pharyngeal diseases


Summary: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.

Top Publications

  1. Iteld L, Yu P. Pharyngocutaneous fistula repair after radiotherapy and salvage total laryngectomy. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2007;23:339-45 pubmed
    ..Early repair is strongly recommended once a postlaryngectomy pharyngocutaneous fistula is identified. ..
  2. Langley E, Kirse D, Barnes C, Covitz W, Shetty A. Retropharyngeal edema: an unusual manifestation of Kawasaki disease. J Emerg Med. 2010;39:181-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine months later, the CAA had resolved and the patient was well with no sequelae. Although unusual, physicians should be aware of retropharyngeal edema as an atypical presentation of KD. ..
  3. Dirven R, Swinson B, Gao K, Clark J. The assessment of pharyngocutaneous fistula rate in patients treated primarily with definitive radiotherapy followed by salvage surgery of the larynx and hypopharynx. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1691-5 pubmed publisher
  4. Patel U, Keni S. Pectoralis myofascial flap during salvage laryngectomy prevents pharyngocutaneous fistula. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;141:190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a simple, reliable technique that prevents postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula and its associated morbidity after salvage laryngectomy. ..
  5. Mesolella M, Cimmino M, Di Martino M, Criscuoli G, Albanese L, Galli V. Tonsillolith. Case report and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2004;24:302-7 pubmed
    ..Authors stress that large tonsillar concretions are uncommon, and may be difficult to diagnose since the tonsillolith can also be mistaken for other anatomic and pathologic structures in the oropharyngeal area...
  6. Sirisanthana T, Navachareon N, Tharavichitkul P, Sirisanthana V, Brown A. Outbreak of oral-oropharyngeal anthrax: an unusual manifestation of human infection with Bacillus anthracis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984;33:144-50 pubmed
    ..Determination of etiology was based on both microbiologic and epidemiologic evidence. The clinical syndrome and epidemiology are discussed. ..
  7. Paydarfar J, Birkmeyer N. Complications in head and neck surgery: a meta-analysis of postlaryngectomy pharyngocutaneous fistula. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132:67-72 pubmed
    ..The clinical implications of these findings and the potential sources of heterogeneity of effects among studies are discussed. ..
  8. Duvillard C, Ballester M, Romanet P. Traumatic retropharyngeal hematoma: a rare and critical pathology needed for early diagnosis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:713-5 pubmed
    ..Surgery for retropharyngeal hematoma is not always mandatory. It becomes necessary when a major dysphagia or dyspnea occurs. In other cases, medical treatment and close observation are usually sufficient. ..
  9. Ansai T, Takehara T. Tonsillolith as a halitosis-inducing factor. Br Dent J. 2005;198:263-4 pubmed
    ..We present a case of an incidental tonsillolith occurrence, which was a halitosis-inducing factor. Our results show that tonsilloliths should be considered as a possible cause of halitosis...

More Information


  1. Makitie A, Irish J, Gullane P. Pharyngocutaneous fistula. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;11:78-84 pubmed
    ..This subset of patients is likely best treated in regional centers of excellence with well developed multidisciplinary programs for ablative and reconstructive head and neck surgery. ..
  2. Markou K, Vlachtsis K, Nikolaou A, Petridis D, Kouloulas A, Daniilidis I. Incidence and predisposing factors of pharyngocutaneous fistula formation after total laryngectomy. Is there a relationship with tumor recurrence?. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;261:61-7 pubmed
    ..The rate of tumor recurrence after total laryngectomy was not related to the presence of a fistula during the postoperative period. ..
  3. Vural C, Gungor A, Comerci S. Accuracy of computerized tomography in deep neck infections in the pediatric population. Am J Otolaryngol. 2003;24:143-8 pubmed
    ..CT study has important limitations in differentiating abscess versus cellulitis in DNIs. Clinical findings as well as CT diagnosis should guide the decision of surgery. ..
