cost sharing

Summary

Summary: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Risk-sharing: past, present, future
    Dean C Coddington
    Healthc Leadersh Manag Rep 11:1-7, 9. 2003
  2. ncbi Adverse events associated with prescription drug cost-sharing among poor and elderly persons
    R Tamblyn
    McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital Site, Ross Pavilion, Room 4-12, 687 Pine Ave W, , Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1
    JAMA 285:421-9. 2001
  3. ncbi The effects of prescription drug cost sharing: a review of the evidence
    Teresa B Gibson
    Medstat, 777 E Eisenhower Parkway, Ann Arbor, MI 48108, USA
    Am J Manag Care 11:730-40. 2005
  4. ncbi Diversity and dynamics of patient cost-sharing for physicians' and hospital services in the 27 European Union countries
    Marzena Tambor
    Department of Health Economics and Social Security, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum, Krakow, Poland
    Eur J Public Health 21:585-90. 2011
  5. ncbi The impact of co-payment increases on dispensings of government-subsidised medicines in Australia
    Anna Hynd
    Centre for Health Services Research, School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17:1091-9. 2008
  6. ncbi Access to medicines: cost as an influence on the views and behaviour of patients
    Ellen I Schafheutle
    School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Health Soc Care Community 10:187-95. 2002
  7. ncbi The impact of cost-sharing on appropriate utilization and health status: a review of the literature on seniors
    Thomas Rice
    University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Med Care Res Rev 61:415-52. 2004
  8. ncbi The impact of cost sharing of prescription drug expenditures on health care utilization by the elderly: own- and cross-price elasticities
    Xin Li
    Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, and Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
    Health Policy 82:340-7. 2007
  9. ncbi Patient co-payments and use of prescription medicines
    Evan Doran
    Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medical Practice and Population Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Mater Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales
    Aust N Z J Public Health 28:62-7. 2004
  10. ncbi Prescription drug cost sharing: associations with medication and medical utilization and spending and health
    Dana P Goldman
    Health Economics, Finance, and Organization, RAND, Santa Monica, California 90407 2138, USA
    JAMA 298:61-9. 2007

Detail Information

Publications259 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Risk-sharing: past, present, future
    Dean C Coddington
    Healthc Leadersh Manag Rep 11:1-7, 9. 2003
  2. ncbi Adverse events associated with prescription drug cost-sharing among poor and elderly persons
    R Tamblyn
    McGill University Health Center, Royal Victoria Hospital Site, Ross Pavilion, Room 4-12, 687 Pine Ave W, , Quebec, Canada H3A 1A1
    JAMA 285:421-9. 2001
    ....
  3. ncbi The effects of prescription drug cost sharing: a review of the evidence
    Teresa B Gibson
    Medstat, 777 E Eisenhower Parkway, Ann Arbor, MI 48108, USA
    Am J Manag Care 11:730-40. 2005
    To determine whether patients respond to increased cost sharing by substituting less expensive alternatives for medications with higher levels of copayments or coinsurance, and to examine the body of evidence on the relationships between ..
  4. ncbi Diversity and dynamics of patient cost-sharing for physicians' and hospital services in the 27 European Union countries
    Marzena Tambor
    Department of Health Economics and Social Security, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum, Krakow, Poland
    Eur J Public Health 21:585-90. 2011
    ..This article presents a review of patient cost-sharing for health-care services in the 27 EU countries, and discusses directions for their improvement...
  5. ncbi The impact of co-payment increases on dispensings of government-subsidised medicines in Australia
    Anna Hynd
    Centre for Health Services Research, School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 17:1091-9. 2008
    ..We investigated whether this increase and two related co-payment changes were associated with changes in dispensings of selected subsidised medicines in Australia...
  6. ncbi Access to medicines: cost as an influence on the views and behaviour of patients
    Ellen I Schafheutle
    School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
    Health Soc Care Community 10:187-95. 2002
    ..Despite the high level of prescription items exempt, the current level of the prescription charge is still a barrier to obtaining prescription medicines under the National Health Service to those on lower incomes...
  7. ncbi The impact of cost-sharing on appropriate utilization and health status: a review of the literature on seniors
    Thomas Rice
    University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Med Care Res Rev 61:415-52. 2004
    This article provides a review of research that has addressed the impact of patient cost sharing on the use of services and resulting health status impacts, among the population age 65 and older...
  8. ncbi The impact of cost sharing of prescription drug expenditures on health care utilization by the elderly: own- and cross-price elasticities
    Xin Li
    Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, and Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, St Paul s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
    Health Policy 82:340-7. 2007
    ....
  9. ncbi Patient co-payments and use of prescription medicines
    Evan Doran
    Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medical Practice and Population Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Mater Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales
    Aust N Z J Public Health 28:62-7. 2004
    ..To investigate how prescription co-payments influence the medicine use of Australian patients...
  10. ncbi Prescription drug cost sharing: associations with medication and medical utilization and spending and health
    Dana P Goldman
    Health Economics, Finance, and Organization, RAND, Santa Monica, California 90407 2138, USA
    JAMA 298:61-9. 2007
    Prescription drugs are instrumental to managing and preventing chronic disease. Recent changes in US prescription drug cost sharing could affect access to them.
  11. pmc Health benefits of reduced patient cost sharing in Japan
    Akihiro Nishi
    Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, MA 02115, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 90:426-435A. 2012
    To assess the effect on out-of-pocket medical spending and physical and mental health of Japan's reduction in health-care cost sharing from 30% to 10% when people turn 70 years of age.
