Summary: Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.

Top Publications

  1. Hale E, Stein J, Ben Porat L, Panageas K, Eichenbaum M, Marghoob A, et al. Association of melanoma and neurocutaneous melanocytosis with large congenital melanocytic naevi--results from the NYU-LCMN registry. Br J Dermatol. 2005;152:512-7 pubmed
  2. Kingsley E, Manceau M, Wiley C, Hoekstra H. Melanism in peromyscus is caused by independent mutations in agouti. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6435 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that melanism has evolved independently in these populations through mutations in the same gene, and suggest that melanism produced by mutations in genes other than Mc1r may be more common than previously thought...
  3. Dai F, Qiao L, Tong X, Cao C, Chen P, Chen J, et al. Mutations of an arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase, Bm-iAANAT, are responsible for silkworm melanism mutant. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:19553-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a role for arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferases in color pattern mutation in Lepidoptera...
  4. Winkler P, Bartoe J, Quinones C, Venta P, Petersen Jones S. Exclusion of eleven candidate genes for ocular melanosis in Cairn terriers. J Negat Results Biomed. 2013;12:6 pubmed publisher
    Ocular melanosis of Cairn terrier dogs is an inherited defect characterized by progressive pigmentation of both eyes which can result in glaucoma and blindness...
  5. Goldberg D, Berlin A, Phelps R. Histologic and ultrastructural analysis of melasma after fractional resurfacing. Lasers Surg Med. 2008;40:134-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-treatment ultrastructural changes are consistent with an elimination process and may help to explain clinical improvement following laser treatment. ..
  6. Sceppa J, Smith B, Marghoob A, Gottlieb G. Melanosis of the areola and nipple. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59:S33-4 pubmed publisher
  7. Neeley M, Pearce F, Collawn S. Successful treatment of malar dermal melasma with a fractional ablative CO? laser in a patient with type V skin. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2010;12:258-60 pubmed publisher
    ..After treatment, clinical improvement was achieved. The fractional ablative CO? laser is a potentially safe and effective modality for the treatment of dermal melasma in Fitzpatrick type V skin. ..
  8. Kim J, Hwang J, Choi W, Lee B, Park J, Kim J, et al. Pseudomelanosis ilei associated with ingestion of charcoal: case report and review of literature. Dig Endosc. 2010;22:56-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanosis or pseudomelanosis of the gastrointestinal tract refers to an accumulation of pigment deposits in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Pigmentation can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract...
  9. Schreml S, Gruendobler B, Schreml J, Bayer M, Ladoyanni E, Prantl L, et al. Neurocutaneous melanosis in association with Dandy-Walker malformation: case report and literature review. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33:611-4 pubmed publisher
    Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare congenital noninheritable phacomatosis characterized by large and/or numerous cutaneous congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) in combination with melanocytic leptomeningeal tumours...

More Information


  1. Lee T, Lee S, Park J, Park D, Park J, Kim H, et al. Melanosis ilei associated with chronic ingestion of edible charcoal. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:1174; discussion 1175 pubmed publisher
  2. Cestari T, Arellano I, Hexsel D, Ortonne J. Melasma in Latin America: options for therapy and treatment algorithm. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23:760-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Sun avoidance measures and broad spectrum sunscreens with high SPF are fundamental for the successful management of the disease. ..
  3. Ramaswamy V, Delaney H, Haque S, Marghoob A, Khakoo Y. Spectrum of central nervous system abnormalities in neurocutaneous melanocytosis. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012;54:563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to define the spectrum of central nervous system abnormalities in children with neurocutaneous melanocytosis...
  4. Giusto D, Jakate S. Pseudomelanosis duodeni: associated with multiple clinical conditions and unpredictable iron stainability - a case series. Endoscopy. 2008;40:165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..History of oral iron was present in 76 % of patients, but other clinical conditions consistently associated were hypertension in 88 %, end stage renal disease in 59 %, and diabetes mellitus in 35 % of patients. ..
