lichenoid eruptions


Summary: Conditions in which there is histological damage to the lower epidermis along with a grouped chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis disturbing the interface between the epidermis and dermis. LICHEN PLANUS is the prototype of all lichenoid eruptions. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p398)

Top Publications

  1. Wetzig T, Sticherling M, Simon J, Hegenbart U, Niederwieser D, Al Ali H. Medium dose long-wavelength ultraviolet A (UVA1) phototherapy for the treatment of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease of the skin. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2005;35:515-9 pubmed
    ..Our results should be confirmed in larger studies and the effectiveness of UVA1 compared to other established treatment modalities. ..
  2. Fink Puches R, Wolf P, Kerl H, Cerroni L. Lichen aureus: clinicopathologic features, natural history, and relationship to mycosis fungoides. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:1169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the clinicopathologic features of LA and its relationship to MF. Data from 23 patients with a clinicopathologic diagnosis of LA were reviewed...
  3. Zaballos P, Puig S, Malvehy J. Dermoscopy of pigmented purpuric dermatoses (lichen aureus): a useful tool for clinical diagnosis. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:1290-1 pubmed
  4. Tilly J, Drolet B, Esterly N. Lichenoid eruptions in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:606-24 pubmed
    b>Lichenoid eruptions are quite common in children and can result from many different origins. In most instances the precise mechanism of disease is not known, although it is usually believed to be immunologic in nature...
  5. Elad S, Levitt M, M Y S. [Chronic graft-versus-host-disease involving the oral mucosa: clinical presentation and treatment]. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993). 2008;25:19-27, 72 pubmed
    ..This article aims at presenting the novel information about the clinical presentation, scoring scales, long term complications and treatment for mucosal cGVHD. ..
  6. Wolf I, Smolle J, Cerroni L, Kerl H. Erythroderma with lichenoid granulomatous features induced by erythropoietin. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:371-4 pubmed
    ..The histological features were characterized by a lichenoid, focally granulomatous infiltrate with predominance of histiocytes. It is important for dermatopathologists to recognize this interesting pattern induced by erythropoietin. ..
  7. Gomes V, Grimaldi M, Gradilone A, Pranteda G, Ricci A. Lichenoid dermatitis with scarring and white spot disease: a simple co-occurrence?. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:545-7 pubmed
  8. Rupec R, Boneberger S, Ruzicka T. [Adverse cutaneous drug reactions]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2007;132:2685-94 pubmed
  9. Pezelj Ribaric S, Prpic J, Miletic I, Brumini G, Soskić M, Anic I. Association between oral lichenoid reactions and amalgam restorations. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:1163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Following the replacement of amalgam fillings with fillings based on other restorative materials, levels of both IL-6 and IL-8 shifted towards normal, as measured in healthy subjects. ..

More Information


  1. Sehgal V, Srivastava G, Sharma S, Sehgal S, Verma P. Lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis: recognition, classification, etiology, and clinicopathological overtones. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2011;77:418-29; quiz 430 pubmed publisher
    ..Background of lichenoid reaction pattern has been briefly outlined to enlighten those interested in this entity. ..
  2. Arsenic R, Kurrer M. Differentiated dysplasia is a frequent precursor or associated lesion in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Virchows Arch. 2013;462:609-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a need to refine criteria to distinguish differentiated dysplasia from morphologically related lichenoid lesions. ..
  3. Remling R, Schnopp C, Schmidt T, Hein R, Ring J, Abeck D. [Keratosis lichenoides chronica. Bath PUVA therapy]. Hautarzt. 2002;53:550-3 pubmed
    ..After a local PUVA therapy all lesions disappeared with no recurrence for over two years now. Our case report indicates a new promising indication for bath-PUVA-therapy. ..
  4. Stollery N. Scalp and hair problems. Practitioner. 2007;251:62-6 pubmed
  5. Sangueza J, Saenz M. Disseminated dermatosis with pruritic plaques and patches. Am J Dermatopathol. 2006;28:178-80 pubmed
  6. Guggenheimer J. Oral manifestations of drug therapy. Dent Clin North Am. 2002;46:857-68 pubmed
    ..The dental practitioner is often the primary health care provider who can recognize, diagnose, treat, and/or prevent these conditions...
