Summary: Small circumscribed melanoses resembling, but differing histologically from, freckles. The concept includes senile lentigo ('liver spots') and nevoid lentigo (nevus spilus, lentigo simplex) and may also occur in association with multiple congenital defects or congenital syndromes (e.g., Peutz-Jeghers syndrome).

Top Publications

  1. Redbord K, Hanke C. Case reports: clearance of lentigines in Japanese men with the long-pulsed alexandrite laser. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:653-6 pubmed
    ..No recurrences were noted to date. The long-pulsed Alexandrite 755-nm laser is a novel, safe, and effective treatment of solar lentigines in Japanese patients. ..
  2. Kovacs D, Cardinali G, Aspite N, Cota C, Luzi F, Bellei B, et al. Role of fibroblast-derived growth factors in regulating hyperpigmentation of solar lentigo. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:1020-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Solar lentigo (SL) is characterized by hyperpigmented lesions occurring on photodamaged skin areas...
  3. Raziee M, Balighi K, Shabanzadeh Dehkordi H, Robati R. Efficacy and safety of cryotherapy vs. trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of solar lentigo. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:316-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of cryotherapy compared with TCA 33% on solar lentigines of the back of the hands (SLBH) in patients presenting to dermatologic clinic of our hospital...
  4. Tadokoro T, Bonte F, Archambault J, Cauchard J, Neveu M, Ozawa K, et al. Whitening efficacy of plant extracts including orchid extracts on Japanese female skin with melasma and lentigo senilis. J Dermatol. 2010;37:522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..vitamin C derivative formulated with the same excipient, in Japanese female adult volunteers with melasma and/or lentigo senilis. The ethics committee of Osaka National Hospital approved the protocol of the study...
  5. Iriyama S, Ono T, Aoki H, Amano S. Hyperpigmentation in human solar lentigo is promoted by heparanase-induced loss of heparan sulfate chains at the dermal-epidermal junction. J Dermatol Sci. 2011;64:223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Heparan sulfate and blood vessels in human pigmented skin, solar lentigo, and non-pigmented skin were evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry...
  6. Unver N, Freyschmidt Paul P, Horster S, Wenck H, Stäb F, Blatt T, et al. Alterations in the epidermal-dermal melanin axis and factor XIIIa melanophages in senile lentigo and ageing skin. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155:119-28 pubmed
    Senile lentigo (SL) is a pigmentation disorder that occurs predominantly on the dorsa of the hands, the forearms and the face; its incidence increases with age...
  7. Awaya A, Watanabe K, Kato S. Individuals exhibiting conspicuous nevi (lentigo simplex) are resistant to allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis (pollinosis), but those who do not show increased susceptibility to pollinosis. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47:101-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, individuals exhibiting conspicuous nevi are resistant to pollinosis, but those who do not show increased susceptibility to pollinosis. ..
  8. Kadono S, Manaka I, Kawashima M, Kobayashi T, Imokawa G. The role of the epidermal endothelin cascade in the hyperpigmentation mechanism of lentigo senilis. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:571-7 pubmed
    Little is known about the mechanism(s) underlying hyperpigmentation in lentigo senilis...
  9. Tanaka M, Sawada M, Kobayashi K. Key points in dermoscopic differentiation between lentigo maligna and solar lentigo. J Dermatol. 2011;38:53-8 pubmed publisher
    A clinical diagnosis of lentigo maligna at an early stage is often difficult even for experienced dermatologists...

More Information


  1. Hafner C, Stoehr R, van Oers J, Zwarthoff E, Hofstaedter F, Landthaler M, et al. FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of solar lentigo. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:546-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of these mutations in both SL and SK suggests a common genetic basis. Our findings furthermore substantiate previous speculations that UV exposure may be a causative factor for FGFR3 and PIK3CA mutations in human skin. ..
  2. Hattori H, Kawashima M, Ichikawa Y, Imokawa G. The epidermal stem cell factor is over-expressed in lentigo senilis: implication for the mechanism of hyperpigmentation. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:1256-65 pubmed
    ..endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) cascade is involved in the mechanism of hyperpigmentation in lentigo senilis (LS) lesions...
  3. Hidalgo García Y, Raya Aguado C, Manjón Haces J, Perez Oliva N. Generalized "sunbed lentigines" in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Acta Derm Venereol. 2004;84:162-3 pubmed
  4. Debarbieux S, Hospod V, Depaepe L, Balme B, Poulalhon N, Thomas L. Perioperative confocal microscopy of the nail matrix in the management of in situ or minimally invasive subungual melanomas. Br J Dermatol. 2012;167:828-36 pubmed publisher
    ..included nine consecutive patients who underwent a matricial biopsy for an acquired melanonychia (one benign lentigo and eight melanomas)...
  5. Bolshinsky V, Lin M, Serpell J, Leung M, Wolfe R, McLean C, et al. Frequency of residual melanoma in wide local excision (WLE) specimens after complete excisional biopsy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74:102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..01) and tumor location (odds ratio 7.3; 95% CI 2.0-26.6, P < .01). On multivariate analysis, lentigo maligna was independently associated with melanoma remaining in WLE specimens (odds ratio 2.7; 95% CI 1.0-7...
  6. Wakabayashi Y, Nakajima H, Imokawa G. Abrogating effect of N-linked carbohydrate modifiers on the stem cell factor and endothelin-1-stimulated epidermal pigmentation in human epidermal equivalents. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;69:215-28 pubmed publisher
  7. Sarkozy A, Conti E, Seripa D, Digilio M, Grifone N, Tandoi C, et al. Correlation between PTPN11 gene mutations and congenital heart defects in Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes. J Med Genet. 2003;40:704-8 pubmed
  8. Wick M, Patterson J. Cutaneous melanocytic lesions: selected problem areas. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005;124 Suppl:S52-83 pubmed
  9. Star P, Guitera P. Lentigo Maligna, Macules of the Face, and Lesions on Sun-Damaged Skin: Confocal Makes the Difference. Dermatol Clin. 2016;34:421-429 pubmed publisher
    Distinguishing lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) from background pigmented non-melanoma lesions is challenging...
  10. Aoki H, Moro O, Tagami H, Kishimoto J. Gene expression profiling analysis of solar lentigo in relation to immunohistochemical characteristics. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:1214-23 pubmed
    Solar lentigo appears as dark brown spots that occur on sun-exposed areas and is considered to be a hallmark of aged skin...
  11. Ho S, Yeung C, Chan N, Shek S, Chan H. A comparison of Q-switched and long-pulsed alexandrite laser for the treatment of freckles and lentigines in oriental patients. Lasers Surg Med. 2011;43:108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..LP Alexandrite is quick and effective, and carries a lower risk of adverse effects than QS Alexandrite, for the removal of freckles and lentigines in darker skin types. ..
  12. Kim N, Choi Y, Seon H, Lee J, Yun S. Anatomic mapping and clinicopathologic analysis of benign acral melanocytic neoplasms: A comparison between adults and children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77:735-745 pubmed publisher
    ..The lesion diameters were <5.7 mm in all acquired lesions. Histopathologically, we diagnosed 69 lentigo simplex, 201 junctional, 114 compound, 8 intradermal, and 4 blue nevi...
  13. Cardinali G, Kovacs D, Picardo M. [Mechanisms underlying post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: lessons from solar lentigo]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012;139 Suppl 3:S96-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a moderate increase of KGF and a high induction of its receptor have been shown in solar lentigo lesions, suggesting the involvement of this growth factor in the onset of the hyperpigmented spots...
  14. Genova P, Sorce M, Cabibi D, Genova G, Gebbia V, Galanti D, et al. Gastric and Rectal Metastases from Malignant Melanoma Presenting with Hypochromic Anemia and Treated with Immunotherapy. Case Rep Oncol Med. 2017;2017:2079068 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient had a medical history positive for malignant lentigo melanoma of the occipital region of the scalp and early stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and prostatic ..
  15. Gautschi M, Oberholzer P, Baumgartner M, Gadaldi K, Yawalkar N, Hunger R. Prognostic markers in lentigo maligna patients treated with imiquimod cream: A long-term follow-up study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74:81-87.e1 pubmed publisher
    More data are needed to define factors that predict long-term success after imiquimod therapy for lentigo maligna (LM)...
  16. Won K, Jo S, Lee Y, Chang S. Radotinib-induced lentiginosis: a report of an adverse cutaneous reaction associated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2016;41:162-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is in contrast to previous reports analysing the mechanisms of previously reported tyrosine kinase inhibitors inhibiting c-KIT. ..
  17. Ko C, Sarantopoulos G, Pai G, Binder S. Longitudinal melanonychia of the toenails with presence of Medlar bodies on biopsy. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:63-5 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of Medlar bodies causing pigmented streaks in the toenails. ..
  18. Gambichler T, Scholl L, Bechara F, Stockfleth E, Stucker M. Worse outcome for patients with recurrent melanoma after negative sentinel lymph biopsy as compared to sentinel-positive patients. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016;42:1420-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recurrence in SLN negative patients was found in 50 (7.7%) cases. Tumor subtypes such as invasive lentigo maligna melanoma and acral melanoma (odds ratio 15.2, P = 0.015) and tumor thickness > 2 mm (odds ratio 3...
  19. Stankiewicz K, Chuang G, Avram M. Lentigines, laser, and melanoma: a case series and discussion. Lasers Surg Med. 2012;44:112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinguishing a benign lentigo from other pigmented lesions can sometimes be challenging, even for a trained dermatologist...
  20. Brînzea A, Nedelcu R, Turcu G, Antohe M, Zurac S, Ion D. TIMPs expression in lentigo maligna÷lentigo maligna melanoma versus aged skin - a review of the literature and personal experience. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2017;58:717-721 pubmed
    ..MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are key molecules involved in EMT about whose expression in lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) little has been studied so far...
  21. DeMarco L, Stratakis C, Boson W, Jakbovitz O, Carson E, Andrade L, et al. Sporadic cardiac myxomas and tumors from patients with Carney complex are not associated with activating mutations of the Gs alpha gene. Hum Genet. 1996;98:185-8 pubmed
    ..The significance of these mutations in the myocardium of asymptomatic patients with McCune-Albright syndrome remains to be determined. ..
  22. Arndt K. By the way, doctor. I have sun spots on my hands. When and why are freezing treatments a good idea?. Harv Health Lett. 2004;29:8 pubmed
  23. Tjiu J, Lin P, Wu W, Cheng Y, Chiu H, Thong H, et al. SLURP1 mutation-impaired T-cell activation in a family with mal de Meleda. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with MDM with the homozygous SLURP-1 G86R mutation may have an impaired T-cell activation. The presence of wild-type SLURP-1 is essential for normal T-cell activation. ..
  24. Blum A. [How often does a malignant lentigo develop from a precursor lesion?]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004;129:1943 pubmed
  25. Nishizaka T, Nomura T, Sano T, Higuchi K, Nagatomo F, Ishihara A. Hyperbaric oxygen improves ultraviolet B irradiation-induced melanin pigmentation and diminishes senile spot size. Skin Res Technol. 2011;17:332-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that exposure to hyperbaric oxygen used in this study accelerates both the fading in melanin pigmentation and the decrease in senile spot size. ..
  26. Lodish M, Stratakis C. The differential diagnosis of familial lentiginosis syndromes. Fam Cancer. 2011;10:481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Recognition of cutaneous markers associated with these rare familial cancer syndromes provides the opportunity to pursue early surveillance for malignancies, as well as genetic counseling. ..
  27. Kawada A, Asai M, Kameyama H, Sangen Y, Aragane Y, Tezuka T, et al. Videomicroscopic and histopathological investigation of intense pulsed light therapy for solar lentigines. J Dermatol Sci. 2002;29:91-6 pubmed
    ..Intense pulsed light with absorption spectrum for melanin induced injury of melanin-containing epidermal cells via photothermal effects, suggesting that intense pulsed light may be a new modality for solar lentigines. ..
  28. Greveling K, Wakkee M, Nijsten T, van den Bos R, Hollestein L. Epidemiology of Lentigo Maligna and Lentigo Maligna Melanoma in the Netherlands, 1989-2013. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1955-1960 pubmed publisher
    b>Lentigo maligna (LM) is considered a precursor to LM melanoma (LMM). We assessed trends in LM and LMM incidence rates between 1989 and 2013 in the Netherlands, and estimated the risk of an LMM after LM...
  29. Jin H, Kim J, Kim G, Song M, Kim H, Ko H, et al. Diagnostic criteria for and clinical review of melanonychia in Korean patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74:1121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1%), nail matrix nevus (21.8%), trauma-induced pigmentation (14.5%), nail apparatus lentigo (11.6%), and ethnic-type nail pigmentation (8.0%). Melanoma was diagnosed in 6.2% of patients...
  30. Brownell J, Wang S, Tsoukas M. Phototherapy in cosmetic dermatology. Clin Dermatol. 2016;34:623-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These modalities can be used to treat many common cosmetic conditions, including acne vulgaris, solar lentigo, and melasma. Phototherapy is considered a safe and effective option in the treatment of many of these disorders. ..
  31. Patrizi A, Tabanelli M, Grzeschik K, Misciali C, Neri I, Happle R. Multiple basal cell carcinomas in a 38-year-old woman with Goltz syndrome. Dermatology. 2012;224:97-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a single case experience, and especially the molecular results need confirmation and validation by other groups involved in the diagnosis. ..
  32. Gelli M, Grenzi L, Ricci C, Gardini S, Piana S. Multifocal melanoma arising on nevus spilus. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:1380-1 pubmed
  33. Kim D, Hyun D, Piquette R, Beaumont C, Germain L, Larouche D. 27.12?MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:6016943 pubmed publisher
    ..Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma...
  34. Serarslan G. Partial unilateral lentiginosis with ipsilateral ocular nevus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:281-3 pubmed
  35. Bardazzi F, Balestri R, Antonucci A, Spadola G. Lentigines within nevus depigmentosus: a rare collateral effect of UVB therapy?. Pediatr Dermatol. 2008;25:272-4 pubmed publisher
  36. Kono T, Chan H, Groff W, Sakurai H, Takeuchi M, Yamaki T, et al. Long-pulse pulsed dye laser delivered with compression for treatment of facial lentigines. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:945-50 pubmed
    ..The compression technique allows the traditional "vascular" LPDL to be used for treating a variety of pigmented lesions. ..
  37. Bhidayasiri R, Pulst S. Segmental unilateral lentiginosis in generalized neurofibromatosis type 1. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:1331-2 pubmed
  38. Noblesse E, Nizard C, Cario Andre M, Lepreux S, Pain C, Schnebert S, et al. Skin ultrastructure in senile lentigo. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;19:95-100 pubmed
    Senile lentigo is a common component of photoaged skin. It is characterized by hyperpigmented macules which affect chronically irradiated skin mostly after the age of 50...
  39. Mendonca C, Holmes S, Burden A. Absent lentigines in psoriatic plaques. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147:1044-5 pubmed
  40. Chen H, Liao Y. Coexistence of congenital linear punctate keratoderma and nevus depigmentosus with lentigines: a case of twin spotting?. Acta Derm Venereol. 2004;84:408-10 pubmed
  41. Laguna C, Pitarch G, Roche E, Fortea J. [Atypical pigmented penile macules]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2006;97:470-2 pubmed
    ..However histopathologic study solves the problem because genital melanotic macules show no melanocytic proliferation nor melanocytic atypia. ..
  42. Palleschi G, Torchia D, Urso C. Partial unilateral lentiginosis with mixed lentigo/jentigo histological pattern. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:605-6 pubmed
  43. Wolf R, Orion E, Davidovici B. Acral lentigines: a new paraneoplastic syndrome. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:168-70 pubmed publisher
  44. Demir S, Karakaya Z, Sagay S. A rare cause of dyspnoea: the LEOPARD syndrome. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63:527-9 pubmed
    ..Based on the findings, the patient was diagnosed with the LEOPARD syndrome...
  45. Rosenbach A, Lee S, Johr R. Treatment of medium-brown solar lentigines using an alexandrite laser designed for hair reduction. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:547-8 pubmed
  46. Cardinali G, Kovacs D, Picardo M. Mechanisms underlying post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: lessons from solar lentigo. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012;139 Suppl 4:S148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a moderate increase of KGF and a high induction of its receptor have been shown in solar lentigo lesions, suggesting the involvement of this growth factor in the onset of the hyperpigmented spots...
  47. Hafner C, Kamenisch Y, Landthaler M, Berneburg M. Distinct profile of the mitochondrial DNA common deletion in benign skin lesions. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:151-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the amount of the common deletion is significantly different in benign skin lesions and raise further questions regarding the pathogenesis of SL and its possible role as a precursor lesion of SK. ..
  48. Kang S, Goldfarb M, Weiss J, Metz R, Hamilton T, Voorhees J, et al. Assessment of adapalene gel for the treatment of actinic keratoses and lentigines: a randomized trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:83-90 pubmed
    ..Adapalene gel 0.1% and 0.3% were well tolerated and improved actinic keratoses, solar lentigines, and other features of photodamaged skin. ..
  49. Shin M, Jeong K, Oh I, Choe B, Lee M. Clinical features of idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis in 646 subjects and association with other aspects of photoaging. Int J Dermatol. 2011;50:798-805 pubmed publisher
    ..of dermatoses related to aging was found to be significantly associated with IGH, including numerous solar lentigo [odds ratio (OR) = 5.95] and xerosis (OR = 2.40)...
  50. Thomas N, Edmiston S, Alexander A, Groben P, Parrish E, Kricker A, et al. Association Between NRAS and BRAF Mutational Status and Melanoma-Specific Survival Among Patients With Higher-Risk Primary Melanoma. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1:359-68 pubmed
    ..5 [0.3-0.8] [vs <50 years]), superficial spreading subtype (nodular, 0.5 [0.2-1.0]; lentigo maligna, 0.4 [0.2-0.7]; and unclassified/other, 0.2 [0.1-0...
  51. Longo C, Ragazzi M, Rajadhyaksha M, Nehal K, Bennassar A, Pellacani G, et al. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Confocal Microscopy for Dermatologic and Mohs Surgeons. Dermatol Clin. 2016;34:497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Although in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy is an add-on tool for lentigo maligna mapping, fluorescence confocal microscopy is far superior for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell ..
  52. Stratakis C, Matyakhina L, Courkoutsakis N, Patronas N, Voutetakis A, Stergiopoulos S, et al. Pathology and molecular genetics of the pituitary gland in patients with the 'complex of spotty skin pigmentation, myxomas, endocrine overactivity and schwannomas' (Carney complex). Front Horm Res. 2004;32:253-64 pubmed
  53. Costa L, Belinchón I, Betlloch I, Pérez Crespo M, Mataix J. Multiple lentigines arising in resolving psoriatic plaques after treatment with etanercept. Dermatol Online J. 2008;14:11 pubmed
    ..We consider that the mechanism of production of lentigines is related to psoriasis itself and not to the therapy used. ..