Summary: Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.

Top Publications

  1. Moore R, Chae K, Rhodes A. Laugier and Hunziker pigmentation: a lentiginous proliferation of melanocytes. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50:S70-4 pubmed
    ..Further studies are warranted to determine if this pigmentation disorder represents a spectrum of histopathologic change or, in fact, should be renamed mucocutaneous lentiginosis of Laugier and Hunziker. ..
  2. Leyden J, Shergill B, Micali G, Downie J, Wallo W. Natural options for the management of hyperpigmentation. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25:1140-5 pubmed publisher
  3. de Melo Filho M, da Silva C, da Rocha Dourado M, de Oliveira Pires M, Pego S, de Freitas E. Palate hyperpigmentation caused by prolonged use of the anti-malarial chloroquine. Head Neck Pathol. 2012;6:48-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Healthcare professionals must be aware of these drugs and their adverse effects in order to make the correct diagnosis, decide on the optimal treatment for the condition, or refer the patient to an appropriate specialist. ..
  4. Gaertner E, Elstein W. Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus: case report and review of an unusual entity. Dermatol Online J. 2012;18:11 pubmed
    ..The case well highlights this unusual condition and represents the first case reported in the United States. ..
  5. Wu L, Lin Y, Yang S, Weng Y, Tsai Y. Antimelanogenic effect of c-phycocyanin through modulation of tyrosinase expression by upregulation of ERK and downregulation of p38 MAPK signaling pathways. J Biomed Sci. 2011;18:74 pubmed publisher
    ..is one of the essential defense mechanisms against oxidative stress or UV irradiation; however, abnormal hyperpigmentation in human skin may pose a serious aesthetic problem...
  6. Kovacs D, Cardinali G, Aspite N, Cota C, Luzi F, Bellei B, et al. Role of fibroblast-derived growth factors in regulating hyperpigmentation of solar lentigo. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:1020-7 pubmed publisher
    ..factors, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) in SL hyperpigmentation; to evaluate whether the photoageing process occurring in fibroblasts could be responsible for the altered ..
  7. Taylor M, Yanaki J, Draper D, Shurtz J, Coglianese M. Successful short-term and long-term treatment of melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation using vitamin C with a full-face iontophoresis mask and a mandelic/malic acid skin care regimen. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12:45-50 pubmed
    Treatment of melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is often challenging. No ideal short-term and long-term treatment is available...
  8. Cherobin A, Oliveira F, Baeta I, Vale E. Case for diagnosis. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:151-2 pubmed
    ..Its etiology is unknown and there is no specific treatment for the condition. We report a case of ashy dermatosis in a 41-year-old patient with extensive lesions on the trunk and limbs. ..
  9. Zuo Y, Ma D, Jin H, Liu Y, Wang H, Sun Q. Treatment of Laugier-Hunziker syndrome with the Q-switched alexandrite laser in 22 Chinese patients. Arch Dermatol Res. 2010;302:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has also demonstrated QSAL to be highly effective and safe in the treatment of LHS. ..

More Information


  1. Lampe A, Hampton P, Woodford Richens K, Tomlinson I, Lawrence C, Douglas F. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome: an important differential diagnosis for Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. J Med Genet. 2003;40:e77 pubmed
  2. Manaka L, Kadono S, Kawashima M, Kobayashi T, Imokawa G. The mechanism of hyperpigmentation in seborrhoeic keratosis involves the high expression of endothelin-converting enzyme-1alpha and TNF-alpha, which stimulate secretion of endothelin 1. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145:895-903 pubmed
    ..a strong keratinocyte-derived mitogen and melanogen for human melanocytes, is intrinsically involved in the hyperpigmentation mechanism of SK...
  3. Idrees M, Deligdisch L, Altchek A. Squamous papilloma with hyperpigmentation in the skin graft of the neovagina in Rokitansky syndrome: literature review of benign and malignant lesions of the neovagina. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22:e148-55 pubmed publisher
    ..It is rare for a benign or malignant neoplasm to develop in a neovagina...
