seborrheic keratosis


Summary: Benign eccrine poromas that present as multiple oval, brown-to-black plaques, located mostly on the chest and back. The age of onset is usually in the fourth or fifth decade.

Top Publications

  1. Matz H, Orion E, Ruocco V, Wolf R. Clinical simulators of melanoma. Clin Dermatol. 2002;20:212-21 pubmed
  2. Pastar Z, Lipozencic J, Rados J, Stajminger G. Regressing seborrheic keratosis - clinically and dermoscopically mimicking a regressing melanoma. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2007;15:24-6 pubmed
    The diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis is a clinical diagnosis. In a certain percentage of cases, differential diagnosis between seborrheic keratosis and malignant melanoma is difficult...
  3. Sharma P, Sarma D, Adickes E. Seborrheic keratosis with in-situ squamous cell carcinoma changes. Dermatol Online J. 2006;12:19 pubmed
  4. Tseng S, Chen Y, Huang F, Jin Y. Seborrheic keratosis of conjunctiva simulating a malignant melanoma: an immunocytochemical study with impression cytology. Ophthalmology. 1999;106:1516-20 pubmed
    b>Seborrheic keratosis on the conjunctiva appears to have never been reported in the literature. The authors report here a well-documented case of seborrheic keratosis of conjunctiva clinically simulating a malignant melanoma.
  5. Jain A, Sukhija J, Radotra B, Malhotra V. Seborrheic keratosis of the conjunctiva. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2004;52:154-5 pubmed
    b>Seborrheic keratosis can simulate a malignant melanoma and should form the differential diagnosis of a malignant melanoma. Histopathology is confirmatory.
  6. Tournoy J, Bossuyt X, Snellinx A, Regent M, Garmyn M, Serneels L, et al. Partial loss of presenilins causes seborrheic keratosis and autoimmune disease in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1321-31 pubmed
    ..The mice further develop a benign skin hyperplasia similar to human seborrheic keratosis as opposed to malignant keratocarcinomata observed in skin-specific PS1 'full' knockouts...
  7. Roncalli de Oliveira W, Neto C, Rady P, Tyring S. Seborrheic Keratosis-like lesions in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. J Dermatol. 2003;30:48-53 pubmed
    ..The seborrheic keratosis-like (SK) lesions in patients of EV have been reported to be associated with the malignant phenotype...
  8. Konishi E, Nakashima Y, Manabe T, Mazaki T, Wada Y. Irritated seborrheic keratosis of the external ear canal. Pathol Int. 2003;53:622-6 pubmed
    Although a seborrheic keratosis is not rare on the skin of the trunk, extremities, head and neck of an elderly person, it is uncommon to originate in the external ear canal. Even rarer, an irritated subtype may arise in this location...
  9. Bai H, Cviko A, Granter S, Yuan L, Betensky R, Crum C. Immunophenotypic and viral (human papillomavirus) correlates of vulvar seborrheic keratosis. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:559-64 pubmed
    ..epithelial changes lacking koilocytosis, including squamous papillomas and lesions closely resembling seborrheic keratosis (SK)...

