chronic periodontitis


Summary: Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.

Top Publications

  1. Stabholz A, Soskolne W, Shapira L. Genetic and environmental risk factors for chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2010;53:138-53 pubmed publisher
  2. Jia X, Yuan Y, Yao Z, Wu C, Chen X, Chen X, et al. Association between IL-4 and IL-4R Polymorphisms and Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis. Dis Markers. 2017;2017:8021279 pubmed publisher
    ..82, 95% CI = 1.22-2.72). Conclusions. A positive association exists between the IL-4R Q551R polymorphism and occurrence of CP. The IL-4 -33 CT genotype is negatively associated with the occurrence of AgP. ..
  3. Toker H, Görgün E, Korkmaz E. Analysis of IL-6, IL-10 and NF-κB Gene Polymorphisms in Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2017;25:157-162 pubmed publisher
    ..Forty-five patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 58 patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP) and 38 periodontally healthy subjects were included ..
  4. Xiaoguang L, Yizhu W, Bin G. [Tumor necrosis factor-? regulates the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in chronic periodontitis]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;35:334-338 pubmed publisher
  5. Venugopal P, Lavu V, Rangarao S, Venkatesan V. Evaluation of a Panel of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in miR-146a and miR-196a2 Genomic Regions in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2017;21:228-235 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382), the MiR-196a2 (rs11614913) SNP and chronic periodontitis. Genotyping was performed for the MiR-146a (rs2910164, rs57095329, and rs73318382) and the MiR-196a2 (..
  6. Jain S, Darveau R. Contribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide to periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2010;54:53-70 pubmed publisher
  7. Ishihara K. Virulence factors of Treponema denticola. Periodontol 2000. 2010;54:117-35 pubmed publisher
  8. Nezu A, Kubota T, Maruyama S, Nagata M, Nohno K, Morozumi T, et al. Expression of neprilysin in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues. Arch Oral Biol. 2017;79:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..and 18 clinically healthy control gingival tissues were taken from patients with severe chronic periodontitis or undergoing tooth extraction...
  9. Dutra B, Oliveira A, Oliveira P, Manzi F, Cortelli S, Cota L, et al. Effect of 1% sodium alendronate in the non-surgical treatment of periodontal intraosseous defects: a 6-month clinical trial. J Appl Oral Sci. 2017;25:310-317 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty individuals with chronic periodontitis underwent periodontal examination at the baseline as well as 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment, ..