  4. Aviv J, Di Tullio M, Homma S, Storper I, Zschommler A, Ma G, et al. Hypopharyngeal perforation near-miss during transesophageal echocardiography. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:821-6 pubmed
    ..The optically guided technique may result in decreased frequency of potentially significant complications and therefore in improved patient safety. ..
  5. Seven H, Calis A, Turgut S. A randomized controlled trial of early oral feeding in laryngectomized patients. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:1076-9 pubmed
    ..However, it does not shorten the length of hospital stay for these patients. ..
  6. Profili S, Meloni G, Feo C, Pischedda A, Bozzo C, Ginesu G, et al. Self-expandable metal stents in the management of cervical oesophageal and/or hypopharyngeal strictures. Clin Radiol. 2002;57:1028-33 pubmed
    ..Stents proved to be effective and well tolerated palliative treatment also for hypopharyngeal stenoses. ..
  7. Chang D, Hussussian C, Lewin J, Youssef A, Robb G, Reece G. Analysis of pharyngocutaneous fistula following free jejunal transfer for total laryngopharyngectomy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002;109:1522-7 pubmed
    ..Most patients are able to resume oral feeding once the fistula is closed...
  8. Miller R, Collison P, Gouda H. Spontaneous retropharyngeal hemorrhage causing airway obstruction: a case report with a review of the literature. S D Med. 2006;59:295-7, 299 pubmed
    ..Emergency tracheostomy was required to relieve progressive upper airway obstruction. The literature on spontaneous retropharyngeal hematoma is reviewed including clinical presentation, causative factors, and recommended treatment. ..
  9. Virtaniemi J, Kumpulainen E, Hirvikoski P, Johansson R, Kosma V. The incidence and etiology of postlaryngectomy pharyngocutaneous fistulae. Head Neck. 2001;23:29-33 pubmed
    ..Good surgical technique and postoperative treatment should be paid attention to patients with an increased risk of pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. ..
  10. Ganly I, Patel S, Matsuo J, Singh B, Kraus D, Boyle J, et al. Postoperative complications of salvage total laryngectomy. Cancer. 2005;103:2073-81 pubmed
    ..Multivariate analysis showed that primary CTRT was an independent predictor of local wound complications and pharyngocutaneous fistula. ..
  11. Medina J, Khafif A. Early oral feeding following total laryngectomy. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:368-72 pubmed
    ..The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened from 12 to 7 days. Our results indicate that in this patient population initiation of oral feeding 48 hours after total laryngectomy is a safe clinical practice. ..
  12. Conio M, Blanchi S, Filiberti R, Repici A, Barbieri M, Bilardi C, et al. A modified self-expanding Niti-S stent for the management of benign hypopharyngeal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;65:714-20 pubmed
    ..The use of this modified Niti-S stent avoids both enteral nutrition through feeding tubes and the need for periodic bougienage in patients with difficult-to-treat benign hypopharyngeal strictures. ..
  13. Krouse J, Metson R. Barium swallow is a predictor of salivary fistula following laryngectomy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;106:254-7 pubmed
    ..A single fistula developed in the 58 patients not studied with barium. Information provided by postlaryngectomy barium swallow appeared to predict, but not prevent salivary fistula formation. ..
  14. Chung T, Rebello R, Gooden E. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis: case report and review of literature. Emerg Radiol. 2005;11:375-80 pubmed
    ..We present three cases of this uncommon condition to illustrate the classic findings on plain film, CT, and MRI. Recognition of the pathognomonic imaging appearance allows for easy diagnosis preventing unnecessary tests and treatment. ..
  15. Solis N, Filler S. Mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Nat Protoc. 2012;7:637-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This process results in a reproducible level of infection, the histopathology of which mimics that of pseudomembranous oropharyngeal candidiasis in humans. By using this model, data are obtained after 5-9 d of work. ..