  4. Wu J, Alvarez H, Garcia P, Rojas P, Wong G, Maitra A, et al. Melanoma hyperpigmentation is strongly associated with KIT alterations. Am J Dermatopathol. 2009;31:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..sun damage, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, melanoma in situ, vertical growth phase (VGP), location, and hyperpigmentation. Twenty-eight cases demonstrated 3+ membranous staining...
  5. Aytekin S, Alp S. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome associated with actinic lichen planus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18:221-3 pubmed
  6. Zanardo L, Stolz W, Schmitz G, Kaminski W, Vikkula M, Landthaler M, et al. Progressive hyperpigmentation and generalized lentiginosis without associated systemic symptoms: a rare hereditary pigmentation disorder in south-east Germany. Acta Derm Venereol. 2004;84:57-60 pubmed
    Familial progressive hyperpigmentation is rarely described in the literature. We report on five patients from three different families presenting with a peculiar progressive pigmentary disorder...
  7. Nieman L, Chanco Turner M. Addison's disease. Clin Dermatol. 2006;24:276-80 pubmed
    ..The cutaneous manifestations include darkening of the skin especially in sun-exposed areas and hyperpigmentation of the palmar creases, frictional surfaces, vermilion border, recent scars, genital skin, and oral mucosa...
  8. Soule S. Addison's disease in Africa--a teaching hospital experience. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;50:115-20 pubmed
    ..Presenting features included hyperpigmentation (86%), weight loss (67%), abdominal pain (20%) and diarrhoea (16%)...
  9. Holm A, Nelson W. Images in clinical medicine. Minocycline-induced hyperpigmentation. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:e23 pubmed
  10. Lam A, Wong D, Lam L, Ho W, Chan H. A retrospective study on the efficacy and complications of Q-switched alexandrite laser in the treatment of acquired bilateral nevus of Ota-like macules. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:937-41; discussion 941-2 pubmed
    ..of Ota-like macules (ABNOM), or Hori's macules, is a common Asian condition that is characterized by bluish hyperpigmentation in the bilateral malar regions...
  11. Pock L, Jelinkova L, Drlík L, Abrhámová S, Vojtechovská S, Sezemská D, et al. Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001;15:452-4 pubmed
    ..Because of the highly characteristic inverse location of the lesions in our patients we propose the designation LPP-inversus for this variant of the disease. ..
  12. Coley M, Alexis A. Managing common dermatoses in skin of color. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2009;28:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..part as a result of the sequelae often associated with the conditions in their own right - postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and scarring - and potential iatrogenic adverse effects that may occur during treatment...
  13. Hillebrand G, Miyamoto K, Schnell B, Ichihashi M, Shinkura R, Akiba S. Quantitative evaluation of skin condition in an epidemiological survey of females living in northern versus southern Japan. J Dermatol Sci. 2001;27 Suppl 1:S42-52 pubmed
    ..high resolution digital imaging followed by computer analysis of facial images for facial skin wrinkling and hyperpigmentation; silicone skin replicas followed by Moiré interferometry for facial skin surface roughness (texture); the ..
  14. Morava E, Bartsch O, Czako M, Frensel A, Karteszi J, Kosztolanyi G. A girl with cutaneous hyperpigmentation, café au lait spots and ring chromosome 15 without significant deletion. Genet Couns. 2003;14:337-42 pubmed
    ..3) and within 300 kb of the end of the chromosome, indicating no deletion of functional genes on 15q. Hyperpigmentation and café au lait spots are rare signs in ring chromosome syndromes, but with r(15) syndrome, café au lait ..
  15. Wang Z, Si L, Tang Q, Lin D, Fu Z, Zhang J, et al. Gain-of-function mutation of KIT ligand on melanin synthesis causes familial progressive hyperpigmentation. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:672-7 pubmed publisher
    Familial progressive hyperpigmentation (FPH) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited disorder characterized by hyperpigmented patches in the skin, present in early infancy and increasing in size and number with age...
  16. Xiao X, Zhang Q. Iris hyperpigmentation in a Chinese family with ocular albinism and the GPR143 mutation. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:1786-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report on a Chinese family with OA1 and partial deletion of GPR143. An unusual phenotype of iris hyperpigmentation without translucency was observed in the male patient and the carrier mother...
  17. Ammoury A, Michaud S, Paul C, Prost Squarcioni C, Alvarez F, Lamant L, et al. Photodistribution of blue-gray hyperpigmentation after amiodarone treatment: molecular characterization of amiodarone in the skin. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:92-6 pubmed publisher
    For decades, the photodistributed blue-gray skin hyperpigmentation observed after amiodarone therapy was presumably attributed to dermal lipofuscinosis...
  18. Ortonne J, Passeron T. Melanin pigmentary disorders: treatment update. Dermatol Clin. 2005;23:209-26 pubmed
    ..The treatment of hypomelanotic disorders is still often disappointing, but new therapeutic options provide encouraging results. ..
  19. Abanmi A, Al Zouman A, Al Hussaini H, Al Asmari A. Prayer marks. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:411-4 pubmed
    ..marks (PMs) are asymptomatic, chronic skin changes that consist mainly of thickening, lichenification, and hyperpigmentation, and develop over a long period of time as a consequence of repeated, extended pressure on bony prominences ..
  20. Kim K, Bae G, Choi J, Sung K, Moon K, Koh J. A case of localized lichen planus pigmentosus on the thigh. J Dermatol. 2002;29:242-3 pubmed
  21. De Schepper S, Boucneau J, Vander Haeghen Y, Messiaen L, Naeyaert J, Lambert J. Café-au-lait spots in neurofibromatosis type 1 and in healthy control individuals: hyperpigmentation of a different kind?. Arch Dermatol Res. 2006;297:439-49 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SCF is an important cytokine in NF1 skin, but that additional (growth) factors and/or genetic mechanisms are needed to induce NF1-specific CALM hyperpigmentation.
  22. Niiyama S, Mukai H. Reversible cutaneous hyperpigmentation and nails with white hair due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Eur J Dermatol. 2007;17:551-2 pubmed
  23. Vazquez Bayo C, Rodríguez Bujaldón A, Jimenez Puya R, Galan Gutierrez M, Moreno Gimenez J. [Capecitabine-induced hyperpigmentation]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2007;98:491-3 pubmed
    ..adverse effects have been recognized, among which we find the muco-cutaneous ones and, specifically, hyperpigmentation. We report a case of localized cutaneous hyperpigmentation secondary to capecitabine in a woman that ..
  24. Cayce K, McMichael A, Feldman S. Hyperpigmentation: an overview of the common afflictions. Dermatol Nurs. 2004;16:401-6, 413-6; quiz 417 pubmed
    b>Hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin are common. Three of the more common forms include melasma, lentigines, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Significant negative psychological consequences can result...
  25. Chan H. Effective and safe use of lasers, light sources, and radiofrequency devices in the clinical management of Asian patients with selected dermatoses. Lasers Surg Med. 2005;37:179-85 pubmed
    ..higher epidermal melanin content, is more likely to develop adverse reactions, especially post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), following treatment...
  26. Stulberg D, Clark N, Tovey D. Common hyperpigmentation disorders in adults: Part II. Melanoma, seborrheic keratoses, acanthosis nigricans, melasma, diabetic dermopathy, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68:1963-8 pubmed
    ..Melasma is a facial hyperpigmentation resulting from the stimulation of melanocytes by endogenous or exogenous estrogen...
  27. Yago K, Tanaka Y, Asanami S. Laugier-Hunziker-Baran syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:e20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral scientists and clinicians must be familiar with Laugier-Hunziker-Baran syndrome, because this syndrome is probably more common than is generally recognized. ..
  28. Halder R, Richards G. Topical agents used in the management of hyperpigmentation. Skin Therapy Lett. 2004;9:1-3 pubmed
    Disorders of hyperpigmentation are difficult to treat, particularly in dark-skinned individuals...