  5. Chiu H, Hu S, Ke C, Cheng S. Dermoscopy identifies histopathologically indiscernible malignant lesion of atypical melanosis of the foot, an early lesion of acral lentiginous melanoma in situ. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:979-83 pubmed publisher
  6. Trelles M, Velez M, Gold M. The treatment of melasma with topical creams alone, CO2 fractional ablative resurfacing alone, or a combination of the two: a comparative study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2010;9:315-22 pubmed
    ..001 for both). The fractional CO2 laser and topical cream regimen produced good, well-maintained results in melasma treatment compared with the monotherapy groups. ..
  7. Hernández Barrera R, Torres Alvarez B, Castanedo Cazares J, Oros Ovalle C, Moncada B. Solar elastosis and presence of mast cells as key features in the pathogenesis of melasma. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33:305-8 pubmed publisher
    ..145 +/- 57%, P = 0.04). Melasma could be a result of a cumulative sun exposure, in a microenvironment of cutaneous photoageing in which inflammatory cells, particularly mast cells, play a key role. ..
  8. Scattolin M, Lin J, Peruchi M, Rocha A, Masruha M, Vilanova L. Neurocutaneous melanosis: follow-up and literature review. J Neuroradiol. 2011;38:313-8 pubmed publisher
    Neurocutaneous melanosis is a rare, congenital, non-inherited syndrome characterized by numerous and/or large congenital nevi with intracranial leptomeningeal melanocytosis...
  9. Miot L, Miot H, Silva M, Marques M. [Physiopathology of melasma]. An Bras Dermatol. 2009;84:623-35 pubmed
    ..The authors discuss the main aspects associated with skin pigmentation and the development of melasma. ..
  10. Freeman H. "Melanosis" in the small and large intestine. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:4296-9 pubmed
    ..Pigment may also be detected in the small intestine. Although labeled as melanosis, electron microscopy and X-ray analytical methods have provided evidence that this pigment is not melanin at all,..
  11. Wanitphakdeedecha R, Manuskiatti W, Siriphukpong S, Chen T. Treatment of melasma using variable square pulse Er:YAG laser resurfacing. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35:475-81; discussion 481-2 pubmed publisher
    ..VSP Er:YAG laser resurfacing effectively but temporarily improved epidermal-type melasma. Recurrence was observed after the treatment was discontinued. ..
  12. Wang Z, Gao J, Zi S, Yang M, Du P, Cui L. Aberrant expression of sonic hedgehog pathway in colon cancer and melanosis coli. J Dig Dis. 2013;14:417-24 pubmed publisher
    To determine the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway correlated with the development of colon cancer and melanosis coli...
  13. Petersen Jones S, Mentzer A, Dubielzig R, Render J, Steficek B, Kiupel M. Ocular melanosis in the Cairn Terrier: histopathological description of the condition, and immunohistological and ultrastructural characterization of the characteristic pigment-laden cells. Vet Ophthalmol. 2008;11:260-8 pubmed publisher
    To describe the microscopic features and lineage of proliferating/infiltrating pigmented cells in ocular melanosis of Cairn Terriers...
  14. Shah K. The risk of melanoma and neurocutaneous melanosis associated with congenital melanocytic nevi. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2010;29:159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..the context of multiple satellite melanocytic nevi, are also associated with the development of neurocutaneous melanosis, which may result in neurologic and neurodevelopmental sequelae and is associated with a significant risk of ..
  15. Yousuf A, Misbahuddin M, Rahman M. Secretion of arsenic, cholesterol, vitamin E, and zinc from the site of arsenical melanosis and leucomelanosis in skin. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011;49:374-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanosis and leucomelanosis with or without keratosis are the earliest symptoms of arsenicosis...
