benign migratory glossitis


Summary: An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.

Top Publications

  1. Assimakopoulos D, Patrikakos G, Fotika C, Elisaf M. Benign migratory glossitis or geographic tongue: an enigmatic oral lesion. Am J Med. 2002;113:751-5 pubmed
    b>Benign migratory glossitis, or geographic tongue, is usually an asymptomatic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that affects the epithelium of the tongue...
  2. Katz J, Shenkman A, Stavropoulos F, Melzer E. Oral signs and symptoms in relation to disease activity and site of involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Oral Dis. 2003;9:34-40 pubmed
    ..Communication between gastroenterologists and dentists is imperative for success of the overall treatment of their patients. ..
  3. Brooks J, Nikitakis N. Multiple mucosal lesions. Erythema migrans. Gen Dent. 2007;55:160, 163 pubmed
  4. Morris L, Phillips C, Binnie W, Sander H, Silverman A, Menter M. Oral lesions in patients with psoriasis: a controlled study. Cutis. 1992;49:339-44 pubmed
    ..4 percent of patients with psoriasis compared to 1 percent of control patients, while benign migratory glossitis was identified in 10.3 percent of patients with psoriasis and 2.5 percent of control patients...
  5. Cambiaghi S, Colonna C, Cavalli R. Geographic tongue in two children with nonpustular psoriasis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005;22:83-5 pubmed
  6. Oh T, Eber R, Wang H. Periodontal diseases in the child and adolescent. J Clin Periodontol. 2002;29:400-10 pubmed
    ..The prevalence, diagnostic characteristics, microbiology, host-related factors, and therapeutic management of each of these disease entities are thoroughly discussed. ..
  7. Leston J, Santos A, Varela Centelles P, Garcia J, Romero M, Villamor L. Oral mucosa: variations from normalcy, part II. Cutis. 2002;69:215-7 pubmed
    ..We describe the following 5 conditions that deviate from normalcy: lateral soft palate fistulas, double lip, fissured tongue, racial gingival pigmentation, and geographic tongue. ..
  8. Geist J, Parise M. Oral pathology quiz #4. Ectopic geographic tongue. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2002;84:28-31 pubmed
  9. Flaitz C, Baker K. Treatment approaches to common symptomatic oral lesions in children. Dent Clin North Am. 2000;44:671-96 pubmed
    ..Most importantly, oral lesions that do not respond to therapeutic protocols should be referred to the appropriate specialist for definitive diagnosis and treatment. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Afanas ev V, Muromtsev A, Derkach N. [Salivary glands and oral mucous membrane status in patients with chronic hepatitis]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2008;87:31-3 pubmed
    ..The received data indicated the necessity of dispensary supervision of such patients and their treatment in stomatologist. ..
  2. Cerqueira D, de Souza I. Orofacial manifestations of Robinow's syndrome: a case report in a pediatric patient. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105:353-7 pubmed
  3. Ray R, Pyle M, Sawyer D, Canion S, Gordon E. Prevalence and etiology of erythema migrans among children in northeast Ohio. Quintessence Int. 2007;38:409-16 pubmed
    ..Erythema migrans was found in the records of 3.8% of children in 2 clinical facilities in the Midwest. Also, increased prevalence was found among patients with multiple health conditions in conjunction with multiple medication use. ..
  4. Sigal M, Mock D. Symptomatic benign migratory glossitis: report of two cases and literature review. Pediatr Dent. 1992;14:392-6 pubmed
    b>Benign migratory glossitis (geographic tongue) is a common clinical finding in routine pediatric dentistry...
  5. Abe M, Sogabe Y, Syuto T, Ishibuchi H, Yokoyama Y, Ishikawa O. Successful treatment with cyclosporin administration for persistent benign migratory glossitis. J Dermatol. 2007;34:340-3 pubmed
    We herein describe a 54 year-old female patient with a 5-year history of persistent and painful benign migratory glossitis (BMG), which was remarkably improved by systemic administration of cyclosporin...
  6. Walsh S. Stick out your tongue and say...uh, oh!. J Pediatr Health Care. 2005;19:247-8, 263-4 pubmed
  7. Menni S, Boccardi D, Crosti C. Painful geographic tongue (benign migratory glossitis) in a child. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18:737-8 pubmed
  8. Delaney J. Periodontal and soft-tissue abnormalities. Dent Clin North Am. 1995;39:837-50 pubmed
    ..Recent years have brought new insights into the etiology and treatment of periodontal diseases of children, making it possible to prevent or treat many formerly untreatable conditions. ..
  9. Zelickson B, Muller S. Generalized pustular psoriasis. A review of 63 cases. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:1339-45 pubmed
    ..Whereas topical therapy was helpful, systemic medications were often needed. Coal tar, ultraviolet light, and psoralen-ultraviolet A may be effective; however, they must be used with caution, because they may exacerbate the disease. ..
  10. Morger R, Ramseier C, Rees T, Bürgin W, Bornstein M. Oral mucosal findings related to tobacco use and alcohol consumption: a study on Swiss army recruits involving self-reported and clinical data. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2010;8:143-51 pubmed
    ..To improve primary and secondary prevention, young adults should therefore be informed more extensively about the negative effects of tobacco use on oral health. ..
  11. Banoczy J, Rigo O, Albrecht M. Prevalence study of tongue lesions in a Hungarian population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993;21:224-6 pubmed
    ..47 and 0.07%. The prevalence of tongue alterations was consistent with the literary data, the oral screening attached to the X-ray lung examinations proved to be useful in detecting changes of the oral mucosa. ..
  12. Kullaa A, Jarvinen J, Lampelo S, Kotilainen R. Expression of intermediate filaments in human tongue mucosa. Oral Surg Oral Diagn. 1993;4:39-43 pubmed
    ..Different immunohistochemical methods can supplement the information obtained from tongue biopsies by conventional methods and lead to a better understanding of the morphology of the tongue mucosa. ..
  13. Brown R. Another point of view. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004;135:1080, 1082 pubmed
  14. Garhammer P, Schmalz G, Hiller K, Reitinger T, Stolz W. Patients with local adverse effects from dental alloys: frequency, complaints, symptoms, allergy. Clin Oral Investig. 2001;5:240-9 pubmed
    ..In not more than 10% of the patients, allergy was diagnosed as contributing to the complaints or symptoms. ..
  15. Yarom N, Cantony U, Gorsky M. Prevalence of fissured tongue, geographic tongue and median rhomboid glossitis among Israeli adults of different ethnic origins. Dermatology. 2004;209:88-94 pubmed
    ..MRG decreased with age. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of FT, GT and MRG among the different ethnic groups, ethnic background probably plays some role in its occurrence. ..
  16. Majorana A, Bardellini E, Flocchini P, Amadori F, Conti G, Campus G. Oral mucosal lesions in children from 0 to 12 years old: ten years' experience. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:e13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact prevalence of oral lesions in childhood is not well known. We sought to define the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a large group of children...
  17. Kleinman D, Swango P, Niessen L. Epidemiologic studies of oral mucosal conditions--methodologic issues. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1991;19:129-40 pubmed
    ..Emphasis is placed on study population selection, diagnostic criteria development, type and training of examiners, risk factor assessment and issues related to data collection, analysis and reporting...
  18. Kullaa Mikkonen A. Familial study of fissured tongue. Scand J Dent Res. 1988;96:366-75 pubmed
    ..Fissuring with normal papillary structure should be considered as variations of normal anatomy, whereas fissured tongue and geographic tongue are a clinical and etiological disease entity. ..
  19. Kleinman D, Swango P, Pindborg J. Epidemiology of oral mucosal lesions in United States schoolchildren: 1986-87. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994;22:243-53 pubmed
    ..Almost 10% of 12-17-yr-olds reported current use of some type of tobacco product. In adolescents the current use of tobacco products had a marked effect on the prevalence of oral lesions. ..
  20. Femiano F. Geographic tongue (migrant glossitis) and psoriasis. Minerva Stomatol. 2001;50:213-7 pubmed
    ..psoriasis and lesions of the oral mucosa similar to geographic tongue; the second (20 patients), with benign migratory glossitis only. Biopsy samples of the lingual mucosa were taken from both groups...
  21. Bassim C, Gautam P, Domingo D, Balog J, Guadagnini J, Gahl W, et al. Craniofacial and dental findings in cystinosis. Oral Dis. 2010;16:488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal pathology and associated mineral imbalance may explain the dental root and enamel anomalies found in cystinosis patients; the developmental delays in cystinosis include delayed dental formation. ..
  22. Levine N. Irregular papillae pattern on tongue. Patient notes discomfort following spicy meals. Geriatrics. 2005;60:20 pubmed
  23. Beiraghi S, Myers S, Regelmann W, Baker S. Oral manifestations of a possible new periodic fever syndrome. Pediatr Dent. 2007;29:323-6 pubmed
    ..This may represent the first known reported case in the literature of a periodic fever syndrome presenting with such unusual recurring oral findings. ..
  24. Hampf G, Vikkula J, Ylipaavalniemi P, Aalberg V. Psychiatric disorders in orofacial dysaesthesia. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1987;16:402-7 pubmed
    ..7%) were mentally healthy. The results show that there is a psychic background in most patients with chronic orofacial pain who have no clinical findings corresponding to the sensation of somatic pain. ..
  25. Noonan V, Gallagher G, Kabani S. Geographic stomatitis. J Mass Dent Soc. 2007;55:49 pubmed
  26. Fitz Henley M. Image and diagnosis. Geographic tongue. West Indian Med J. 2003;52:178, 182 pubmed
  27. Rhyne T, Smith S, Minier A. Multiple, annular, erythematous lesions of the oral mucosa. J Am Dent Assoc. 1988;116:217-8 pubmed
    ..Biopsy is usually not indicated and treatment consists of reassuring the patient that the lesions are benign even though they may disappear, reappear, and change location; the patient should report back for periodic follow-up. ..
  28. Yun S, Lee J, Kim S, Won Y, Lee S. Recurrent geographical tongue and fissured tongue in association with pregnancy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:287-9 pubmed
  29. Kramp B, Graumüller S. [Glossopyrosis--diagnosis and therapy]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2004;83:249-62; quiz 263-7 pubmed
    ..Also dental materials and drugs are iatrogenic factors for glossopyrosis. The multifarious differential diagnosis were described and discussed. ..
  30. dos Santos P, Bessa C, de Aguiar M, do Carmo M. Cross-sectional study of oral mucosal conditions among a central Amazonian Indian community, Brazil. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33:7-12 pubmed
    ..95%). The lesions observed were related to the way of life of this specific population. ..
  31. Espelid M, Bang G, Johannessen A, Leira J, Christensen O. Geographic stomatitis: report of 6 cases. J Oral Pathol Med. 1991;20:425-8 pubmed
    ..On the background of similarities in both the clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical findings it is felt that psoriasis and stomatitis geographica are related lesions. ..
  32. Jarvinen J, Kullaa Mikkonen A, Pesonen E. Histoquantitative study of inflamed tongue mucosa. Scand J Dent Res. 1991;99:424-30 pubmed
    ..Muscle cells of geographic tongue appeared to be as in the controls, whereas in atrophic and fissured tongue the uppermost muscle cells were small and separated compared to the controls. ..
  33. Khongkunthian P, Grote M, Isaratanan W, Piyaworawong S, Reichart P. Oral manifestations in 45 HIV-positive children from Northern Thailand. J Oral Pathol Med. 2001;30:549-52 pubmed
    ..More studies in Thai HIV-infected children are needed to reveal the prevalence of oral manifestations, as well as for the predictive value of the most common or specific oral manifestations. ..
  34. Shulman J. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in children and youths in the USA. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2005;15:89-97 pubmed
    ..The present paper describes the results of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III), and compares them to those of the National Survey of Oral Health in US Schoolchildren, 1986-1987...
  35. Crivelli M, Aguas S, Quarracino C, Adler I, Braunstein S. [Prevalence of tongue anomalies in children]. Rev Asoc Odontol Argent. 1990;78:74-7 pubmed
    ..The figures obtained are at variance--by far--from those published by other people engaged in the same line of research. Probably, further studies with a much larger amount of patients are called for...
  36. Axell T. Hypersensitivity of the oral mucosa: clinics and pathology. Acta Odontol Scand. 2001;59:315-9 pubmed
    ..However, the value of those tests can be questioned. Exacerbation of geographic stomatitis may be another form of hypersensitivity to dental materials. ..
  37. Casper U, Seiffert K, Dippel E, Zouboulis C. [Exfoliatio areata linguae et mucosae oris: a mucous membrane manifestation of psoriasis pustulosa?]. Hautarzt. 1998;49:850-4 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the histopathological features and the clinical course we favour the hypothesis that geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of pustular psoriasis. ..
  38. Tholen S, Lubach D. [Changes in the oral mucosa in psoriasis pustulosa generalisata]. Hautarzt. 1987;38:419-21 pubmed
    ..In accordance with previous case reports, observations suggest that geographic tongue can after be a typical symptom of psoriasis pustulosa generalisata. ..
  39. Baldani M, Lopes C, Scheidt W. [Prevalence of oral changes in children attending public pediatric dental clinics in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil]. Pesqui Odontol Bras. 2001;15:302-7 pubmed
    ..98%). The most prevalent condition was the inclusion cyst (35.71%), followed by benign migratory glossitis (23.81%) and candidiasis (11.90%). The prevalence of inclusion cysts was higher among females (10...
  40. Miloglu O, Goregen M, Akgül H, Acemoglu H. The prevalence and risk factors associated with benign migratory glossitis lesions in 7619 Turkish dental outpatients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:e29-33 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of benign migratory glossitis (BMG) in a Turkish population with respect to gender, age, smoking, atopic and allergic diseases, dermatological diseases (psoriasis and seborrheic ..
  41. Ngwenya S. General practitioner's pathology case 6. SADJ. 2006;61:266 pubmed
  42. Hampf G. Dilemma in treatment of patients suffering from orofacial dysaesthesia. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1987;16:397-401 pubmed
  43. Grinspan D, Fernández Blanco G, Aguero S, Bianchi O, Stringa S. Ectopic geographic tongue and AIDS. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29:113-6 pubmed
    ..A 23-year-old man with AIDS developed a lesion with the clinical characteristics of an ectopic geographic tongue in the lower lip, near the right commissure. ..
  44. Pogrel M, Cram D. Intraoral findings in patients with psoriasis with a special reference to ectopic geographic tongue (erythema circinata). Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1988;66:184-9 pubmed
    ..All other findings were within the normal range. HLA antigen studies of eight patients were carried out and showed an increased incidence of DR7. ..
  45. Vörös Balog T, Dombi C, Vincze N, Banoczy J. [Epidemiologic survey of tongue lesions and analysis of the etiologic factors involved]. Fogorv Sz. 1999;92:157-63 pubmed
    ..6%, in smokers in 23.72%. Tongue lesions caused complaints rarely, only in 2.27%. The recognition of tongue lesions may be helpful in the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. ..
  46. Guimaraes A, Correia Silva J, Diniz M, Xavier G, Horta M, Gomez R. Investigation of functional gene polymorphisms: IL-1B, IL-6 and TNFA in benign migratory glossitis in Brazilian individuals. J Oral Pathol Med. 2007;36:533-7 pubmed
    b>Benign migratory glossitis (BMG) is a very common immunological oral disease of unknown aetiology...
  47. Sklavounou A, Laskaris G. Oral psoriasis: report of a case and review of the literature. Dermatologica. 1990;180:157-9 pubmed
    ..The patient's history, clinical, microscopic features, and HLA typing were consistent with a diagnosis of psoriasis. A review of the 68 reported cases of oral psoriasis is presented in table form. ..
  48. Scully C, Felix D. Oral medicine--update for the dental practitioner: red and pigmented lesions. Br Dent J. 2005;199:639-45 pubmed
    ..Guidance on management and when to refer is also provided, along with relevant websites which offer further detail. ..
  49. Li F, Li G, Wu Y, Li J, Zhang X, Wang H, et al. [Immunological mechanism of exfoliative tongue fur in children with asthma]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2005;3:446-9 pubmed
    ..The disability of keratinization and apoptosis of epithelial cells of tongue may also be one cause for its formation. ..
  50. Dombi C, Czeglédy A. [Incidence of tongue diseases based on epidemiologic studies (review of the literature)]. Fogorv Sz. 1992;85:335-41 pubmed
    ..8% geographic tongue 3.0%, atrophic tongue 6.37% and central atrophy of the tongue 0.35% prevalence. ..
  51. Zhu J, Kaminski M, Pulitzer D, Hu J, Thomas H. Psoriasis: pathophysiology and oral manifestations. Oral Dis. 1996;2:135-44 pubmed
    ..Inflammatory temporomandibular joint lesions have been reported in less than 5% of psoriasis patients. Multiple treatment strategies, be they topical or systemic, have been applied to these patients for symptom relief but not for cure. ..
  52. Huber M. White oral lesions, actinic cheilitis, and leukoplakia: confusions in terminology and definition: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:262-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This contribution reviews the characteristics and management strategies for some of the more common white oral lesions that the dermatologist may observe in clinical practice. ..
  53. Beaudoin N, Manoukian K, Lalonde B. [Benign migratory glossitis: an enigmatic lesion]. J Can Dent Assoc. 1995;61:802-3, 806-8 pubmed
    Although benign migratory glossitis, commonly called "geographic tongue," is frequently observed, we still have not been able to determine its etiology...