  12. ncbi Cost sharing, adherence, and health outcomes in patients with diabetes
    Teresa B Gibson
    Thomson Reuters Healthcare, Ann Arbor, MI 48108, USA
    Am J Manag Care 16:589-600. 2010
    To assess the relationship between cost sharing and adherence to antidiabetic medications in patients with type 2 diabetes and to examine the relationship between medication adherence and outcomes, including complication rates, medical ..
  13. ncbi An evaluation of cost sharing to finance a diet and physical activity intervention to prevent diabetes
    Ronald T Ackermann
    Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 250 University Blvd, Suite 122, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Diabetes Care 29:1237-41. 2006
    ..We explored whether this intervention could be offered in a way that allows return on investment for private health insurers while remaining attractive for consumers, employers, and Medicare...
  14. ncbi The cost of prescription medicines to patients
    P R Noyce
    School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK
    Health Policy 52:129-45. 2000
    ..The method used in this study may also provide a route for investigating model systems prior to implementation...
  15. ncbi What does the RAND Health Insurance Experiment tell us about the impact of patient cost sharing on health outcomes?
    Michael E Chernew
    Department of Health Policy, Harvard University Medical School, 180 Longwood Ave, Ste 207, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Manag Care 14:412-4. 2008
  16. ncbi Affordability of medicines and patients' cost-reducing behaviour: empirical evidence based on SUR estimates from Italy and the UK
    Vincenzo Atella
    Centre of International Studies on Economic Growth CEIS Dipartimento di Studi Economico Finanziari e Metodi Quantitativi SEFEMEQ, Faculty of Economics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    Appl Health Econ Health Policy 4:23-35. 2005
    ..Therefore, the aim of this article is to explore empirically how, and to what extent, costs incurred by patients influence their decision-making behaviour in accessing medicines...
  17. ncbi Abolition of prescription charges in Wales: the impact on medicines use in those who used to pay
    Sam Groves
    Health Economics and Policy Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Mid Glamorgan, UK
    Int J Pharm Pract 18:332-40. 2010
    ....
  18. ncbi Cost sharing, benefit design, and adherence: the case of multiple sclerosis
    Avi Dor
    George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA
    Adv Health Econ Health Serv Res 22:175-93. 2010
    The authors focus on understanding the relationship between costs and cost sharing on medication adherence for individuals who initiated a disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  19. ncbi [The effect of outpatient cost sharing on health care utilization of the elderly]
    Myunghwa Kim
    Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, Korea
    J Prev Med Public Health 43:496-504. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of outpatient cost-sharing on health care utilization by the elderly...
  20. ncbi Adherence to statin therapy under drug cost sharing in patients with and without acute myocardial infarction: a population-based natural experiment
    Sebastian Schneeweiss
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont St, Suite 3030, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Circulation 115:2128-35. 2007
    ....
  21. ncbi Clinical and economic consequences of reference pricing for dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers
    Sebastian Schneeweiss
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02120, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 74:388-400. 2003
    ....
  22. pmc Effects of increased patient cost sharing on socioeconomic disparities in health care
    Michael Chernew
    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 23:1131-6. 2008
    Increasing patient cost sharing is a commonly employed mechanism to contain health care expenditures.
  23. pmc Discontinuation of cost sharing in Uganda
    Gilbert M Burnham
    Department of International Health, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 82:187-95. 2004
    To assess the effects of ending cost sharing on use of outpatient services and how this was perceived by health workers and members of a health unit management committee.
  24. ncbi Use of antihypertensive drugs by Medicare enrollees: does type of drug coverage matter?
    A S Adams
    Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 20:276-86. 2001
    ....
  25. pmc Effects of cost sharing on care seeking and health status: results from the Medical Outcomes Study
    M D Wong
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
    Am J Public Health 91:1889-94. 2001
    This study sought to determine the effect of cost sharing on medical care use for acute symptoms and on health status among chronically ill adults.
  26. ncbi A benefit-based copay for prescription drugs: patient contribution based on total benefits, not drug acquisition cost
    A M Fendrick
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Manag Care 7:861-7. 2001
    ..on monitoring clinical conditions, drug use, and compliance, whereas other efforts have focused on consumer cost sharing and changing product-mix...
  27. ncbi Unintended consequences of caps on Medicare drug benefits
    John Hsu
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, Calif 94612, USA
    N Engl J Med 354:2349-59. 2006
    ..Little information exists about the consequences of limits on prescription-drug benefits for Medicare beneficiaries...
  28. ncbi Beneficiary cost sharing under Canadian provincial prescription drug benefit programs: history and assessment
    Paul Grootendorst
    McMaster University and Centre for Evaluation of Medicines, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Can J Clin Pharmacol 9:79-99. 2002
    ..Each province has, however, provided coverage to senior citizens and social assistance recipients; some provinces have introduced drug coverage for the general public...
  29. pmc Preferences for patient cost sharing among medicare beneficiaries after HMO plan withdrawals
    Audiey C Kao
    Received from the Institute for Ethics, American Medical Association, Chicago, Ill 60610, USA
    J Gen Intern Med 17:446-50. 2002
    ..To assess Medicare beneficiaries' willingness to cost share in order to minimize disruptions in coverage from HMO plan withdrawals...