  16. Kinsler V, Thomas A, Ishida M, Bulstrode N, Loughlin S, Hing S, et al. Multiple congenital melanocytic nevi and neurocutaneous melanosis are caused by postzygotic mutations in codon 61 of NRAS. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:2229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that single postzygotic NRAS mutations are responsible for multiple CMN and associated neurological lesions in the majority of cases. ..
  17. Al Aboosi M, Abalkhail A, Kasim O, Al Khatib A, Qarqaz F, Todd D, et al. Friction melanosis: a clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study in Jordanian patients. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:261-4 pubmed
    Friction melanosis (FM) is an acquired pigmentary disorder mainly affecting young people. The primary skin regions affected are located over the osseous prominences, especially the clavicular zone and upper back...
  18. Willems M, van Buuren H, de Krijger R. Anthranoid self-medication causing rapid development of melanosis coli. Neth J Med. 2003;61:22-4 pubmed
    It is widely known that long-term use of anthranoid-containing laxatives is the cause of melanosis coli...
  19. Yang S, Xu S, Xiao F, Du W, Hao J, Wang H, et al. Prevalence and familial risk of ephelides in Han Chinese adolescents. Arch Dermatol Res. 2008;300:87-90 pubmed
    ..61-7.18, P < 0.001). Our study provided the first information on the prevalence of ephelides in Chinese adolescents and suggests that familial factors are important in determining individual susceptibility to ephelides. ..
  20. Moin A, Jabery Z, Fallah N. Prevalence and awareness of melasma during pregnancy. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:285-8 pubmed
    ..They had a low level of awareness of the etiology of melasma. There is a need for educational programs on the etiology and prevention of melasma in Iranian women. ..
  21. Kang W, Yoon K, Lee E, Kim J, Lee K, Yim H, et al. Melasma: histopathological characteristics in 56 Korean patients. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:228-37 pubmed
    ..Melasma is characterized by epidermal hyperpigmentation, possibly caused both by an increased number of melanocytes and by an increased activity of melanogenic enzymes overlying dermal changes caused by solar radiation. ..
  22. Hoekstra H, Nachman M. Different genes underlie adaptive melanism in different populations of rock pocket mice. Mol Ecol. 2003;12:1185-94 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that adaptive melanism has arisen at least twice in C. intermedius and that these similar phenotypic changes have a different genetic basis. ..
  23. Nachman M, Hoekstra H, D Agostino S. The genetic basis of adaptive melanism in pocket mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5268-73 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, another melanic population of these mice on a different lava flow shows no association with Mc1r mutations, indicating that adaptive dark color has evolved independently in this species through changes at different genes. ..
  24. Pe er J, Frucht Pery J. The treatment of primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia by topical Mitomycin C. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:229-34 pubmed
    To report our results of 12 consecutive patients with conjunctival primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia who were treated by topical Mitomycin C (MMC). Retrospective interventional consecutive case series...
  25. Foster R, Williams M, Barkovich A, Hoffman W, Mathes S, Frieden I. Giant congenital melanocytic nevi: the significance of neurocutaneous melanosis in neurologically asymptomatic children. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;107:933-41 pubmed
    ..characterized by central nervous system involvement, termed leptomeningeal melanocytosis or neurocutaneous melanosis. Although symptomatic neurocutaneous melanosis is rare, we previously reported distinct magnetic resonance (MR) ..
  26. Rokhsar C, Fitzpatrick R. The treatment of melasma with fractional photothermolysis: a pilot study. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:1645-50 pubmed
    ..Fractional resurfacing affords a new treatment algorithm for the treatment of melasma that combines decreased risk and downtime with significant efficacy. This treatment modality deserves further exploration to maximize benefits. ..
  27. Engelhardt P, Hohlbrugger G, Riedl C. [Melanosis of the urinary bladder--a case report with 10 years of follow-up and review of literature]. Aktuelle Urol. 2006;37:222-4 pubmed
    ..We report for the first time a case of solitary melanosis of the urinary bladder with a follow-up of more than 10 years...