  16. Mignogna M, Fortuna G, Leuci S, Adamo D, Dell Aversana Orabona G, Ruoppo E. Adjuvant triamcinolone acetonide injections in oro-pharyngeal pemphigus vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:1157-65 pubmed publisher
  17. Sun Z, Fu K, Zhang Z, Zhao Y, Ma X. Multidetector computerized tomographic fistulography in the evaluation of congenital branchial cleft fistulae and sinuses. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;113:688-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to primarily investigate the usefulness of computerized tomographic (CT) fistulography in the diagnosis and management of branchial cleft fistulae and sinuses...
  18. Nagano H, Iuchi H, Yoshifuku K, Morizono K, Kurono Y. [A case of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with a pharyngeal ulcer]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 2013;116:802-7 pubmed
    ..5 mg/kg. 60 mg/day), the liver dysfunction and pharyngeal ulcer improved. Since the prognosis is poor in adult cases of CAEBV, chemotherapy is scheduled for this case. ..
  19. Karlsson A, Osterlund A, Forssén A. Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis is not uncommon any more. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011;43:344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, research on PhCt should not focus on homo/bisexual men only. Information about Ct should include the risk of contracting a PhCt infection as well as a gender perspective. ..
  20. Shimazu R, Yamamoto M, Minesaki A, Kuratomi Y. Dental and oropharyngeal lesions in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2018;45:522-526 pubmed publisher the tooth and pharynx of GERD rats to elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and oral and pharyngeal diseases. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created...
  21. Pope C, Hay P, Alexander S, Capaldi K, Dave J, Sadiq S, et al. Positive predictive value of the Becton Dickinson VIPER system and the ProbeTec GC Q x assay, in extracted mode, for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86:465-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Confirmatory testing of pharyngeal and rectal samples should continue in line with national guidelines. ..
  22. Taphey M, Pornkul R. Acute suppurative thyroiditis due to pyriform sinus fistula: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93:388-92 pubmed
    ..It is often overlooked because of poor diagnostic roles. Further investigations are important for diagnosis and evaluation. The authors herein present a case of pyriform sinus fistula and diagnostic roles to confirm the diagnosis...
  23. Ishaque M, Hussain S, Mahmood A. Acute parapharyngeal abscess secondary to streptococcal mastoiditis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2009;19:798-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The abscess was drained and the patient was treated with injectable Ceftriaxone, due to identification of penicillin - resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. ..
  24. Smith S, Pereira K. Suppurative thyroiditis in children: a management algorithm. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008;24:764-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoscopic chemical cautery of the internal opening is a safe and effective technique, with very low morbidity, and has the potential for cure. ..
  25. Naunheim M, Langerman A. Pharyngoceles: a photo-anatomic study and novel management. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:1632-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These lesions may be amenable to endoscopic repair with minimal long-term morbidity. ..
  26. Puri S, Kumar R, Chadha S, Tati S, Conti H, Hube B, et al. Secreted aspartic protease cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 activates Cek1 MAPK signaling affecting biofilm formation and oropharyngeal candidiasis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46020 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of Msb2 processing at the level of Saps may provide a means of attenuating MAPK signaling and reducing C. albicans virulence...
  27. Ho M, Houghton L, Gillmartin E, Jackson S, Lancaster J, Jones T, et al. Outcomes following pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction with the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;50:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..While adjuvant radiotherapy could have contributed to this, future innovations will focus on the reduction of late strictures. ..
  28. Givens D, Hunt J, Bentz B. Uncommon presentations of parathyroid adenoma. Head Neck. 2013;35:E265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of a broad differential diagnosis and thorough workup is emphasized. ..
  29. Escapa Garrachón J, Martín Serradilla J, Alonso Castañeira I, Freijanes Otero J, de Las Heras Flórez P, Alonso Treceño J. [Treatment of cervical adenopathies secondary to oropharyngeal tularaemia. Our experience in 8 patients]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2009;60:54-8 pubmed
    ..Seven patients were treated with ciprofloxacin and one with erythromycin. A correct and precocious antibiotic therapy, and sometimes surgical drainage, could accelerate the healing process. ..