More Information


  1. Chee H, Lim L, Tay F, Thai A, Sum C. Non-surgical periodontal treatment and lipid levels in diabetic patients. Ann R Australas Coll Dent Surg. 2008;19:183 pubmed
  2. Queiroz L, Santamaria M, Casati M, Silverio K, Nociti Junior F, Sallum E. Enamel matrix protein derivative plus synthetic bone substitute for the treatment of mandibular Class II furcation defects: a case series. Quintessence Int. 2015;46:199-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirteen patients were selected. All patients were nonsmokers, systemically healthy, and diagnosed with chronic periodontitis; had not taken medications known to interfere with periodontal tissue health and healing; presented one ..
  3. Soares G, Mendes J, Silva M, Faveri M, Teles R, Socransky S, et al. Metronidazole alone or with amoxicillin as adjuncts to non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: a secondary analysis of microbiological results from a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2014;41:366-76 pubmed
    To evaluate the changes occurring in the subgingival microbial profile of subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (ChP) treated by scaling and root planing (SRP) alone or with metronidazole (MTZ) or MTZ + amoxicillin(AMX)...
  4. Ma T, Li D, Huang P, Zhao J. [Correlation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 polymorphisms with chronic periodontitis in Uygur adults]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;52:360-366 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the association between matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) polymorphisms and chronic periodontitis in Uygur adults...
  5. Konoplya A, Goldobin D, Loktionov A. [Local immune and oxidative status in exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2017;96:26-29 pubmed publisher
  6. Bullon P, Newman H, Battino M. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic periodontitis: a shared pathology via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction?. Periodontol 2000. 2014;64:139-53 pubmed publisher
    ..tissues and systems and only recently has special attention been paid to the possible linkages among chronic periodontitis and other chronic systemic diseases...
  7. Ryder M. Comparison of neutrophil functions in aggressive and chronic periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2010;53:124-37 pubmed publisher
  8. Slots J, Slots H. Bacterial and viral pathogens in saliva: disease relationship and infectious risk. Periodontol 2000. 2011;55:48-69 pubmed publisher
  9. Berezow A, Darveau R. Microbial shift and periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2011;55:36-47 pubmed publisher
  10. Gupta K, Idahosa C, Roy S, Lee D, Subramanian H, Dhingra A, et al. Differential Regulation of Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor X2-Mediated Mast Cell Degranulation by Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides and Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..mast cells are present in normal gingiva and that their numbers are elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis. Furthermore, HDPs stimulated degranulation in a human mast cell line (LAD2) and in RBL-2H3 cells stably ..
  11. Giblin L, Boyd L, Rainchuso L, Chadbourne D. Short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on clinical measures of impaired glucose tolerance in people with prediabetes and chronic periodontitis. J Dent Hyg. 2014;88 Suppl 1:23-30 pubmed
    ..The robustness of measures is limited due to the small sample size and lack of a control group. Further larger scale studies using a randomized control design would be informative. ..
  12. Muthu J, Muthanandam S, Mahendra J, Namasivayam A, John L, Logaranjini A. Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on the Glycaemic Control of Nondiabetic Periodontitis Patients: A Clinical Biochemical Study. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2015;13:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..60 years old were selected and divided into two groups: group A (case group), comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis, and group B (control group), comprised of subjects with healthy periodontium...
  13. Laine M, Crielaard W, Loos B. Genetic susceptibility to periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2012;58:37-68 pubmed publisher
  14. Fujise K, Kikuchi Y, Kokubu E, Okamoto Shibayama K, Ishihara K. Effect of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors on autoaggregation, hemagglutination, and cell surface properties of Porphyromonas gingivalis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185027 pubmed publisher a bacterium frequently isolated from chronic periodontal lesions and is involved in the development of chronic periodontitis. To colonize the gingival crevice, P. gingivalis has to adapt to environmental stresses...
  15. Sharma A, Raman A, Pradeep A. Role of 1% alendronate gel as adjunct to mechanical therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis among smokers. J Appl Oral Sci. 2017;25:243-249 pubmed publisher
    ..1% ALN gel as local drug delivery (LDD) in adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) for the treatment of chronic periodontitis among smokers. 75 intrabony defects were treated in 46 male smokers either with 1% ALN gel or placebo gel...
  16. Si W, Wang H, Li Q, Zhao X, Pan Y. Effects of different factors influencing clinical compliance of Chinese patients with chronic periodontitis. Quintessence Int. 2016;47:643-52 pubmed publisher
    The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between compliance in patients with chronic periodontitis and the efficacy of nonsurgical periodontal treatment as well as to investigate the factors that influence the compliance ..
  17. Mohangi G, Singh Rambirich S, Volchansky A. Periodontal disease: Mechanisms of infection and inflammation and possible impact on miscellaneous systemic diseases and conditions. SADJ. 2013;68:462, 464-7 pubmed
    ..However, the intra-oral (and similar-sized) infection is frequently ignored by health professionals, despite the fact that it may be associated with a range of systemic diseases/conditions. ..
  18. Armitage G, Cullinan M. Comparison of the clinical features of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2010;53:12-27 pubmed publisher
    ..of clinical inflammation in generalized aggressive periodontitis appears to be similar to that observed in chronic periodontitis, and in this situation age of onset and family history are important additional criteria for either ..
  19. Grudyanov A, Tkacheva O, Khatagov A. [The impact of surgical and conservative treatment of periodontal disease on structural and functional condition of major blood vessels]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2017;96:12-16 pubmed publisher
    ..1-? ?????? ? ?????????? ?? 1-2% ?? 2-?. ??????? ????????? ??????-????? ? 1-? ?????? ??????????? ?? 0,03 ?? ?????? ? ?? 0,02 ?? ?????, ?? 2-? ?????? - ?? 0,04 ?? ?????? ? ?????. ..
  20. Theodoro L, Lopes A, Nuernberg M, Cláudio M, Miessi D, Alves M, et al. Comparison of repeated applications of aPDT with amoxicillin and metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A short-term study. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;174:364-369 pubmed publisher