  30. pmc Coping with prescription drug cost sharing: knowledge, adherence, and financial burden
    Mary Reed
    Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612, USA
    Health Serv Res 43:785-97. 2008
    Assess patient knowledge of and response to drug cost sharing.
  31. ncbi Outcomes of reference pricing for angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors
    Sebastian Schneeweiss
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 346:822-9. 2002
    ..Although reference pricing may reduce the costs of prescription drugs, there is concern that patients may switch to less effective medications or stop treatment...
  32. ncbi Value-based insurance design
    Michael E Chernew
    Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 26:w195-203. 2007
    ..This paper makes the case for VBID and outlines current VBID initiatives in the private sector as well as barriers to further adoption...
  33. ncbi Patient cost sharing and social inequalities in access to health care in three western European countries
    Lourdes Lostao
    Department of Sociology, Sociology of Health, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Spain
    Soc Sci Med 65:367-76. 2007
    ..hospitalization, in Germany they share the cost of hospitalization, and in Spain there is no system of patient cost sharing. The data were obtained from national health surveys carried out in each of these countries during the last ..
  34. ncbi Effect of cost sharing on screening mammography in Medicare health plans
    Amal N Trivedi
    Department of Community Health, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    N Engl J Med 358:375-83. 2008
    ..Policies that increase patients' share of health care expenses decrease the use of discretionary health services but also may reduce the use of important preventive care such as mammography...
  35. ncbi Linking cost sharing to value: an unrivaled yet unrealized public health opportunity
    R Scott Braithwaite
    Yale University School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, New Haven, Connecticut 06516, USA
    Ann Intern Med 146:602-5. 2007
    As the financial burden of cost sharing continues to rise, patients increasingly avoid necessary care, thereby contributing to the high morbidity and mortality of the U.S. population compared with that of other developed countries...
  36. ncbi Effects of changes in patient cost sharing and drug sample policies on prescription drug costs and utilization in a safety-net-provider setting
    Jared T Lurk
    Department of Pharmacy, Saint Luke s Hospital of Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 61:267-72. 2004
    ..The impact of cost-containment strategies on prescription drug utilization and costs in an ambulatory care safety-net-provider setting was studied, along with the impact of these strategies on patient out-of-pocket expenditures...
  37. ncbi Exemptions and waivers from cost sharing: ineffective safety nets in decentralized districts in Uganda
    George W Kivumbi
    Makerere University Medical School, Child Health and Development Centre, Parliament of the Republic of Uganda, Kampala, Uganda
    Health Policy Plan 17:64-71. 2002
    ..The implications of the findings for remedying the tension between the needs for cost recovery and for attainment of equity goals through exemption policies for the poor and indigent are discussed...
  38. ncbi The effects of patient cost sharing on ambulatory utilization in South Korea
    Jiyun Kim
    Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 28 Yunkun Dong, ChongRo Ku, Seoul 110 799, South Korea
    Health Policy 72:293-300. 2005
    This study focused mainly on the effects of patient cost sharing on the demand for physician service, especially in the low-income people...
  39. ncbi Physician gender and changes in drug prescribing after the implementation of reference pricing in British Columbia
    Margreet S Duetz
    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Clin Ther 25:273-84. 2003
    ..Gender-specific attitudes and communication styles are known to influence both the content and outcome of medical visits. Therefore, gender-specific differences in response to cost containment may also occur...
  40. ncbi Effects of cost sharing on physician utilization under favourable conditions for supplier-induced demand
    C van de Voorde
    Department of Economics, University of Leuven, Belgium
    Health Econ 10:457-71. 2001
    The effects of cost sharing on the demand for ambulatory care in experimental circumstances are well understood since the Rand Health Insurance Experiment (HIE)...
  41. pmc The impact of cost sharing on antidepressant use among older adults in British Columbia
    Philip S Wang
    National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 9629, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 59:377-83. 2008
    ....
  42. ncbi Medicare HMO withdrawals: what happens to beneficiaries?
    M A Laschober
    Health Economics Practice of Barents Group LLC, Washington, D C, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 18:150-7. 1999
    ..Those with traditional Medicare by itself or with Medigap, the disabled under age sixty-five, the oldest old, and the near-poor experienced the greatest hardship after their HMO withdrew...
  43. pmc Patient cost sharing and physician visits by socioeconomic position: findings in three Western European countries
    Lourdes Lostao
    Department of Sociology, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona Navarra, Spain
    J Epidemiol Community Health 61:416-20. 2007
    ..the probability of physician visits in three Western European countries, one of which has a system of patient cost sharing was evaluated. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in France, Germany and Spain around 1990 and around 2000...
  44. ncbi Dramatic improvement or death spiral--two members of congress assess the Medicare bill
    Edward M Kennedy
    N Engl J Med 350:747-51. 2004
  45. ncbi Value-based insurance design: a "clinically sensitive" approach to preserve quality of care and contain costs
    A Mark Fendrick
    Am J Manag Care 12:18-20. 2006
  46. ncbi Rising out-of-pocket costs in disease management programs
    Michael E Chernew
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2029, USA
    Am J Manag Care 12:150-4. 2006
    ..To document the rise in copayments for patients in disease management programs and to call attention to the inherent conflicts that exist between these 2 approaches to benefit design...