  28. Kadonaga J, Barkovich A, Edwards M, Frieden I. Neurocutaneous melanosis in association with the Dandy-Walker complex. Pediatr Dermatol. 1992;9:37-43 pubmed
    An infant had a giant congenital nevus, neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM), and a Dandy-Walker malformation of the brain...
  29. Gupta A, Gover M, Nouri K, Taylor S. The treatment of melasma: a review of clinical trials. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:1048-65 pubmed
    ..Chemical peels, laser treatments, and intense pulsed light therapy are additional therapeutic modalities that have been used to treat melasma. ..
  30. Schafer T, Merkl J, Klemm E, Wichmann H, Ring J. The epidemiology of nevi and signs of skin aging in the adult general population: Results of the KORA-survey 2000. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1490-6 pubmed
    ..In contrast, common and atypical nevi and ephelides decreased significantly with age. Signs of skin aging are frequent and increase, in contrast to common and atypical nevi, with age. ..
  31. Albayram S, Urger E, Oz B, Kafadar A, Islak C, Kocer N. MR Imaging of pial melanosis secondary to a posterior fossa melanotic ependymoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26:804-8 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence of hemosiderin in tumor cells and in interstitial spaces. Pial melanin accumulation secondary to a posterior fossa melanotic ependymoma explained our MR findings...
  32. Victor F, Gelber J, Rao B. Melasma: a review. J Cutan Med Surg. 2004;8:97-102 pubmed
    ..Randomized controlled trials involving larger numbers of patients and comparing treatments, as well as studying combination therapies, would be beneficial. ..
  33. Caceres A, Trejos H. Neurocutaneous melanosis with associated Dandy-Walker complex. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:67-72 pubmed
    The authors report the case of a child with neurocutaneous melanosis associated with a Dandy-Walker complex...
  34. Espinal Perez L, Moncada B, Castanedo Cazares J. A double-blind randomized trial of 5% ascorbic acid vs. 4% hydroquinone in melasma. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:604-7 pubmed
    ..6.2% (1/16) with ascorbic acid. Although hydroquinone showed a better response, ascorbic acid may play a role in the therapy of melasma as it is almost devoid of side-effects; it could be used alone or in combination therapy. ..
  35. Shields J, Shields C, Mashayekhi A, Marr B, Benavides R, Thangappan A, et al. Primary acquired melanosis of the conjunctiva: risks for progression to melanoma in 311 eyes. The 2006 Lorenz E. Zimmerman lecture. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:511-519.e2 pubmed
    To evaluate the clinical features and risks for transformation of conjunctival primary acquired melanosis (PAM) into melanoma. Noncomparative case series...
  36. Weinstock L, Katzman D, Wang H. Pseudomelanosis of stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;58:578 pubmed
  37. Petersen Jones S, Forcier J, Mentzer A. Ocular melanosis in the Cairn Terrier: clinical description and investigation of mode of inheritance. Vet Ophthalmol. 2007;10 Suppl 1:63-9 pubmed
    To describe the clinical features of ocular melanosis in Cairn Terriers. One hundred and fourteen Cairn Terriers diagnosed with ocular melanosis. A complete eye examination was performed on each dog...
  38. Finger P, Sedeek R, Chin K. Topical interferon alfa in the treatment of conjunctival melanoma and primary acquired melanosis complex. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:124-129 pubmed
    To report on topical interferon alfa-2b for conjunctival malignant melanoma (CMM) and primary acquired melanosis with atypia (PAM).
  39. Agero A, Benvenuto Andrade C, Dusza S, Halpern A, Marghoob A. Asymptomatic neurocutaneous melanocytosis in patients with large congenital melanocytic nevi: a study of cases from an Internet-based registry. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53:959-65 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine prevalence of asymptomatic NCM, and current application of MRI as a screening tool...