    ..and repeated applications of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjuvant for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. A double-blind controlled and randomized clinical trial was conducted in 34 patients...
  21. Dolińska E, Skurska A, Pietruska M, Dymicka Piekarska V, Milewski R, Pietruski J, et al. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on HNP1-3 Level in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis Patients. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2017;65:355-361 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to assess alterations in HNP1-3 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy...
  22. Tonsekar P, Jiang S, Yue G. Periodontal disease, tooth loss and dementia: Is there a link? A systematic review. Gerodontology. 2017;34:151-163 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our review was to assess the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment associated with chronic periodontitis and multiple tooth loss...
  23. Assem N, Alves M, Lopes A, Gualberto E, Garcia V, Theodoro L. Antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Braz Oral Res. 2017;31:e67 pubmed publisher
    ..randomized clinical trials; studies published in English; studies with smoker patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis; patients without systemic diseases; studies that used systemic antibiotic therapy associated with ..
  24. Smiley C, Tracy S, Abt E, Michalowicz B, John M, Gunsolley J, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the nonsurgical treatment of chronic periodontitis by means of scaling and root planing with or without adjuncts. J Am Dent Assoc. 2015;146:508-24.e5 pubmed publisher
    Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on nonsurgical treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis by means of scaling and root planing (SRP) with or without adjuncts...
  25. Belstrøm D, Sembler Møller M, Grande M, Kirkby N, Cotton S, Paster B, et al. Microbial profile comparisons of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in periodontitis patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182992 pubmed publisher
    ..samples (n = 18) and stimulated saliva samples (n = 18) were collected from 18 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were characterized by means of HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe ..
  26. Paquette D, Ryan M, Wilder R. Locally delivered antimicrobials: clinical evidence and relevance. J Dent Hyg. 2008;82 Suppl 3:10-5 pubmed
    ..model that combines locally delivered antimicrobials with scaling and root planing for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Accordingly, greater pocket depth reductions and/or attachment level gains occur in patients treated with ..
  27. Xiuyun R, Chong W, Xin L, Hao L, Qianhui M, Mu L, et al. [Effects of oral interventions on carotid artery in rats with chronic periodontitis for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and the expression of C-reactive protein]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;35:192-197 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to establish a SD rat model of chronic periodontitis (CP) merged with hyperlipidemia (HL), perform periodontal treatment, detect the expression of partial C-reactive protein (CRP) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P...
  28. Mesa F, Lanza E, García L, Marfil Alvarez R, Magan Fernandez A. Polymorphism IL-1RN rs419598 reduces the susceptibility to generalized periodontitis in a population of European descent. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186366 pubmed publisher
    ..assess the associations of IL-1RN genetic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs419598) with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP), and absence of periodontitis and 2) to assess its ..
  29. Munz M, Willenborg C, Richter G, Jockel Schneider Y, Graetz C, Staufenbiel I, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies nucleotide variants at SIGLEC5 and DEFA1A3 as risk loci for periodontitis. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:2577-2588 pubmed publisher
    ..validated the associations in a German sample of severe forms of the more moderate phenotype chronic periodontitis (CP) (993 cases, 1,419 controls)...
  30. . American Academy of Periodontology Task Force Report on the Update to the 1999 Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol. 2015;86:835-8 pubmed publisher
  31. Zhou H, Zhao H, Zheng J, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Zhao F, et al. CRISPRs provide broad and robust protection to oral microbial flora of gingival health against bacteriophage challenge. Protein Cell. 2015;6:541-545 pubmed publisher
  32. Liu T, Sheu J, Lin H, Jensen D. Increased risk of parkinsonism following chronic periodontitis: a retrospective cohort study. Mov Disord. 2013;28:1307-8 pubmed publisher
  33. Guo Y, Nguyen K, Potempa J. Dichotomy of gingipains action as virulence factors: from cleaving substrates with the precision of a surgeon's knife to a meat chopper-like brutal degradation of proteins. Periodontol 2000. 2010;54:15-44 pubmed publisher
  34. Finoti L, Nepomuceno R, Pigossi S, Corbi S, Secolin R, Scarel Caminaga R. Association between interleukin-8 levels and chronic periodontal disease: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6932 pubmed publisher
    Current publications present contradictory findings regarding interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP)...
  35. Kruck S, Hennenlotter J, Amend B, Geiger M, Filipova E, Neumann T, et al. Chronic Periodontitis Does Not Impact Serum Levels of Prostate-specific Antigen. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:3163-3167 pubmed
    b>Chronic periodontitis (CP) has already been associated with altered PSA values in men undergoing biopsy. This study addressed the impact of CP treatment on PSA screening...
  36. Barros S, WILLIAMS R, Offenbacher S, Morelli T. Gingival crevicular fluid as a source of biomarkers for periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2016;70:53-64 pubmed publisher
  37. Engebretson S, Hyman L, Michalowicz B. Hemoglobin A1c levels among patients with diabetes receiving nonsurgical periodontal treatment--reply. JAMA. 2014;311:1921-2 pubmed publisher
  38. Merchant A. Hemoglobin A1c levels among patients with diabetes receiving nonsurgical periodontal treatment. JAMA. 2014;311:1919 pubmed publisher
  39. Venugopal P, Lavu V, Rao S, Venkatesan V. Association of microRNA-125a and microRNA-499a polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis in a sample south Indian population: A hospital-based genetic association study. Gene. 2017;631:10-15 pubmed publisher
    ..between selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in miR-125a, miR-499 and LIN28 homology A with chronic periodontitis susceptibility in a sample population from south India...
  40. Armitage G. Comparison of the microbiological features of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2010;53:70-88 pubmed publisher
  41. Demmer R, Papapanou P. Epidemiologic patterns of chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2010;53:28-44 pubmed publisher