  7. Sontheimer R, Henderson C, Grau R. Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a paradigm for bedside-to-bench patient-oriented translational clinical investigation. Arch Dermatol Res. 2009;301:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This leads to the speculation that DI-SCLE could represent a photo-induced isomorphic/Köebner response in an immunogenetically predisposed host. ..
  8. Attili V, Attili S. Lichenoid inflammation in vitiligo--a clinical and histopathologic review of 210 cases. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:663-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Vitiligo is an inflammatory disease that with development involves a lichenoid tissue reaction. ..
  9. Kleikamp S, Kutzner H, Frosch P. Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth--a further case in a 12-year-old girl. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2008;6:653-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The lesions cleared with 0.03% tacrolimus ointment. Annular lichenoid dermatitis of youth is probably a new entity in the group of lichenoid dermatoses. ..
  10. Gainza Cirauqui M, Nieminen M, Novak Frazer L, Aguirre Urizar J, Moragues M, Rautemaa R. Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida albicans from patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) and oral leukoplakia (OL) are potentially carcinogenic oral diseases where colonisation by Candida is common, but acetaldehyde production by Candida has not been studied...
  11. Hashimoto K, Topper S, Sharata H, Edwards M. CHILD syndrome: analysis of abnormal keratinization and ultrastructure. Pediatr Dermatol. 1995;12:116-29 pubmed
    ..Normal cementsomes coexisted with these abnormal lamellar structures, and it was thought that the latter represent modified cementsomes because the discharge of those from the cell periphery was often detected. ..
  12. Grossman S, Garcia B, Soares I, Monteiro L, Mesquita R. Amalgam-associated oral lichenoid reaction: case report and management. Gen Dent. 2008;56:e9-11 pubmed
    ..Management included removing the amalgam restoration and using composite resin as a substitute. After 30 days, complete health was observed and AAOLR was diagnosed. ..
  13. Bordel Gómez M. [Lichen striatus]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2005;62:391-2 pubmed
  14. Sahn E, Bluestein E, Oliva S. Familial lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol. 1994;11:160-3 pubmed
    ..We report genital LSA in two young sisters who were diagnosed a year apart. The English language literature on familial LSA in childhood is reviewed and discussed. ..
  15. Raghu A, Rao N. Immunofluorescence in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction. A review. Indian J Dent Res. 2001;12:29-34 pubmed
    ..Early diagnoses of these conditions are more likely with adjunctive use of immunofluorescent examination. Further, this tool may provide an insight into the pathogenesis of these disorders. ..
  16. Couper R. "Drug reaction to ursodeoxycholic acid: lichenoid drug eruption in an infant using ursodeoxycholic acid for neonatal hepatitis", by Buyukgebiz B, et all. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003;36:652; author reply 652 pubmed
  17. Bohm M, Bonsmann G, Luger T. Resolution of lichen aureus in a 10-year-old child after topical pimecrolimus. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151:519-20 pubmed
  18. Antiga E, Melani L, Cardinali C, Giomi B, Caproni M, Francalanci S, et al. A case of lichenoid drug eruption associated with sildenafil citratus. J Dermatol. 2005;32:972-5 pubmed
    ..b>Lichenoid eruptions are rather common dermatoses that can be induced by a great number of environmental agents and are ..
  19. Baczewski N, Albano B. A case of keratosis lichenoid chronica. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2012;102:264-6 pubmed
    ..The disease is refractory to treatment although psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and oral retinoids have been proven useful in some cases. Here we present the case of a 58-year-old male diagnosed with keratosis lichenoid chronica. ..
  20. Zaballos P, Rodero J, Pastor L, Vives J, Puig S, Malvehy J. Dermoscopy of lichenoid regressing solar lentigines. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:284 pubmed publisher
  21. Imanguli M, Swaim W, League S, Gress R, Pavletic S, Hakim F. Increased T-bet+ cytotoxic effectors and type I interferon-mediated processes in chronic graft-versus-host disease of the oral mucosa. Blood. 2009;113:3620-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical trials are registered at as NCT00331968. ..
