, Kasper K, Xu S, Haeryfar S, McCormick J. Nasopharyngeal Infection of Mice with Streptococcus pyogenes and In Vivo Detection of Superantigen Activity. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1396:95-107 pubmed publisher
    ..pyogenes. We also describe a method to detect superantigen-specific T cell activation in vivo. ..
  21. Wolf B, Kools Sijmons M, Verduin C, Rey L, Gama A, Roord J, et al. Genetic diversity among strains of Moraxella catarrhalis cultured from the nasopharynx of young and healthy Brazilian, Angolan and Dutch children. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2000;19:759-64 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, similar phenotypic characteristics but genotypic heterogeneity was found among Moraxella catarrhalis strains colonizing children in three different continents. ..
  22. Ovchinnikov A. [Rhinopharyngitis as one of clinical manifestations of acute respiratory virus infection. Modern view on the problem (lecture)]. Ter Arkh. 2006;78:57-62 pubmed
  23. Zhou L, Jiang W, Ren C, Yin Z, Feng X, Liu W, et al. Frequent hypermethylation of RASSF1A and TSLC1, and high viral load of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and matched tumor-adjacent tissues. Neoplasia. 2005;7:809-15 pubmed
    ..real-time PCR analysis of EBV DNA were performed on matched T, P, and Z tissues (n = 28) as well as chronic nasopharyngitis tissues (n = 8)...
  24. Sands B, Chen J, Feagan B, Penney M, Rees W, Danese S, et al. Efficacy and Safety of MEDI2070, an Antibody Against Interleukin 23, in Patients With Moderate to Severe Crohn's Disease: A Phase 2a Study. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:77-86.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common adverse events were headache and nasopharyngitis. Higher baseline serum concentrations of IL22, a cytokine whose expression is induced by IL23, were ..
  25. Kimball A, Gordon K, Langley R, Menter A, Chartash E, Valdes J. Safety and efficacy of ABT-874, a fully human interleukin 12/23 monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common adverse event was injection-site reaction, and the most common infectious adverse events were nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection. There were no serious infectious adverse events...
  26. Huang N, Morlock L, Lee C, Chen L, Chou Y. Antibiotic prescribing for children with nasopharyngitis (common colds), upper respiratory infections, and bronchitis who have health-professional parents. Pediatrics. 2005;116:826-32 pubmed have more medical knowledge and expertise, are less likely than other children to receive antibiotics for nasopharyngitis (common colds), upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), and acute bronchitis...
  27. Contencin P, Viala P, Narcy P. [Variations of nasopharyngeal pH in nasopharyngitis in children]. Presse Med. 1991;20:1595-8 pubmed
    ..However, these two hypotheses must be confirmed or infirmed by further studies. ..
  28. Mousquès J, Renaud T, Scemama O. Is the "practice style" hypothesis relevant for general practitioners? An analysis of antibiotics prescription for acute rhinopharyngitis. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70:1176-84 pubmed publisher
  29. Emoto M, Terauchi Y, Ozeki A, Oura T, Takeuchi M, Imaoka T. A 1-year safety study of dulaglutide in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes on a single oral hypoglycemic agent: an open-label, nonrandomized, phase 3 trial. Endocr J. 2015;62:1101-14 pubmed publisher
    ..9% completed the 52-week treatment period. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were nasopharyngitis and gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, diarrhea, and nausea...
  30. Xu K, Roberts D, Sulapas I, Martinez O, Berk J, Baldwin J. Over-prescribing of antibiotics and imaging in the management of uncomplicated URIs in emergency departments. BMC Emerg Med. 2013;13:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Uncomplicated URIs were identified through ICD-9 codes of nasopharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, URI not otherwise specified and influenza involving upper respiratory tract...
  31. Azar A, Piccinelli C, Brown H, Headon D, Cheeseman M. Ectodysplasin signalling deficiency in mouse models of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia leads to middle ear and nasal pathology. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:3564-3577 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that otitis media, rhinitis and nasopharyngitis occur at high frequency in Eda and Edar mutant mice and explore the pathogenic mechanisms related to ..
  32. Cardozo D, Nascimento Carvalho C, Andrade A, Souza F, Silva N. The burden of acute nasopharyngitis among adolescents. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:1045 pubmed
  33. Cohen R. [A national survey on the criteria of prescription antibiotic therapy in nasopharyngitis in pediatric practice]. Ann Pediatr (Paris). 1992;39:195-201 pubmed
    Although nasopharyngitis usually results from a viral infection, it is the leading cause of use of antimicrobials in pediatric patients...
  34. Zhang H, Qu G, Deng Z, Yao T, Glaser R. Epstein-Barr virus DNA in nasopharyngeal biopsies. Virus Res. 1989;12:53-9 pubmed
    ..patients within this high risk area, including 31 cases of undifferentiated NPC and 6 cases of patients with nasopharyngitis, for the presence of EBV DNA...
  35. Walele T, Bush J, Koch A, Savioz R, Martin C, O Connell G. Evaluation of the safety profile of an electronic vapour product used for two years by smokers in a real-life setting. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018;92:226-238 pubmed publisher
    ..No serious AEs related to EVP use were observed. The most frequently reported AEs were headache, nasopharyngitis, sore throat and cough, reported by 28.7%, 28.7%, 19.6% and 16...
  36. Salomon J, Sommet A, Bernede C, Toneatti C, Carbon C, Guillemot D. Antibiotics for nasopharyngitis are associated with a lower risk of office-based physician visit for acute otitis media within 14 days for 3- to 6-year-old children. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008;14:595-9 pubmed publisher
    ..visits to physicians for symptoms of acute otitis media (AOM) within 14 days after being diagnosed with nasopharyngitis (NP), and the impact of recent antibiotic use...
  37. Gurdeep S, Harvinder S, Philip R, Amanjit K. Intranasal use of QuickClot in a patient with uncontrollable epistaxis. Med J Malaysia. 2006;61:112-3 pubmed
    A 60-year-old man who presented with nasopharyngitis developed uncontrollable epistaxis following a punch biopsy of the nasopharynx...
  38. Meteyard J, Young P. Optimization of PCR and automated sequencing of clinical isolates of respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol Methods. 1994;50:335-41 pubmed
    ..Optimization of a range of parameters and comparison of a number of alternate procedures resulted in a final protocol that allowed the comparison of the sequences of a panel of local RSV subgroup A and B clinical isolates. ..
  39. Yamazaki H, Tsutsumi H, Matsuda K, Nagai K, Ogra P, Chiba S. Respiratory syncytial virus group-specific antibody response in nasopharyngeal secretions from infants and children after primary infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1994;1:469-72 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that lack of antibody response to the G glycoprotein of the heterologous group in the respiratory tract may determine the outcome of reinfection with other RSV strains. ..
  40. Massoure M, Sockeel P, Richecoeur M, Lipovac A, Bronstein J. [Post-amoxicilline neutropenic rectitis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report]. Rev Med Interne. 2009;30:1054-7 pubmed publisher
    ..immunocompetent patient who presented with a neutropenic rectitis after a treatment by amoxicillin for nasopharyngitis. Neutropenic colitis is a digestive wall inflammation, preferentially localized in the ileo-caecal area and ..
  41. Fowler J. Combined effect of anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline (40-mg doxycycline, usp monohydrate controlled-release capsules) and metronidazole topical gel 1% in the treatment of rosacea. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:641-5 pubmed
    ..Combination therapy significantly reduced inflammatory lesion counts as early as week 4 and through week 12 compared to topical metronidazole 1% gel monotherapy. The combined therapy appeared effective and well-tolerated. ..
  42. Pencek R, Blickensderfer A, Li Y, Brunell S, Chen S. Exenatide once weekly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: effectiveness and tolerability in patient subpopulations. Int J Clin Pract. 2012;66:1021-32 pubmed publisher
    ..4% overall; 2.3% in patients not on concomitant sulfonylurea), nausea (14.7%), diarrhoea (10.9%) and nasopharyngitis (7.2%)...