  30. Gkouskou K, Vlastos I, Hajiioannou I, Hatzaki I, Houlakis M, Fragkiadakis G. Dietary habits of preschool aged children with tonsillar hypertrophy, pre- and post-operatively. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010;14:1025-30 pubmed
    ..This effect may be related to better respiration or/and feeding, immunological or metabolic factors. In this study we analyse the effect of tonsillectomy on the dietary habits of children...
  31. Basaran B, Orhan K, Yıldırmaz K, Hafiz G. [A case of secondary post-tonsillectomy bleeding: necrosis of the internal carotid artery]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2011;21:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon determining that the bleeding was caused by the necrosis of the internal carotid artery, the ligation of the internal carotid artery was performed. ..
  32. De S, Bailey C. Trends in paediatric airway surgery: a move towards endoscopic techniques. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:355-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the move towards endoscopic techniques in the management of paediatric airway disorders. ..
  33. Sinclair E. Pharyngeal cyst in a 5-year-old Dutch Warmblood. Can Vet J. 2008;49:806-8 pubmed
    ..Complete surgical excision was performed and the mare returned to normal function and performance. Histopathology found no evidence of thyroglossal duct remnants. ..
  34. Roopashri G, Vaishali M, David M, Baig M. Evaluation of elongated styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13:618-22 pubmed
  35. Enciso R, Shigeta Y, Nguyen M, Clark G. Comparison of cone-beam computed tomography incidental findings between patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea and mild obstructive sleep apnea/healthy patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to generalize our results. ..
  36. Molimard M, Le Gros V, Robinson P, Bourdeix I. Prevalence and associated factors of oropharyngeal side effects in users of inhaled corticosteroids in a real-life setting. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2010;23:91-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Oropharyngeal disorders represent the most frequent side effect of these drugs, which may have a negative impact on adherence...
  37. Amano H, Uchida H, Sato K, Kawashima H, Tanaka Y, Takazawa S, et al. Differences in the characteristics and management of pyriform sinus fistula between neonates and young children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2012;28:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of unsuccessful supportive cannulation, direct visualization of the pyriform fossa is a useful procedure for complete resection of PSF, with incision of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. ..
  38. Kozakiewicz J, Gierlotka A, Dec M, Stockfish J. [Rare case of upper respiratory tract obstruction secondary to massive hematoma of pharynx, larynx and trachea]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2010;64:397-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient did not require a control of airway by intubation or tracheotomy according to quick relief after pharmacological treatment. ..
  39. Sparks H, Stick J, Brakenhoff J, Cramp P, Spirito M. Partial resection of the plica salpingopharyngeus for the treatment of three foals with bilateral tympany of the auditory tube diverticulum (guttural pouch). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;235:731-3 pubmed publisher
  40. Mohammed H, Masterson L, Nassif R. Out-patient flexible carbon dioxide laser surgery for benign laryngopharyngeal pathologies via transnasal flexible laryngo-oesophagoscopy. J Laryngol Otol. 2017;131:650-654 pubmed publisher
    ..Early data suggest that flexible carbon dioxide laser is a versatile and feasible instrument with potential applications for a range of benign pathologies in the upper aero-digestive tract. ..
  41. Yamashita S, Mori A, Nishida Y, Kurisaki R, Tawara N, Nishikami T, et al. Clinicopathological features of the first Asian family having vocal cord and pharyngeal weakness with distal myopathy due to a MATR3 mutation. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2015;41:391-8 pubmed publisher
  42. Chen W, Huang Z, Chai Q, Zhang D, Wang Y, Wang H, et al. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of massive macrocystic lymphatic malformations of the face and neck using fibrin glue with OK-432 and bleomycin. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:572-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Percutaneous sclerotherapy using fibrin glue with OK-432 and bleomycin provided a simple, safe, and reliable alternative treatment for massive macrocystic lymphatic malformations of the face and neck. ..