  22. Nicholson K, Gerami P. An immunohistochemical analysis of pseudomelanocytic nests mimicking melanoma in situ: report of 2 cases. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:633-7 pubmed publisher
  23. Smith D, Vnencak Jones C, Boyd A. T-lymphocyte clonality in benign lichenoid keratoses. J Cutan Pathol. 2002;29:623-4 pubmed
  24. Dogra S, Kanwar A. Clopidogrel bisulphate-induced photosensitive lichenoid eruption: first report. Br J Dermatol. 2003;148:609-10 pubmed
  25. Seo S, Yeum J, Suh J, Na G. Lichenoid sarcoidosis in a 3-year-old girl. Pediatr Dermatol. 2001;18:384-7 pubmed
    ..The Mantoux reaction was negative and results of ophthalmologic examinations were normal. Treatment was started with triamcinolone 0.2 mg/kg and prednicarbate ointment. Some lesions healed completely and others showed residual pitting. ..
  26. Lee W, Lee J, Won C, Chang S, Choi J, Moon K, et al. Clinical and histopathologic analysis of 46 cases of cutaneous adverse reactions to imatinib. Int J Dermatol. 2016;55:e268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the clinical features of cutaneous adverse reactions to imatinib depend on imatinib dose and the severity of the reaction, histopathologic findings are not associated with these clinical variables. ..
  27. Beltraminelli H, Shabrawi Caelen L, Kerl H, Cerroni L. Melan-a-positive "pseudomelanocytic nests": a pitfall in the histopathologic and immunohistochemical diagnosis of pigmented lesions on sun-damaged skin. Am J Dermatopathol. 2009;31:305-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It should be underlined that pigmented lesions represent a paradigmatic example of how immunohistochemical results should be interpreted carefully and always in conjunction with histologic and clinical features. ..
  28. Perez Crespo M, Betlloch Mas I, Mataix Díaz J, Lucas Costa A, Martínez Miravete M. [Pink papules in a V-shaped distribution]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2008;68:81-2 pubmed
  29. van der Meij E, Mast H, Van der Waal I. The possible premalignant character of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions: a prospective five-year follow-up study of 192 patients. Oral Oncol. 2007;43:742-8 pubmed
    ..There seems to be no increased risk in patients with OLP. In view of our results we advise to monitor only the subgroup of OLL patients twice a year for early detection of possible malignant transformation. ..
  30. Konstantinov K, Søndergaard J, Izuno G, Obreshkova E. Keratosis lichenoides chronica. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:306-9 pubmed
    ..We describe a patient with KLC who had the typical features of this disease and responded partially to treatment with oral isotretinoin. ..
  31. Giuliani M, Lajolo C, Sartorio A, Scivetti M, Capodiferro S, Tumbarello M. Oral lichenoid lesions in HIV-HCV-coinfected subjects during antiviral therapy: 2 cases and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 2008;30:466-71 pubmed publisher
  32. Sergeant A, Milne G, Shaffrali F. Lichenoid eruption associated with orlistat. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154:1020-1 pubmed
  33. Wong K, Oliver G. Simultaneous scrofuloderma and intracranial tuberculomas: a rare presentation of systemic tuberculosis. Australas J Dermatol. 2010;51:39-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This case illustrates the importance of dermatological manifestations of systemic disease as an accessible source for diagnosis and guidance in appropriate therapy...
  34. Siponen M, Huuskonen L, Läärä E, Salo T. Association of oral lichen planus with thyroid disease in a Finnish population: a retrospective case-control study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..73 (0.56 to 4.90) for OLL. The association of OLP/OLL and thyroid disease, especially between hypothyroidism and OLP, calls for further investigations in other populations and into the possible mechanisms behind this association. ..
  35. Chong S, Gibbs S, Wong J. An unusual keratotic papular eruption. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144:405-10 pubmed publisher
  36. Groesser L, Herschberger E, Landthaler M, Hafner C. FGFR3, PIK3CA and RAS mutations in benign lichenoid keratosis. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:784-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the concept on the molecular genetic level that at least a proportion of BLKs represents regressive variants resulting from former benign epidermal tumours such as seborrhoeic keratosis and solar lentigo. ..
  37. Trattner A, David M. Lichen amyloidosus and chronic urticaria. Dermatology. 2004;209:78; author reply 78 pubmed
  38. Kennedy D, Rogers M. Lichen striatus. Pediatr Dermatol. 1996;13:95-9 pubmed
    ..The preponderance of cases in the preschool-age group and onset in the spring and summer months support the hypothesis of an environmental agent, possibly an infection, in the etiology of the condition. ..