  40. Majerus M, Mundy N. Mammalian melanism: natural selection in black and white. Trends Genet. 2003;19:585-8 pubmed
  41. Mannone F, de Giorgi V, Cattaneo A, Massi D, De Magnis A, Carli P. Dermoscopic features of mucosal melanosis. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:1118-23 pubmed
    b>Melanosis (lentiginosis, labial melanotic macula) is a benign pigmented lesion of mucosa characterized by pigmentation of basal keratinocytes with melanocytic normal or slightly increased in number...
  42. Grant B, Wiseman L. Recent history of melanism in American peppered moths. J Hered. 2002;93:86-90 pubmed
    ..We contrast these changes to the near absence of melanism in a southern state-Virginia-during that same period. As in Britain, the decline in melanism in American peppered moths followed clean air legislation. ..
  43. Lee E, Kim J, Im S, Lee K, Sohn S, Kang W. Application of computerized image analysis in pigmentary skin diseases. Int J Dermatol. 2001;40:45-9 pubmed
  44. Tannous Z, Astner S. Utilizing fractional resurfacing in the treatment of therapy-resistant melasma. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2005;7:39-43 pubmed
    ..Further studies with long-term follow-up periods and multiple patients with diverse skin phototypes and different variants of melasma are warranted. ..
  45. Angsuwarangsee S, Polnikorn N. Combined ultrapulse CO2 laser and Q-switched alexandrite laser compared with Q-switched alexandrite laser alone for refractory melasma: split-face design. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:59-64 pubmed
    ..Long-term follow-up and a larger number of cases are required to determine its efficacy and safety for refractory melasma. ..
  46. Paridaens D, Beekhuis H, van den Bosch W, Remeyer L, Melles G. Amniotic membrane transplantation in the management of conjunctival malignant melanoma and primary acquired melanosis with atypia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:658-61 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for the management of conjunctival malignant melanoma and primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia.
  47. Chalasani R, Giblin M, Conway R. Role of topical chemotherapy for primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva and cornea: review of the evidence and recommendations for treatment. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:708-14 pubmed
    ..excision with cryotherapy is a well-established treatment option for malignant melanoma or primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia of the conjunctiva and cornea...
  48. Scheinfeld N. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy wholly abated with one week twice daily application of fluticasone propionate lotion: a case report and review of the literature. Dermatol Online J. 2008;14:4 pubmed
    ..PUPPP can abate entirely during pregnancy. Fluticasone propionate 0.05 percent lotion, a class 5 (low-medium potency) corticosteroid, has a benign side effect profile and should be considered for the treatment of PUPPP during pregnancy. ..
  49. Sendagorta E, Pizarro A, Feito M, Mayor M, Ramirez P, Floristan U, et al. Diffuse melanosis and ascites due to metastatic malignant melanoma. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008;8:556-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Diffuse cutaneous melanosis is a rare entity that complicates a small percentage of metastatic melanomas, confering a fatal prognosis...
  50. Wang C, Chen C. Effect of spot size and fluence on Q-switched alexandrite laser treatment for pigmentation in Asians: a randomized, double-blinded, split-face comparative trial. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012;23:333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Q-switched laser treatment for pigment disorders commonly leads to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in Asians...
  51. Delgado R, Torre M. Use of fractional laser in mixed-race patients. Facial Plast Surg. 2013;29:161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors present their experience in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI using fractional lasers. Pre- and post-laser regimens to avoid complications are presented and results are evaluated. ..
  52. Reddy H, Keene C, Chang S, Jian Amadi A, Cimino P. Immunohistochemical profiling including beta-catenin in conjunctival melanocytic lesions. Exp Mol Pathol. 2017;102:198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..this series, we compared multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers in 11 conjunctival nevi, 10 primary acquired melanosis (PAM) lesions, and 11 conjunctival melanomas...
  53. Chen A, McRae M, Wargon O. Clinical characteristics and risks of large congenital melanocytic naevi: a review of 31 patients at the Sydney Children's Hospital. Australas J Dermatol. 2012;53:219-23 pubmed publisher