  47. ncbi Impact of a cost sharing drug insurance plan on drug utilization among individuals receiving social assistance
    Lucie Blais
    Faculte de Pharmacie, Centre de Recherche, Hôtel Dieu du Centre hospitalier de l Université de Montréal CHUM, C P 6128, Succursale Centre Ville, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Montreal, Canada
    Health Policy 64:163-72. 2003
    ..A cost-sharing drug insurance plan has been implemented among people receiving social assistance who had previously free access to medications...
  48. ncbi Does patient cost sharing matter? Its impact on recommended versus controversial cancer screening services
    Su Ying Liang
    University of California, 3333 California St, Suite 420, Box 0613, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Am J Manag Care 10:99-107. 2004
    To examine whether there are differential impacts of patient cost sharing and health plan organizational characteristics on the use of a recommended cancer screening service (mammography) versus a controversial cancer screening service (..
  49. ncbi Member satisfaction related to self-reported cost share and difficulty in obtaining prescription drugs in a university pharmacy benefit plan
    David P Nau
    University of Kentucky, 725 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40536 0082, USA
    J Manag Care Pharm 13:135-41. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi The effect of incentive-based formularies on prescription-drug utilization and spending
    Haiden A Huskamp
    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 349:2224-32. 2003
    ..Many employers and health plans have adopted incentive-based formularies in an attempt to control prescription-drug costs...
  51. ncbi Balancing quality employee benefits with cost sharing
    Wayne M Lenda
    Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY 14650, USA
    Am J Manag Care 12:S165-6; discussion S167-72; quiz S173-6. 2006
  52. ncbi Incentive-based formularies
    Cindy Parks Thomas
    Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass, USA
    N Engl J Med 349:2186-8. 2003
  53. ncbi [Evaluation of accessibility to drugs for patients in the years 1996-2001]
    Mariola Drozd
    Zakładu Zarzqdzania i Ekonomiki Farmaceutycznej Akademii Medycznej w Lublinie
    Wiad Lek 55:651-4. 2002
    ..In consequence of these effects it was the diminution of the accessibility to the drugs by the patients on account of a growth of patient participation in the pharmacotherapy costs...
  54. pmc Medicare prescription drug plan costs and affordability--2007
    Matthew M Davis
    J Gen Intern Med 22:1221-2. 2007
  55. ncbi Escalating need for comparative analysis of drugs within a therapeutic class
    Diane Giaquinta
    Manag Care Interface 16:32-4. 2003
  56. ncbi Controlling prescription drug expenditures: a report of success
    David P Miller
    General Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Am J Manag Care 13:473-80. 2007
    ..To determine whether a multi-interventional program can limit increases in prescription drug expenditures while maintaining utilization of needed medications...
  57. ncbi This isn't the first attempt to shift cost to employees
    Martin Sipkoff
    Manag Care 12:34-8. 2003
  58. ncbi Should we be worried about high real medical spending growth in the United States?
    Mark V Pauly
    Department of Health Care Systems, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) . 2003
    ..Problems are more severe for public-sector spending, for the uninsured, and for those responding to distorted incentives...
  59. ncbi The evolving role of case management in consumer-centric health plans
    Jeff Frater
    Redding Medical Center, California, USA
    Case Manager 15:61-5. 2004
  60. ncbi Impact of health plan design and management on retirees' prescription drug use and spending, 2001
    Cindy Parks Thomas
    Schneider Institute for Health Policy, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) . 2002
    ..cost-sharing requirements combined with other management strategies were associated with greater member cost sharing, a shift to less costly medications (generic and mail order), and lower total prescription drug spending...
  61. ncbi The costs of mental health parity: still an impediment?
    Colleen L Barry
    Division of Health Policy and Administration, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 25:623-34. 2006
    ..We review both eras of research on mental health insurance and conclude that comprehensive parity implemented in the context of managed care would have little impact on total spending...
  62. ncbi The effects of expanded mental health benefits on treatment costs
    Anthony T Lo Sasso
    Division of Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W Taylor, Chicago IL 60660, USA
    J Ment Health Policy Econ 9:25-33. 2006
    ..This study examines the impact that corporate benefit policies can have on mental health treatment costs...
  63. ncbi The plan: drive consumers online
    Zack Martin
    Health Data Manag 14:40, 42, 44 passim. 2006
  64. ncbi Living with GASB 45: how to manage liabilities associated with retiree medical benefits
    Frank Thoen
    Milliman, Inc, Seattle, USA
    Benefits Q 24:39-45. 2008
    ..Now is the time for employees and employers to work together and make difficult choices for keeping retiree medical costs and GASB 45 liabilities manageable...
  65. ncbi The role of the safety net in employer health benefit decisions
    M Susan Marquis
    RAND
    Med Care Res Rev 62:435-57. 2005
    ..Policies to limit crowd-out should focus on incentives to make continued private insurance purchase attractive to workers rather than incentives to employers...
  66. ncbi Looking at the doughnut hole in health insurance
    Isaac Sorkin
    Health Aff (Millwood) 24:1184-5; author reply 1185. 2005
  67. ncbi Economic grand rounds: the economics of the new medicare drug benefit: implications for people with mental illnesses
    Julie M Donohue
    Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Crabtree Hall A613, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
    Psychiatr Serv 56:645-7. 2005
  68. ncbi Making health care more accessible and affordable
    Megan Hauck
    Hosp Outlook 7:9-10. 2004
  69. ncbi Consumer-directed health care: are consumers ready?
    Patrick J Dunne
    Respir Care 49:1305-6. 2004
  70. ncbi Pharmaceutical formularies: the right formula for cost and utilization?