  39. Sulit D, Harford R, O Neill J. Discrete papular form of lichen myxedematosus: a case report and review of the literature. Cutis. 2005;75:105-12 pubmed
    ..We also review the English medical literature on this rare disease and examine and summarize the findings. ..
  40. Rongioletti F, Ghigliotti G, De Marchi R, Rebora A. Cutaneous mucinoses and HIV infection. Br J Dermatol. 1998;139:1077-80 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of scleredema and the second of reticular erythematous mucinosis in an HIV-infected patient. Only the association of HIV infection with lichen myxoedematosus seems to be more than coincidental. ..
  41. Armour K, Lowe P. Complicated lichenoid drug eruption. Australas J Dermatol. 2005;46:21-4 pubmed
    ..The mucosal lesions were slow to improve and required the addition of tacrolimus 0.03% solution t.d.s. for complete resolution. ..
  42. Wada D, Wilcox R, Weenig R, Gibson L. Paucity of intraepidermal FoxP3-positive T cells in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in contrast with spongiotic and lichenoid dermatitis. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..CTCL neoplastic cells do not typically express a Treg phenotype and are associated with low numbers of FoxP3-positive Tregs in the infiltrate. FoxP3 expression by immunohistochemistry may aid histologic evaluation of these conditions. ..
  43. Greve B, Hartschuh W, Raulin C. Lichenoid dermatitis--treatment with pulsed dye laser: a case study. Lasers Surg Med. 2002;31:23-6 pubmed
    ..The pulsed dye laser seems to accelerate the clearance of presumably drug induced corticosteroid-resistant lichenoid dermatoses. No permanent pigmental changes or scarring were observed. ..
  44. Bories A, Denis P. [Lichenoid nail dystrophy induced by angiotensin 2 receptor antagonists]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2005;132:265-7 pubmed
  45. Lopez Navarro N, Alcaraz I, Bosch R, Tejera A, Herrera E. Keratosis lichenoides chronica: response to photodynamic therapy. J Dermatolog Treat. 2008;19:124-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the first case of KLC in which there was a marked response in localized areas to photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). ..
  46. Moraes P, Noce C, Thomaz L, Cintra M, Correa M. Pigmented lichenoid drug eruption secondary to chloroquine therapy: an unusual presentation in lower lip. Minerva Stomatol. 2011;60:327-32 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the identification of these oral manifestations indicates regular evaluations by an ophtalmologist, preventing greater complications of antimalarial therapy for the patient. ..
  47. Koseoglu R, Sezer E, Yuksek J. Keratosis lichenoides chronica treated with acitretin plus narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy. J Dermatol. 2008;35:172-4 pubmed publisher
  48. Issa Y, Brunton P, Glenny A, Duxbury A. Healing of oral lichenoid lesions after replacing amalgam restorations: a systematic review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:553-65 pubmed
    ..Patch testing seems to be of limited value. The topographic relationship between an OLL and an amalgam restoration is a useful--but not conclusive--marker. ..
  49. Smith S, Smith J, Ellis L, Hogan D. Lichen striatus: simultaneous occurrence in two nonrelated siblings. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14:43-5 pubmed
    ..What role genetic or environmental influences play in its pathogenesis is unclear. We report two nonrelated, adopted children living in the same household who simultaneously developed lichen striatus. ..
  50. Aslan A, Güney M, Akcay M, Keles T, Bozkurt E. Lichenoid type cutaneous hyperpigmentation induced by nebivolol. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2017;45:268-270 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperpigmentation emerged 3 months after initiating use of nebivolol and resolved after cessation of drug use. It was concluded that effect emerged as result of therapeutic doses of nebivolol. ..
  51. Balasubramaniam R, Alawi F, Derossi S. Superficial mucoceles in chronic graft-versus-host disease: a case report and review of the literature. Gen Dent. 2009;57:82-8 pubmed
    ..The superficial mucoceles were refractory to treatment with topical steroids; however, subsequent treatment with triamcinolone intra-lesional injections decreased their quantity, size, and symptoms. ..
  52. Llambrich A, Lecha M. Photoinduced lichenoid reaction by thioridazine. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2004;20:108-9 pubmed
  53. Peramiquel L, Baselga E, Dalmau J, Roé E, del Mar Campos M, Alomar A. Lichen striatus: clinical and epidemiological review of 23 cases. Eur J Pediatr. 2006;165:267-9 pubmed