  43. Decramer M, Hanania N, Lötvall J, Yawn B. The safety of long-acting ?2-agonists in the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2013;8:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Current evidence from clinical studies of the safety and tolerability profile of LABAs supports their long-term use in COPD. ..
  44. Vender R, Lynde C, Gilbert M, Ho V, Sapra S, Poulin Costello M. One-year, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study evaluating the safety and effectiveness of etanercept for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in a Canadian population. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17:129-38 pubmed
    ..8% (95% CI 22.9-34.7) and 47.3% (95% CI 40.8-53.9), respectively. No new safety signals were reported. The majority of this Canadian population demonstrated a meaningful improvement in PGA and DLQI scores over 1 year. ..
  45. Lund V, Grouin J, Eccles R, Bouter C, Chabolle F. Efficacy of fusafungine in acute rhinopharyngitis: a pooled analysis. Rhinology. 2004;42:207-12 pubmed
    ..08 (p=0.033) in favour of fusafungine. Therefore fusafungine through its dual bacteriostatic and original anti-inflammatory properties is an effective treatment of acute rhinopharyngitis especially when administered early. ..
  46. Coste J, Venot A. An epidemiologic approach to drug prescribing quality assessment: a study in primary care practice in France. Med Care. 1999;37:1294-307 pubmed
    ..The orders (n = 23,080) written for patients with five target diseases (acute nasopharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, essential hypertension, osteoarthrosis, and back and periarticular disorders), by primary ..
  47. Wang M, Li J, Zeng Y, Hou J, Lin Q. [Expression and Significance of Notch1, P21WAF1 and involucrin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma]. Ai Zheng. 2005;24:1230-4 pubmed
    ..325, P=0.001). No significant correlation was found between the expression of P21(WAF1) and Involucin. The expression of Notch1, P21(WAF1), and Involucrin are closely correlated to the differentiation of NPC cells. ..
  48. Krivan G, Chernyshova L, Kostyuchenko L, Lange A, Nyúl Z, Derfalvi B, et al. A Multicentre Study on the Efficacy, Safety and Pharmacokinetics of IqYmune®, a Highly Purified 10% Liquid Intravenous Immunoglobulin, in Patients with Primary Immune Deficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2017;37:539-547 pubmed publisher
    ..000, 0.115). Overall, 228 infections were reported, most frequently bronchitis, chronic sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection. The mean annualized rate of infections was 3.79/patient...
  49. Bernstein J, Doyle W. Role of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in otitis media with effusion: pathophysiologic considerations. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1994;163:15-9 pubmed
    ..The prolonged obstruction of the eustachian tube with mucus results in middle ear inflammation, mucosal metaplasia, and increased glandular activities, all of which are hallmarks of chronic otitis media with effusion. ..
  50. Rasamoelisoa J, Tovone X, Rakotovao E, Razafimandimby D, Rakotoarimanana D, Andriambao D. [Acute flaccid paralysis after drug injection: a case report in the pediatric service of the Befelatanana Hospital Center in Antananarivo]. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar. 2000;66:58-60 pubmed
    ..This demonstrative case shows the need for health staff to be trained to perform correctly an usual act like intramuscular drug injections. ..
  51. Huang Y, Zhang B, Ma N, Murata M, Tang A, Huang G. Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage as potential survival biomarkers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Med Oncol. 2011;28:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifty-nine cases of NPC and 39 cases of chronic nasopharyngitis were investigated to examine the expression of iNOS and the formation of 8-NitroG and 8-OHdG, using double-..
  52. Hotomi M, Kono M, Togawa A, Arai J, Takei S, Ikeda Y, et al. Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in tonsillar cultures of adults with acute pharyngotonsillitis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:594-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical implication of Haemophilus haemolyticus, one of the closest relative of Haemophilus influenzae, on acute pharyngotonsillitis...