  29. Tavares Bello R. Capecitabine-induced hand-foot syndrome and cutaneous hyperpigmentation in an elderly vitiligo patient. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:1434-5 pubmed
  30. Kashima A, Tajiri A, Yamashita A, Asada Y, Setoyama M. Two Japanese cases of lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:740-2 pubmed
    ..2B). Both the epidermis and the upper dermis contained CD1a(+) cells (Fig. 2C). The keratinocytes focally and weakly expressed HLA-DR (Fig. 2D). These findings were identical in samples from both patients. ..
  31. Chang G, Yang T, Chen K, Yin M, Wang R, Lin Y. Complications of therapy in cancer patients: Case 1. Paronychia and skin hyperpigmentation induced by gefitinib in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:4646-8 pubmed
  32. Sabesan T, Ramchandani P, Peters W. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome: a rare cause of mucocutaneous pigmentation. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;44:320-1 pubmed
    ..An 80-year-old white woman presented with brown pigmentation on both sides of the buccal mucosa and lower lip and patchy freckling in her nails, which was diagnosed as Laugier-Hunziker syndrome. ..
  33. Goldman M. The use of hydroquinone with facial laser resurfacing. J Cutan Laser Ther. 2000;2:73-7 pubmed
    One complication of laser resurfacing that is especially common in people with skin types III-VI is hyperpigmentation. This may last for several months after the laser resurfacing procedure...
  34. Momosawa A, Kurita M, Ozaki M, Miyamoto S, Kobayashi Y, Ban I, et al. Combined therapy using Q-switched ruby laser and bleaching treatment with tretinoin and hydroquinone for periorbital skin hyperpigmentation in Asians. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:282-8 pubmed publisher
    Periorbital skin hyperpigmentation, so-called dark circles, is of major concern for many people...
  35. Siponen M, Salo T. Idiopathic lenticular mucocutaneous pigmentation (Laugier-Hunziker syndrome): a report of a case. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;96:288-92 pubmed
    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS) is an acquired, benign, macular hyperpigmentation of the lips and oral mucosa, often associated with pigmentation of the nails...
  36. Thapa R, Dhar S, Malakar R, Chakrabartty S. Hypomelanosis of ito-whorled hyperpigmentation combination: a mirror image presentation. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24:572-3 pubmed
  37. Al Niaimi F. Laser and energy-based devices' complications in dermatology. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2016;18:25-30 pubmed publisher
  38. Tai Y, Wang C, Wang Z, Liang Y, Du J, He D, et al. Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Member A1 activation in the irritation and pain response elicited by skin-lightening reagent hydroquinone. Sci Rep. 2017;7:7532 pubmed publisher
    Hydroquinone (HQ) is one of the most frequently used and effective skin-lightening products to treat skin hyperpigmentation disorders, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma and solar lentigines...
  39. Buchinger K, Stahel R, Niggemeier V, Gubler C, Franzen D. Pemetrexed-induced neutropenic enteritis and severe cutaneous hyperpigmentation in a patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Lung Cancer. 2013;80:347-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitantly the patient showed a severe hyperpigmentation of his entire integument sparing the palms of both hands and the soles of his feet...
  40. Wang A, Barr K, Jagdeo J. Shiitake mushroom-induced flagellate erythema: A striking case and review of the literature. Dermatol Online J. 2013;19:5 pubmed
    ..His symptoms and skin lesions resolved with minimal hyperpigmentation within approximately 1 week after treating with topical steroids and oral antihistamines...
  41. Molho Pessach V, Ramot Y, Camille F, Doviner V, Babay S, Luis S, et al. H syndrome: the first 79 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70:80-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common clinical features (>45% of patients) were hyperpigmentation, phalangeal flexion contractures, hearing loss, and short stature...
  42. Cornara L, Pastorino G, Borghesi B, Salis A, Clericuzio M, Marchetti C, et al. Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile Ethanolic Extract Modulates Cell Activities with Skin Health Applications. Mar Drugs. 2018;16: pubmed publisher
    ..oceanica seagrass on skin cells. Our findings indicate that PEE could be profitably used in the development of products for skin aging, undesired hyperpigmentation, and cellulite.