    Bonnie Austin
    Changes in Health Care Financing and Organization HCFO, USA
    Find Brief 7:1-3. 2004
  71. ncbi Medicare prescription drug discount cards
    Natasha Bryant
    Institute for the Future of Aging Services, USA
    Issue Brief Cent Medicare Educ 5:1-6. 2004
    ..In this brief, we discuss the Medicare-approved discount cards--who is eligible, how they work, how your clients can best make important decisions about them, and what help is out there for people with low incomes...
  72. ncbi The cost of admission--tiered copayments for hospital use
    Robert Steinbrook
    N Engl J Med 350:2539-42. 2004
  73. ncbi Pharmacy benefits and the use of drugs by the chronically ill
    Dana P Goldman
    RAND, Santa Monica, Calif 90407 2138, USA
    JAMA 291:2344-50. 2004
    Many health plans have instituted more cost sharing to discourage use of more expensive pharmaceuticals and to reduce drug spending.
  74. ncbi Consumer-driven health care: the future is now
    Ronald E Bachman
    Benefits Q 20:15-22. 2004
    ..This article reviews the factors leading to the need for consumer-driven health care and describes the characteristics and benefits of its current and next generations of development...
  75. ncbi Easing the pain. Slowing prescription drug expense helps rein in costs for large employers
    Jessica Zigmond
    Mod Healthc 36:30. 2006
  76. ncbi Overview of Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit: potential implications for patients with psychotic disorders
    Jack M Rosenberg
    International Drug Information Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA
    Am J Health Syst Pharm 64:S18-23; quiz S24-5. 2007
    ..Medicare Part D prescription drug benefits are reviewed. Potential implications for patients with psychotic disorders in relation to Medicare Part D are discussed...
  77. ncbi Will employee choice and defined contribution health plans salvage the embattled managed care system?
    Peter M Kelly
    Benefits Q 19:32-50. 2003
    ....
  78. pmc Defined contribution: a part of our future
    Reginald F Baugh
    3 Parklane Boulevard, Suite 1212 West, Dearborn, MI 48126, USA
    J Natl Med Assoc 95:718-21. 2003
    ..Possible outcomes of widespread adoption of defined contribution plans are presented...
  79. ncbi Optimizing growth opportunities during the managed care revolution
    Bill DeMarco
    DeMarco and Associates, Rockford, Illinois, USA
    Healthc Financ Manage 56:42-6. 2002
    ....
  80. ncbi Approaches to pharmacy benefit management and the impact of consumer cost sharing
    Bridget M Olson
    The University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy, Center for Health Outcomes and PharmacoEconomic Research, Tucson, Arizona 85721 0207, USA
    Clin Ther 25:250-72. 2003
    ..An understanding of the most prominent mechanisms of benefit management is an important step in determining the most effective approach to take in future years...
  81. ncbi Integrating new technology without going broke
    Cynthia Starr
    Bus Health 20:29-34. 2002
  82. ncbi How long can employers hang on?
    Shelly Reese
    Bus Health 20:5-9. 2002
  83. ncbi Financial consequences of drug benefit plans
    Brenda Motheral
    JAMA 289:423-4; author reply 424. 2003
  84. ncbi Financial consequences of drug benefit plans
    Bartholomew E Clark
    JAMA 289:423; author reply 424. 2003
  85. ncbi Controlling spending for prescription drugs
    Stuart H Altman
    N Engl J Med 346:855-6. 2002
  86. ncbi Managing prescription drug costs
    J M Sica
    Aon Consulting, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA
    Empl Benefits J 26:35-40. 2001
    ..The author also discusses pharmacy benefit managers, as well as various utilization management strategies like benefit plan design and the use of formularies...
  87. ncbi The state of consumer-centric care
    Clive Riddle
    MCOL, Modesto, California, USA
    Manag Care Interface 15:20-4. 2002
    ..Health plans are today faced with the challenge of rethinking their offerings--or even their basic program approach--to address this burgeoning trend...
  88. ncbi Insurance product design and its effects: trade-offs along the managed care continuum
    Peter Kemper
    Department of Health Policy and Administration, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802 6500, USA
    Inquiry 39:101-17. 2002
    ....
  89. ncbi Employer drug benefit plans and spending on prescription drugs
    Geoffrey F Joyce
    RAND Health, 1700 Main St, Santa Monica, CA 90407 2138, USA
    JAMA 288:1733-9. 2002
    ..It is unknown how these initiatives affect drug costs...
  90. ncbi Changing health insurance trends
    John K Iglehart
    N Engl J Med 347:956-62. 2002
  91. ncbi Responding to consumer demand for choice, flexibility
    Mary Brainerd
    Healthplan 43:13-7. 2002
  92. ncbi Pharmacy discount card programs: catching up with the health markets
    Drew Edwards
    Kenco Insurance Agency, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
    Empl Benefits J 27:42-3. 2002
    ..Pharmacy costs continue to rise, as does the number of senior citizens. One of the ways of containing costs may be the pharmacy discount drug card program, for both seniors and the general population...
  93. ncbi Employee demand for health insurance and employer health plan choices
    M Kate Bundorf
    Department of Health Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305 5405, USA
    J Health Econ 21:65-88. 2002
    ..Although the results suggest that employers do respond to employee preferences in choosing health benefits, the effects of worker characteristics on plan offerings are quantitatively small...
  94. ncbi Towers Perrin's outlook: what employers (and providers) need to know about defined contribution health plans
    Michael Taylor
    Manag Care Q 10:9-12. 2002
    ....
  95. ncbi Adverse selection and generosity of alcohol treatment benefits
    Katherine M Harris
    Division of Clinical and Prevention Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism NIAAA, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Inquiry 39:413-28. 2002
    ..Also, users of alcohol treatment services do not remain disproportionately enrolled longer in plans with generous benefits...
  96. ncbi Will reference pricing address the health cost conundrum?
    John K Iglehart
    Health Aff (Millwood) 22:7-8. 2003
  97. ncbi Why incremental reforms will not solve the health care crisis
    Don McCanne
    Physicians for a National Health Program, Chicago, Ill, USA
    J Am Board Fam Pract 16:257-61. 2003
  98. ncbi Spousal surcharge programs--an overview
    Hudson A Peters
    Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Benefits Q 21:19-25. 2005
    ..This article explores the prevalence, plan design, financial implications, administrative and other considerations in implementing a spousal surcharge program...
  99. ncbi Reference pricing for drugs: is it compatible with U.S. health care?
    Panos Kanavos
    Harvard Medical School, USA
    Health Aff (Millwood) 22:16-30. 2003
    ..drugs, health insurance systems abroad have experimented in recent years with a novel form of patient cost sharing called "reference pricing...
  100. ncbi Impact of an annual dollar limit or "cap" on prescription drug benefits for Medicare patients
    Chien Wen Tseng
    Department of Family Practice and Community Health, University of Hawaii, and Pacific Health Research Institute, Honolulu, USA
    JAMA 290:222-7. 2003
    ..Annual dollar limits, or "caps," on drug benefits are common in Medicare managed care (Medicare + Choice) and have been part of several proposals for a national Medicare drug benefit...
  101. ncbi Consumer choice and tiered networks--two sides of the same coin?
    Allan Baumgarten
    Manag Care Q 11:54-5. 2003

Research Grants66

  1. Combination immunotherapy with gene modified CD4 and CD8 T cells and stem cells
    Carl H June; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of Medicine (Clinical Cell and Vaccine Production Facility and Human Immunology Core) and CFAR Cores to promote cost sharing and avoid duplication of resources...
  2. Health Systems, Quality of Care, and Outcomes in SLE
    Edward H Yelin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..insurance (Medicaid, Medicare, or private), form of insurance (managed care or fee-for-service), and extent of cost sharing and quality of care, after taking personal SES and extent of health care infrastructure into account;and, 5) ..
  3. Disparities in Cancer Screening: The Role of Medicaid Policy
    LINDSAY MARIE SABIK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..variation in eligibility between and within states, as well as the effect of physician payment and patient cost sharing on screening...
  4. A shared macromolecular X-ray diffraction system in Rochester
    Joseph E Wedekind; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We request a state-of-the-art system that will be maintained as a shared resource, and integrated with the goals of our existing NIH-funded strategic Centers whose primary mission is to improve public health. ..
  5. Space Renovation for New Research Center for the Neglected Diseases of Poverty
    John Williams; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..fully committed to expanding the neglected diseases of poverty research program and demonstrates this through cost sharing 31% ($7...
  6. Development of a Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device
    Robert Jarvik; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We are small, focused, efficient, and willing to accept considerable cost sharing to complete this program...
  7. Renovation and Infrastructure Upgrade of Laboratory Research Wing at Johns Hopkin
    Michael J Klag; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This project will help ensure that JHSPH continues to pioneer discovery that promotes the public's health, both now and in the future. ..
  8. Impacts of Cost Sharing and Echocardiography on Outpatient Care of Heart Failure
    JEROME JEFFREY FEDERSPIEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The results of these analyses will provide relevant data for both clinical and policy decision-making for patients with CHF. ..
  9. PacBio RS Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) DNA Sequencer
    Suzanne Sandmeyer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..With that funding and cost sharing, the IGB informatics pipeline was established as was a Cancer Center Bioinformatics group and last year the ..
  10. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Singaporeans
    Mark A Pereira; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The study has tremendous potential to improve our understanding of type 2 diabetes risk in Southeast Asians, leading to improved prevention efforts. ..
  11. Nurse Practitioners Follow-up: Mobile Technology, Perinatal Outcomes, &Charges
    JEAN L HANNAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to state public health services for low-income families;and the federal Medicaid law allowing states to impose cost sharing on families with children on Medicaid...
  12. Tanslating Research into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Legacy Study
    Carol M Mangione; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..During the Legacy Study, the 6 analyses proposed will continue to emphasize how benefit design, cost sharing, and co-morbidities such as depression may disproportionately affect the most vulnerable persons with diabetes...
  13. Improved Targeting and Assessment of Electrophysiology Intervention
    Henry R Halperin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hopkins University Departments of Medicine, Radiology, and Biomedical Engineering;and industrial partners (with cost sharing): Irvine Biomedical (clinical grade catheters), Hansen Medical (catheter manipulation system), and Imricor (..
  14. Mental Health/Disabilities(MHDD)Research Education Program
    Kerim M Munir; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..program faculty role models;(g) institutional supports for integration of research with academic timetables;(h) cost sharing mechanisms through time donated by faculty, coursework and sponsorship in scientific meetings (e.g...
  15. High Deductible Insurance: Impact on Breast Cancer Care and Outcomes
    James F Wharam; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Such high cost sharing levels could substantially reduce access to life-saving care, especially among underserved women such as the ..
  16. SHORT TERM TRAINING: HEALTH PROFESSIONAL STUDENTS
    Eugene B Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, the environment is ideal to support the goals of this NIDDK-supported medical student T35 program. ..
  17. An Extensible Resource for Genomic Analysis and Petascale Storage
    Harel Weinstein; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The institution has committed significant resources, including cost sharing, to this instrument that wil function as an essential tool for basic and translational biomedical research and ..
  18. Psychosocial Effects on Patient Adherence, Allostatic Load, and Chronic Disease
    Douglas W Roblin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  19. Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) (UL1)
    Thomas P Shanley; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Both accelerated options and intensive programs are available. Finally, a robust pilot program will disburse up to $8 million/yr in pilot funds, focusing on stimulating translational and interdisciplinary studies. ..
  20. Medicare Drug Benefits and High Cost Medications: Antipsychotics Under Part D
    Vicki Fung; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  21. Clinical and Social Implications of Cost Sharing for Cancer Drugs
    Yu Ning Wong; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Cost sharing between insurers and patients (though co-payments and deductibles) has been traditionally used to control costs ..
  22. The Impact of Emerging Health Insurance Designs on Diabetes Outcomes and Disparit
    Dennis Ross-Degnan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Results should help inform policy makers, patients, and physicians regarding optimal health plan benefit designs for patients with diabetes. ..
  23. Impact of Medicare Drug Coverage on Antidepressant Quality and Outcomes
    SEBASTIAN G SCHNEEWEISS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., to formulary, cost-sharing, and MTM programs) be made to improve the quality and outcomes of pharmacotherapies in susceptible and traditionally under-served elderly with depression. ..
  24. Issues in Medicare Part D Selection
    JULIA SAMANTHA SHOEMAKER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..choice in the context of Part D requires a simultaneous understanding of participation in its premium and cost sharing support program, the Low Income Subsidy (LIS)...
  25. GEMS: Geographic Enforcement Management Service for Liquor Control/Public Safety
    JOSEPH KABEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This should also improve affordability by potentially encouraging cost sharing among state and local law enforcement agencies...
  26. Family Members of Alcohol Patients: Utilization and Cost
    Constance M Weisner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It uses innovative IT methods and has significant clinical and policy implications for placing interventions in primary care, screening for family problems in pediatrics, and treating family members as part of AODD services. ..
  27. Mental Health Coverage in Health Care Reform
    Thomas G McGuire; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This proposal responds to Frances Collins'call to devote NIH research effort to benefit health care reform. ..
  28. Income Effects and Current Law Forecasts of Health Care Spending Growth
    Michael E Chernew; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The effect of existing beneficiary cost sharing has been of particular interest...
  29. Does Parental Health Insurance Loss Affect Children's Access to Care?
    Jennifer E DeVoe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The Oregon Health Plan (OHP), an innovative Medicaid expansion program, has recently implemented cost sharing measures that have led to the loss of coverage for thousands of Oregon parents...
  30. Medicare Part D Cost-Sharing and Treatment of Mental Disorders Among Disabled Dua
    Julie Marie Donohue; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  31. Cost-related Underuse of Medications and the Health of Older Adults
    Becky A Briesacher; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Discovering how optimal cost-sharing may improve medication adherence has significant implications for the health and welfare of an aging society that is increasingly dependent on medications. ..
  32. Cost-Sharing, Use, and Outcomes of Post-Acute Care in Medicare Advantage Plans
    Amal N Trivedi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  33. International Training/Research in Population and Health, Uganda
    Ronald H Gray; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..David Serwadda (Director MUIPH) and Dr. Ronald Gray PI (Robertson Professor of Reproductive Epidemiology, JHU). ..
  34. Implementation of Federal Mental Health Parity
    Colleen L Barry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., deductibles, cost sharing) and treatment limits (i.e...
  35. The Effect of Specialty Tier Placement on Enrollment and Utilization in Medicare
    Erin A Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  36. Natural Experiment of Value-Based Incentives for Preventive Services
    John Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..With several million person-years of data, we will have adequate power to detect even small changes in our outcomes. ..
  37. The effect of cost-sharing on health care utilization and health outcomes
    Fabian Duarte; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): What are the effects of cost sharing on health care utilization and health outcomes? While tremendous progress has been made on the answer to this question there remain some noticeable gaps in this ..
  38. Screening for Free: A Value-Based Insurance Design Natural Experiment
    John Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This study provides an opportunity to evaluate the largest VBID natural experiment to date, to examine the early effects of a major ACA provision on access to preventive care, and to inform future Medicare policy decisions. ..
  39. Community Research Center for Senior Health
    Alan B Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Evidence of local support, including cost sharing of Center expenses, demonstrates a local investment in the proposed Center...
  40. Parity and Addiction Act: Impact on Benefits, Use and Costs
    SUSAN LOUISE ETTNER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  41. Consequences of Drug Cost Sharing:A New Randomized Trial
    Sebastian Schneeweiss; Fiscal Year: 2006
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Differential drug cost sharing (DCS), a measure that increases patients' co-payments for more expensive drugs, is increasingly used by U.S. health plans to contain drug costs...
  42. Effects of changes in Medicaid physician fees on use of preventive care
    Adam J Atherly; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..all USPSTF services covered in all states and substantial differences in provider reimbursement and beneficiary cost sharing. This study will examine the effect of the previous increases in physician fees on the use of USPSTF ..