  43. Akduman D, Naiboglu B, Uslu C, Oysu C, Tek A, Surmeli M, et al. [Pharyngocutaneous fistula after total laryngectomy: incidence, predisposing factors, and treatment]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2008;18:349-54 pubmed
    ..3 days in patients without fistula. Postoperative anemia, hypoproteinemia, alcohol consumption, and T4 stage are significant risk factors for pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. ..
  44. Nelson L, Coelho J, Mietelka K, Langohr I. Pharyngeal pouch and cleft remnants in the dog and cat: a case series and review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2012;48:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of pharyngeal development is useful for their characterization. Clinicians should consider pharyngeal remnants as differentials for cystic lesions in small animals. ..
  45. White H, Golden B, Sweeny L, Carroll W, Magnuson J, Rosenthal E. Assessment and incidence of salivary leak following laryngectomy. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:1796-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of a postoperative barium swallow in these patients may be useful but was not found to be highly sensitive in predicting who will develop a clinically evident leak and should be used with caution. ..
  46. Oosthuizen J, Leonard D, Kinsella J. The role of pectoralis major myofascial flap in salvage laryngectomy: a single surgeon experience. Acta Otolaryngol. 2012;132:1002-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean duration to fistula closure was 57.16 days in the primary laryngectomy group compared with 20.5 days in salvage surgery patients with PMMF reinforcement. ..
  47. Nagano H, Yoshifuku K, Kurono Y. A useful procedure for observing the cervical esophagus via the hypopharynx. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no complications after the examination. The results suggest that the movable over tube method is an easy, useful, and safe method to observe the region from the hypopharynx to the cervical esophagus. ..
  48. Khan N, Medina J, Sanclement J, Krempl G. Fistula rates after salvage laryngectomy: comparing pectoralis myofascial and myocutaneous flaps. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:1615-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the pectoralis myocutaneous flap (PMCF) in this pilot series did not show a lower rate of fistula; other alternatives should be pursued to decrease this complication. 4. ..
  49. Khan A, Henton J, Adams T, Dwivedi R, Harris P. Evaluation of hand circulation before radial forearm free flap surgery. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1679-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Pulse oximetry can be used to augment Allen's test to assess collateral supply to the hand. This cost-neutral technique can be used in routine preoperative screening prior to RFFF surgery. ..
  50. Maliki O, Aderdour L, Hassani R, Rouchdi Y, Nouri H, Raji A. [Leeches of the upper aerodigestive tract]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2010;111:193-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In laryngeal localizations induction general anesthesia is recommended, without intubation. Evolution after treatment is rapidly favorable, with complete disappearance of symptoms. ..
  51. Yanagawa Y, Nishimura M, Ohkawara J, Hasegawa K, Yamane M. Acute myocardial infarction presenting with pharyngeal pain alone. J Emerg Med. 2012;43:e287-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A misdiagnosis of acute myocardial infarction can lead to unfavorable outcomes; therefore, physicians or emergency medical technicians should be aware of this disease even when a patient complains of sudden pharyngeal pain alone. ..
  52. Hiraishi T, Matsushima T, Kawashima M, Nakahara Y, Takahashi Y, Ito H, et al. 3D Computer graphics simulation to obtain optimal surgical exposure during microvascular decompression of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Neurosurg Rev. 2013;36:629-35; discussion 635 pubmed publisher
    ..The best surgical approach for MVD in patients with GPN is contingent on the affected artery--PICA or AICA. 3D CG simulation provides tailored approach for MVD of the glossopharyngeal nerve, thereby ensuring optimal surgical exposure. ..
  53. Conrad D, Parikh S. Deep neck infections. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2012;12:286-90 pubmed
    ..This article emphasizes the anatomic and physiologic process to heed when managing children with deep neck infections. The roles of radiography and medical versus surgical management are discussed. ..