  43. Regazzetti C, Sormani L, Debayle D, Bernerd F, Tulic M, De Donatis G, et al. Melanocytes Sense Blue Light and Regulate Pigmentation through Opsin-3. J Invest Dermatol. 2018;138:171-178 pubmed publisher
    The shorter wavelengths of the visible light spectrum have been recently reported to induce a long-lasting hyperpigmentation but only in melano-competent individuals...
  44. Di Chiacchio N, Ruben B, Loureiro W. Longitudinal melanonychias. Clin Dermatol. 2013;31:594-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Malignant lesions should be excised, and underlying infections should be addressed with antibiotics or antifungals. Benign lesions and hyperpigmentation may benefit from a wait-and-see approach.
  45. Seren M, Dumantepe M, Fazlioğullari O, Kucukaksu S. Combined treatment with endovenous laser ablation and compression therapy of incompetent perforating veins for treatment of recalcitrant venous ulcers. Phlebology. 2017;32:307-315 pubmed publisher
    ..laser ablation (EVLA) of perforating veins was performed on patients with CEAP 6 disease with increasing hyperpigmentation, lipodermatosclerosis, and/or progressive malleolar pain...
  46. Attia E, Hassan S, Youssef N. Cutaneous disorders in uremic patients on hemodialysis: an Egyptian case-controlled study. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49:1024-30 pubmed
    ..significantly more often in uremics than controls included pallor, nail changes, hair changes, pruritus, hyperpigmentation and coated tongue in adults (P < 0...
  47. Khatibi M, Moshari A, Jahromi Z, Ramezankhani A. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and related factors in 200 HIV+/AIDS Iranian patients. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40:659-64 pubmed publisher
    ..5%), early detection of oral lesions must be emphasized on the diagnosis and early management of human immunodeficiency virus positive/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. ..
  48. Pintus F, Matos M, Vilar S, Hripcsak G, Varela C, Uriarte E, et al. New insights into highly potent tyrosinase inhibitors based on 3-heteroarylcoumarins: Anti-melanogenesis and antioxidant activities, and computational molecular modeling studies. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:1687-1695 pubmed publisher
    ..The search for molecules capable of controlling hyperpigmentation is a trend topic in health and cosmetics...
  49. Bloom J, Lin C, Imundo L, Guthery S, Stepenaskie S, Galambos C, et al. H syndrome: 5 new cases from the United States with novel features and responses to therapy. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2017;15:76 pubmed publisher
    H Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cutaneous hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, and induration with numerous systemic manifestations...
  50. McCleskey P, Patel S, Mansalis K, Elam A, Kinsley T. Serum lidocaine levels and cutaneous side effects after application of 23% lidocaine 7% tetracaine ointment to the face. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39:82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Irritant contact dermatitis was common, resulting in hyperpigmentation in some patients...
  51. Bombeccari G, Garagiola U, Pallotti F, Rossi M, Porrini M, Gianni A, et al. Hyperpigmentation of the hard palate mucosa in a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia taking imatinib. Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;39:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Dermatological side effects include superficial oedema, pustular eruption, lichenoid reactions, erythroderma, and skin rash. Depigmentation of the skin and/or mucosa is uncommon, and hyperpigmentation is rare.
  52. Yue B, Yang Q, Xu J, Lu Z. Efficacy and safety of fractional Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser in the treatment of melasma in Chinese patients. Lasers Med Sci. 2016;31:1657-1663 pubmed
    Melasma is an acquired disorder of symmetrical hyperpigmentation commonly seen in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV. Various novel therapeutic modalities have emerged to treat melasma...
  53. Nieuweboer Krobotova L. Hyperpigmentation: types, diagnostics and targeted treatment options. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27 Suppl 1:2-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The hyperpigmentation commonly occurs in Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI and can have a considerable impact on quality of life...