  43. Innovations in the Science of Public Reporting of Provider Performance
    Susan M Paddock; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and need to communicate the differential "value" of providers to consumers given efforts to increase consumer cost sharing and selection of high value services and providers, there has been little progress in developing a value metric ..
  44. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL COST SHARING IN THE ELDERLY
    Stephen Soumerai; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Little is known about the intended effects of differential drug cost sharing (DCS), an increasingly common strategy to discourage "unnecessary" use of newer, expensive medications in most HMOs and government insurance programs...
  45. COMPLETION OF A CENTRALIZED ANIMAL CARE PROGRAM
    GLEN SPAULDING; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Therefore, upon completion of this facility, and the consolidation of the TUSVM program, we plan to obtain separate AAALAC accreditation and USDA licensure...
  46. High Deductible Health Plans: Substance Abuse Service Use and Cost Trajectories
    Cynthia I Campbell; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Policy implications include changing benefit designs to include SU treatment as a high value health care service, with low co-payments, or embedding SU treatment services in primary care. ..
  47. Decomposition of Moral Hazard
    John A Nyman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..insured, estimate the portion of total spending that would have been paid for by the insurer (excluding cost sharing), (4) for each uninsured, use the coefficients from step 3 to estimate the amount of spending paid for by the ..
  48. Estimating Efficient Moral Hazard: Spending Where Willingness-to-Pay Exceeds Cost
    John A Nyman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..insured, estimate the portion of total spending that would have been paid for by the insurer (excluding cost sharing), (4) for each uninsured, use the coefficients from step 3 to estimate the amount of spending paid for by the ..
  49. Impact of Integrated Health IT on Quality and Resource Use for Diabetic Patients
    Mary Reed; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  50. Private Insurance and Prescription Outcomes for Children
    Dana P Goldman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In this project, we will take a first step in investigating how parents respond to private insurance cost sharing regarding health services use of their children by studying the impact of prescription drug coverage on ..
  51. Dementia and Disability in Thai Elderly
    Jeffrey Cummings; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our program is ambitious and substantial cost sharing will be undertaken by Mahidol University...
  52. Pathogen diagnostic products--Biodefense developments
    Lawrence Blyn; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The clinical diagnostic system developed here will be a significant advance in human clinical diagnostics that will simultaneously provide national biodefense surveillance on an unprecedented scale. ..
  53. EFFECT OF MEDICAID DRUG COPAYMENTS ON OUTCOMES AND COSTS
    Neil Jordan; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..drugs has been a cost-containment strategy implemented by states, and studies suggest that beneficiary cost sharing has led to a decrease in prescription drug utilization...
  54. Modeling Adherence to Psychotherapy for Depression
    Gregory Simon; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposed research is one component of an ongoing comprehensive program to understand and increase consumer demand for effective depression treatment. ..
  55. CENTER FOR CANCER SIGNALING NETWORKS
    Walter Atwood; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will continue to improve these cores to the point where they can be independently supported by a combination of user fees, individual and program-type grant support, and University cost-sharing when needed. ..
  56. MANAGED MENTAL HEALTH CARE & PATTERNS OF UTILIZATION
    Barbara Dickey; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..cases, these strategies are alternatives to financially-based strategies to reduce costs, such as demand-side cost sharing in the form of day limits on covered services or supply-side cost sharing in the form of prospective payment...
  57. QUALITY OF CHRONIC EYE CARE UNDER MANAGED CARE
    Jose Escarce; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..utilization of eye care services. The managed care features assessed by the project will include patient cost sharing, type of eye care provider, provider payment method and practice arrangement, and utilization and quality ..
  58. Medicare Advantage?
    Lauren Nicholas; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..MMC enrollees accept network and utilization restrictions in exchange for additional benefits and reduced cost sharing compared to fee-for-service Medicare (FFS)...
  59. Islet Cell Distribution Coordinating Center
    Joyce Niland; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..provide partial cost recovery to islet isolation facilities for islets distributed and investigators will have cost sharing charges for the islets received...
  60. University of Iowa Clinical and Translational Science Program (UL1)
    Gary E Rosenthal; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The application has the support of all relevant health care entities within the State of Iowa. ..
  61. Medicare Study of Cost-sharing Ramifications and Prescription Drug Benefits
    John Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This study will be the first to examine the clinical and economic effects of new Medicare Part D plans, using comprehensive automated data from before and after the introduction of Part D, for a well- defined population. ..
  62. Prescription Drug Cost-sharing: Affordability/Safety
    John Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This study will be the first to address these issues within a broad sample of Medicare beneficiaries. ..
  63. Illumina Genome Analyzer II
    David Bishop; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  64. Remibursement Limits, Antidepressants, and Outcomes
    Philip Wang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We will also use other national and international forums to inform ongoing debates over drug coverage for vulnerable elderly patients with depression. ..
  65. Remibursement Limits, Antidepressants, and Outcomes
    Sebastian Schneeweiss; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We will also use other national and international forums to inform ongoing debates over drug coverage for vulnerable elderly patients with depression. ..
  66. Use of Affordable Open Source Systems by Rural/Small-Practice Health Professional
    LAURIE ANN WILLIAMS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If successful, our findings would suggest a model in which states or regions support the centralized servers and the IT professionals who administer and maintain the servers, likely with cost sharing by the medical practitioners.