More Information


  1. Wrone D, Yoo S, Chipps L, Moy R. The expression of p63 in actinic keratoses, seborrheic keratosis, and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:1299-302 pubmed
    ..Our results support the notion that p63 plays a role in cell differentiation and tumorigenesis of skin tumors. ..
  2. Betti R, Menni S, Cerri A, Vergani R, Crosti C. Seborrheic keratosis with compound nevus, junctional nevus and basal cell carcinoma in the same lesion. Dermatology. 2001;203:265-7 pubmed
    b>Seborrheic keratosis can be associated with different neoplasms such as basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas. We describe an unusual case of a man who presented with a brown plaque on his back...
  3. Gulias Cañizo R, Aranda Rábago J, Rodríguez Reyes A. [Seborrheic keratosis of conjunctiva: a case report]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2006;81:217-9 pubmed
    ..Clinically, a diagnosis of malignant melanoma was made and a wide excision of the tumor was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was seborrheic keratosis.
  4. Aydogan K, Ozbek S, Balaban Adim S, Tokgoz N. Irritated seborrhoeic keratosis presenting as a cutaneous horn. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:626-8 pubmed
  5. Faziloglu Y, Stanley R, Moss R, Van Stoecker W, McLean R. Colour histogram analysis for melanoma discrimination in clinical images. Skin Res Technol. 2003;9:147-56 pubmed
    ..However, colour information should be combined with other information in order to further reduce the false negative and false positive rates. ..
  6. Ponti G, Luppi G, Losi L, Giannetti A, Seidenari S. Leser-Trélat syndrome in patients affected by six multiple metachronous primitive cancers. J Hematol Oncol. 2010;3:2 pubmed publisher
  7. Sezer E, Boer A, Falk T. Identification of human papilloma virus type 6 in psoriasiform keratosis. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:492-4 pubmed publisher
    ..reported unique clinicopathological entity characterized by the appearance of a solitary lesion mimicking seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, or squamous cell carcinoma and histopathologic features closely resembling psoriasis...
  8. Logie A, Dunois Lardé C, Rosty C, Levrel O, Blanche M, Ribeiro A, et al. Activating mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3 are associated with benign skin tumors in mice and humans. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:1153-60 pubmed lesions had features in common with acanthosis nigricans and other benign human skin tumors, including seborrheic keratosis, one of the most common benign epidermal tumors in humans...
  9. Borenstein M, Mirzabeigi M, Vincek V. Pityrosporum and seborrheic keratosis: an association. Dermatol Online J. 2005;11:3 pubmed
    ..We found that in a majority of the SK studied Pityrosporum was present, which was significantly different from controls (verruca vulgaris and basal cell carcinoma). ..
  10. Newman A, Crowson A. Pathologic quiz case: brown macule on the thigh of a 71-year-old woman. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:757-8 pubmed
  11. Jakobiec F, Bhat P, Sutula F. Winer's dilated pore of the eyelid. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:411-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The wall displayed a proliferation of rete ridge-type structures that projected in the surrounding dermis. The lesion was diagnosed as a dilated pore of Winer and has not recurred after simple excision. ..
  12. Arbiser J, Bonner M. Seborrheic Keratoses: The Rodney Dangerfield of Skin lesions, and Why They Should Get Our Respect. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:564-566 pubmed publisher
    Neel et al. have demonstrated that seborrheic keratosis, the most common of all skin tumors, is dependent on acutely transforming retrovirus AKT8 in rodent T-cell lymphoma signaling...
  13. Hu S, Granter S, Haynes H, Miller D. Skin spicules: A newly described paraneoplastic phenomenon associated with a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:852-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report an unusual variant of the sign of Leser-Trélat in a patient with a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder and intertriginous skin spicules with histologic morphology of minute seborrheic keratoses. ..
  14. Düşmez Apa D, Aydin O, Polat A, Cinel L, Polat Y, Egilmez R. 34-BetaE12 expression in benign and premalignant squamous lesions of skin: relation to cell proliferation (Ki-67). J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2003;22:441-5 pubmed
    ..Basal cell status assessment completed by 34-betaE12 may resolve some, but not all of the problems in terms of determining the presence of dysplasia. ..
  15. Hansen C, Wilkinson D, Hansen M, Argenziano G. How good are skin cancer clinics at melanoma detection? Number needed to treat variability across a national clinic group in Australia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61:599-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Substantial variability in individual doctor NNT produced an overall NNT similar to that reported from mainstream general practice, and higher than specialist practice. ..
  16. Draelos Z. The ability of onion extract gel to improve the cosmetic appearance of postsurgical scars. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008;7:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The study showed that the onion extract gel significantly improved scar softness, redness, texture, and global appearance at the excision site at study weeks 4, 6, and 10 as assessed by the blinded investigator. ..
  17. Hernandez S, Toll A, Baselga E, Ribe A, Azua Romeo J, Pujol R, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 mutations in epidermal nevi and associated low grade bladder tumors. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1664-6 pubmed
    ..Based on the occurrence of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations in seborrheic keratosis and urothelial carcinomas (UC), and the identification of two young patients with EN and UC, we ..
  18. Monroe J. Melanoma scare prompts this patient to take a new look at an old lesion. JAAPA. 2006;19:58 pubmed
  19. Lee J, Kim Y. A case of irritated seborrheic keratosis associated with a previous incision site. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2010;24:173-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The histopathologic findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis of irritated seborrheic keratosis (SK)...
  20. Misago N, Inoue T, Toda S. Intraepidermal benign sebaceous neoplasm: apocrine poroma (hidroacanthoma simplex type) with extensive sebaceous differentiation with sebaceoma-like features. J Cutan Pathol. 2016;43:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the results of immunostaining for lumican supported this diagnosis and excluded the possibility of clonal seborrheic keratosis. The sebaceous differentiation in apocrine poromas mostly occurs in Pinkus type lesions, and is usually ..
  21. Ogita A, Ansai S, Misago N, Anan T, Fukumoto T, Saeki H. Histopathological diagnosis of epithelial crateriform tumors: Keratoacanthoma and other epithelial crateriform tumors. J Dermatol. 2016;43:1321-1331 pubmed publisher
    ..and the tumors were histologically classified into seven types: (i) crateriform verruca; (ii) crateriform seborrheic keratosis; (iii) KA; (iv) KA with a conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) component (KA-like SCC and KA with ..
  22. Moncrieff M. Use of a spectrophotometric intracutaneous analysis device in the real-time diagnosis of melanoma. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:422-3; author reply 423-4 pubmed
  23. McIntosh L, Summers R, Jackson M, Mantsch H, Mansfield J, