Summary: The presence of an excessively large tongue, which may be congenital or may develop as a result of a tumor or edema due to obstruction of lymphatic vessels, or it may occur in association with hyperpituitarism or acromegaly. It also may be associated with malocclusion because of pressure of the tongue on the teeth. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Top Publications

  1. Kruchinsky H. Once again about a new tongue reduction method. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:1696-700 pubmed
  2. Luna Ortiz K, Carmona Luna T, Herrera Gomez A, Cano Valdez A. Macroglossia caused by adenoid cystic carcinoma. Case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008;13:E395-7 pubmed
    A 33-year-old woman sought medical care at our institution for macroglossia. She had been treated before with tracheostomy and gastrostomy due to an adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the mobile tongue, in clinical stage IVC...
  3. Suzuki S, Fujisawa D, Hashimoto K, Asano T, Maimaiti M, Matsuo K, et al. Partial paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 6 in monozygotic twins with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus and macroglossia. Clin Genet. 2010;78:580-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequent manifestation other than TNDM is intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and in some cases macroglossia. We investigated monozygotic twins who had macroglossia without IUGR...
  4. Cooke M, Davidson L, Livesey S. Schinzel-Giedion syndrome: interesting facial and orodental features, and dental management. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2002;12:66-72 pubmed
    ..Clinical management of these patients requires a coordinated approach from a team of medical and dental specialists...
  5. Van Lierde K, Mortier G, Huysman E, Vermeersch H. Long-term impact of tongue reduction on speech intelligibility, articulation and oromyofunctional behaviour in a child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..on speech intelligibility, articulation, and oral behaviour in this Dutch-speaking child with congenital macroglossia can be regarded as successful...
  6. Arkuszewski P, Gaszyńska E, Przygoński A. A method for determination of tongue size in patients with mandibular prognathism. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2006;52 Suppl 3:125-9 pubmed
    ..A large tongue was more often detected in the study than the control group. The frequency of small tongue was similar in both groups. Patients with mandibular prognathism have a larger tongue in comparison with normal individuals. ..
  7. Perkins J, Shcherbatyy V, Liu Z. Morphologic and histologic outcomes of tongue reduction surgery in an animal model. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;139:291-297 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibrosis occurred at the repair site. Midline tongue reduction resulted in uniform tongue reduction in all dimensions and volume, without damaging neurovascular structures. Localized fibrosis is a sequela of healing. ..
  8. Bloom D, Perkins J, Manning S. Management of lymphatic malformations and macroglossia: results of a national treatment survey. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:1114-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While providing insight into treatment patterns, this survey also helps to elucidate the need for multicenter trials for treatment of LM to develop a standard of care that can be recommended based on evidence based medicine rather. ..
  9. Sirinoglu H, Bayramicli M. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma of the tongue. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:926-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This rare benign tumor has the potential for malignant transformation, and the diagnosis was difficult owing to the patient's age and to the insidious clinical presentation. ..

More Information


  1. Kadouch D, Maas S, Dubois L, van der Horst C. Surgical treatment of macroglossia in patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: a 20-year experience and review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;41:300-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Macroglossia is observed in the majority of paediatric patients diagnosed with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and surgical treatment may be indicated...
  2. Chauvet E, Sailler L, Carreiro M, Paoli J, Arrue P, Astudillo L, et al. Symptomatic macroglossia and tongue myositis in polymyositis: treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:2762-4 pubmed
    Symptomatic macroglossia occurs in some rare congenital muscle diseases, such as Becker's and Duchenne's dystrophies or Pompe's disease...
  3. Matveev R, Yamashev I, Sapozhnikov S, Karyshev P. Response of glandular organs to experimental macroglossia. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012;153:274-8 pubmed
    ..05 ml) in midline of the tongue. Changes in the studied glandular organs of external secretion (salivary glands) and internal secretion (thyroid and adrenal glands) were morphometrically detected. ..
  4. Petraud A, Khonsari R, Corre P, Mercier J. [Bronchogenic cyst of the tongue in an adult]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2010;111:46-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a 22-year old male patient who consulted in maxillofacial surgery for painful macroglossia. Imaging revealed a median lesion, suggesting an abscessed embryonic tumor...
  5. Viggor S, Frezzini C, Farthing P, Freeman C, Yeoman C, Thornhill M. Amyloidosis: an unusual case of persistent oral ulceration. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108:e46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Amyloid deposition in the oral cavity usually manifests as macroglossia, however it can present elsewhere in the mouth as nodular or plaquelike lesions. Ulceration is a rare finding...
  6. Vasileiadis I, Mastorakis G, Ieromonachou P, Logothetis I. Symmetrical lipomatosis of the tongue-a rare cause of macroglossia: diagnosis, surgical treatment, and literature review. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:422-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Glossectomy was performed to reduce the size of the tongue and for diagnosis. The literature is reviewed and clinical characteristics, pathology, and surgical treatment are discussed. ..
  7. Krishnan P, Thiessen B. Use of the Bonfils intubating fibrescope in a baby with a severely compromised airway. Paediatr Anaesth. 2013;23:670-2 pubmed publisher
    ..intubation endoscope as a rescue device in a 5-week-old baby presenting with an unstable airway due to massive macroglossia and multiple hemorrhagic lymphangiomata compressing the airway and resulting in a Cormack and Lehane grade 4 ..
  8. Boku A, Tachibana K, Shinjo T, Hanamoto H, Takeuchi M, Kinouchi K. [Perioperative management of tongue reduction surgery for macroglossia associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome -A retrospective evaluation of 14 patients--]. Masui. 2013;62:416-20 pubmed
    b>Macroglossia is the commonest symptom of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and sometimes requires surgical tongue reduction for cosmetic, feeding, drooling and speech problems...
  9. DeBaun M, King A, White N. Hypoglycemia in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Semin Perinatol. 2000;24:164-71 pubmed
    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome associated with macrosomia, macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, hypoglycemia in the neonatal period and embryonal cancers of infancy and early childhood...
  10. Shimatsu Y, Yoshimura M, Yuasa K, Urasawa N, Tomohiro M, Nakura M, et al. Major clinical and histopathological characteristics of canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan, CXMDJ. Acta Myol. 2005;24:145-54 pubmed
    ..b>Macroglossia, dysphagia, drooling and jaw joint contracture were overt from 4 months of age...
  11. McKee H, Escott E, Damm D, Kasarskis E. Macroglossia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70:1432-5 pubmed publisher
    ..with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with tongue enlargement and protrusion outside the oral cavity (macroglossia). To our knowledge, the relationship between macroglossia and ALS has not been reported in the literature...
  12. Dhamrait R. Airway obstruction following potassium permanganate ingestion. Anaesthesia. 2003;58:606-7 pubmed
  13. Sharma P, Bhakta P, Srinivasan S, Khan R, Kaul N. Acute tongue enlargement secondary to pharyngeal packing after tracheal intubation--a case report. Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2012;21:761-4 pubmed
    ..We thus recommend that throat pack should be used cautiously only when absolutely indicated. Otherwise it can lead to life threatening macroglossia.
  14. Chatzistavrou E, Kolokitha O, Topouzelis N. A severe open bite case treated with orthodontics and tongue reduction surgery: 13-year followup. A case report. Aust Orthod J. 2012;28:94-103 pubmed
    ..has therefore been advocated as an aid in treatment, especially when the open bite is accompanied by perceived macroglossia. The present article describes a clinical case of a 10-year-old girl who started treatment in the mixed ..
  15. Krause E. [Difficulties with chewing and speaking. When the patient sticks out the tongue ....]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2007;149:5 pubmed
  16. Kittur M, Padgett J, Drake D. Management of macroglossia in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;51:e6-8 pubmed publisher
    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare congenital disease of low prevalence. Its most common feature is macroglossia, being present in most cases...
  17. Boyd D, Quick A, Murray C. The Down syndrome patient in dental practice, Part II: clinical considerations. N Z Dent J. 2004;100:4-9 pubmed
    ..This, together with a notable increase in life expectancy (Pilcher, 1998), improved health care and a greater degree of integration into society in New Zealand has resulted in an increased demand for dental care. ..
  18. Luce F, Sarandria D, Pozzobon G, Chiumello G, Bussi M. Pediatric otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of endocrinological pathologies. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73 Suppl 1:S49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This knowledge allows to treat them with a correct surgical approach, in order to implore children's quality of life. ..
  19. Junghaenel S, Keller T, Mischkowski R, Hinkelbein J, Beutner D, Koerber F, et al. Massive macroglossia after palatoplasty: case report and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..but typical and frightening complication is postoperative extreme, very rapid emergence, and life-threatening macroglossia. While macroglossia usually has its peak within 24-48 h after palatoplasty and resolves spontaneously, we ..
  20. Moldoveanu G, Severin E, Paun A. Endotracheal Intubation in a Down Syndrome Adult Undergoing Cataract Surgery - a Multidisciplinary Approach. Maedica (Buchar). 2017;12:127-132 pubmed
    ..Indicators of potentially difficult intubation were macroglossia, prognathism, short neck, limited degree of head extension and obesity...
  21. Jacobowitz O. Surgical reconstruction of the upper airway for obstructive sleep apnea. Dent Clin North Am. 2012;56:453-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharyngoplasty and tongue base techniques for therapeutic upper airway reconstruction may be performed staged or simultaneously. Current and future approaches are described. ..
  22. Chau H, Soma M, Massey S, Hewitt R, Hartley B. Anterior tongue reduction surgery for paediatric macroglossia. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:1247-50 pubmed publisher
    Anterior tongue reduction is indicated when macroglossia causes problems with oral hygiene, airway compromise, deglutition, articulation or orthognathic complications...
  23. Spivey P, Bradshaw W. Recognition and management of the infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome. Adv Neonatal Care. 2009;9:279-84; quiz 285 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristic findings are macroglossia, abdominal wall defects, and macrosomia...
  24. Iwabuchi I, Kagawa T, Oonishi H, Ueshima E. [Anesthetic management of a pediatric patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome accompanied by macroglossia]. Masui. 2008;57:464-6 pubmed
    We report the anesthetic management of an infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome having massive macroglossia and umbilical hernia. Umbilical hernia repair and tongue reductions were performed under general anesthesia...
  25. Guclu E, Tokmak A, Oghan F, Ozturk O, Egeli E. Hemimacroglossia caused by isolated plexiform neurofibroma: a case report. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:151-3 pubmed
    ..The present case is a diffuse isolated plexiform neurofibroma of the tongue that was not associated with neurofibromatosis that we treated with intraoral surgery...
  26. Ponsford M, Stella J. Algorithm for the differential diagnosis of posterior open bites: two illustrative cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71:110-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2 cases were successfully diagnosed and treated using the formulated algorithm for posterior open bites. The algorithms presented facilitate the differential diagnosis of posterior open bites with ambiguous etiology. ..
  27. Toyama S, Hoya K, Matsuoka K, Numai T, Shimoyama M. Massive macroglossia developing fast and immediately after endotracheal extubation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012;56:256-9 pubmed publisher
    We report an unusual case of massive macroglossia that developed very rapidly after neurosurgery in the park bench position with neck flexion...
  28. Kruchinskii G. [Method of tongue size reduction with maintenance of taste and other types of sensitivity]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2006;85:45-7 pubmed
    All known operations for tongue size reduction in cases of macroglossia foresee end and part of back tongue excision. In this case patient will get rid of gustatory and other types of sensitivity and it is considered inevitable...
  29. Mönnich H, Böhm B, Weidenbach H. [82-year old patient with hyperostosis frontalis, prognathism, makroglossia and cutis gyrata. Acromegaly]. Internist (Berl). 2004;45:815-9 pubmed
    ..A HGH suppressive therapy with a long acting dopamine agonist (Cabergolin) was induced. The patient died one year later following cardiovascular complications. ..
  30. Vlachou E, Dalal M, Monaghan A, Nishikawa H. Acute exacerbation of macroglossia. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:877-80 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates that even malformations considered to be incurable may be managed appropriately. ..
  31. Weinstein A, Goldstein R. Case 5. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. J Ultrasound Med. 2002;21:592, 609 pubmed
  32. Mrad Dali Grissa K, Zrig A, Mhiri Souii M, Arifa Achour N, Khochtali H, Tlili Graies K. [Intralingual dermoid cyst: imaging features of a giant cyst]. J Radiol. 2005;86:502-5 pubmed
    ..We report the case of 6 year old girl with macroglossia and swallowing and respiratory difficulties due to a giant intralingual dermoid cyst...
  33. Chu F, Wong W, Wong Y, Chow B, Cheng J. Implant treatment of macroglossia and edentulous mandible following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: a case report. Quintessence Int. 2003;34:670-3 pubmed
    ..The difficulties in implant treatment planning for an edentulous patient with macroglossia and soft tissue changes following radiotherapy are discussed.
  34. Abeleira M, Seoane Romero J, Outumuro M, Caamaño F, Suarez D, Carmona I. A multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of oral manifestations associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: a long-term case report. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011;142:1357-64 pubmed
    ..Exomphalos, macroglossia and gigantism are the main clinical symptoms. The authors describe a 15-year follow-up in a patient with BWS...
  35. Johnson S, Brown C, Puscas L. Persistent Acute Onset Macroglossia Treated with Compression Therapy. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2017;2017:6402413 pubmed publisher
    Acute macroglossia, while rare and often limited in duration, can present significant management challenges...
  36. Brandstetter M, Matsuba Y, Knopf A. [A tongue biopsy led to the diagnosis]. HNO. 2012;60:443-5 pubmed publisher otherwise good health presented with a 2-year history of bilateral painless submandibular swelling and macroglossia. A standard ENT examination revealed no additional symptoms...
  37. Tomlinson J, Morse S, Bernard S, Greensmith A, Meara J. Long-term outcomes of surgical tongue reduction in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:992-1002 pubmed
    Surgical tongue reduction is often performed in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome when macroglossia results in abnormal tongue function or cosmesis; however, no published studies have examined the long-term outcomes of this procedure...
  38. Limbrock G, Hoyer H, Scheying H. Drooling, chewing and swallowing dysfunctions in children with cerebral palsy: treatment according to Castillo-Morales. ASDC J Dent Child. 1990;57:445-51 pubmed
    ..The remainder of the group had minimal sequelae of cerebral palsy; mental problems were predominant. Their orofacial dysfunctions were treated according to the therapeutic concepts of Castillo-Morales...
  39. Sehgal V, Sehgal N, Sehgal R. Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Concomitant Down Syndrome: Literature Review of Other Associated Mucocutaneous Manifestations in Adults. Skinmed. 2017;15:253-258 pubmed
    ..concomitant diseases are defined and reviewed; these include elastosis perforans serpiginosa, fissured tongue/macroglossia, syringomas, palmoplantar keratodermas, cheilitis, xerosis, atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, vitiligo, ..
  40. Choi J, Kim H, Park H, Kwon T. Congenital macroglossia treated by 2-stage partial glossectomy. J Craniofac Surg. 2013;24:554-6 pubmed publisher
    Persistent macroglossia affects speech, swallowing, and the dentofacial skeleton. A range of tongue reduction methods have been proposed to preserve the mobility and sensation of the tongue...
  41. Kelly M, Moran J. Macroglossia and carpal tunnel syndrome associated with multiple myeloma: a case report. Ir J Med Sci. 2005;174:95-6 pubmed
    b>Macroglossia is an unusual symptom in primary care. It may be an indicator of an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia or multiple myeloma in the elderly. To describe such a case of multiple myeloma...
  42. Alimoglu Y, Sacli F, Erdamar S. Macroglossia and generalized edema not due to hypothyroidism. Dysphagia. 2012;27:291-3 pubmed publisher
    We present a 69-year-old male patient with the macroglossia, dysphagia and generalized edema. He was seen previously by other physicians and diagnosed as hypothyroidism...
  43. Iatrou I, Schoinohoriti O, Tzerbos F, Pasparakis D. Treatment of macroglossia in a child with Weaver syndrome. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:961-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Macroglossia and hypothyroidism are seldom mentioned in the literature as clinical findings associated with the syndrome...
  44. Tabbarah K, Madden J, Bedlack R. Dysarthria and dysphagia from light chain amyloidosis. Neurology. 2005;65:1671 pubmed
  45. Lirussi F, Jonard L, Gaston V, Sanlaville D, Kooy R, Winnepenninckx B, et al. Beckwith-Wiedemann-like macroglossia and 18q23 haploinsufficiency. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:2796-803 pubmed
    ..A second child with de novo 18q23 deletion and features of macroglossia, naevus flammeus, bilateral inguinal hernia and transient neonatal hypoglycemia, thus also fitting in with the ..
  46. Tsung Y, Wu C, Hsu C, Yeh C, Lin S, Wong C. Macroglossia after posterior fossa surgery in the prone position--a case report. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2006;44:43-6 pubmed
    We report a case of prominent postoperative macroglossia after posterior fossa surgery in the prone position...
  47. Kotil K, Yavasca P, Bilge T. Postoperative massive macroglossia in Klippel-Feil syndrome after posterior occipitocervical fixation surgery in the sitting position. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2006;19:226-9 pubmed
    Postoperative macroglossia is a very rare complication associated with neurosurgical procedures. There have only been 16 cases reported in the literature. With regard to spine surgery, however, only two cases have been reported...
  48. Williams D, Gauthier D, Maizels M. Prenatal diagnosis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Prenat Diagn. 2005;25:879-84 pubmed
    ..Our proposed schema of two major criteria (abdominal wall defect, macroglossia, macrosomia) or one major plus two minor criteria (nephromegaly/dysgenesis, adrenal cytomegaly, aneuploidy/..
  49. Stoopler E, Alawi F, Laudenbach J, Sollecito T. Bullous amyloidosis of the oral cavity: a rare clinical presentation and review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101:734-40 pubmed
    ..Bullous amyloidosis of the oral cavity is highly uncommon and can mimic other vesiculobullous lesions of the oral mucosa. This article highlights an unusual case of oral BA and reviews important aspects of the disease. ..
  50. Tei E, Yamataka A, Komuro Y, Ohshiro K, Yanai A, Lane G, et al. Huge lymphangioma of the tongue: a case report. Asian J Surg. 2003;26:228-30 pubmed
    ..Postoperatively, her tongue was located completely within her mouth with good cosmetic results. Sensory and motor nerves to the tongue appeared to be intact. Her speech was also improved. ..
  51. Prokaeva T, Spencer B, Kaut M, Ozonoff A, Doros G, Connors L, et al. Soft tissue, joint, and bone manifestations of AL amyloidosis: clinical presentation, molecular features, and survival. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:3858-68 pubmed
    ..The most common manifestations were submandibular gland enlargement, macroglossia, and carpal tunnel syndrome...
  52. Adesina B, Otuyemi O, Kolawole K, Adeyemi A. Assessment of the impact of tongue size in patients with bimaxillary protrusion. Int Orthod. 2013;11:221-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Tongue length, thickness and intermaxillary space length were significantly different between the bimaxillary and normal subjects. However, none of the measured tongue variables could be used as a predictor for incisor relationship. ..
  53. Mekonnen A. The effects of macroglossia on speech: a case study. Clin Linguist Phon. 2012;26:39-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The boy had developed secondary macroglossia, related to a disturbance of growth hormones, following a history of normal speech development...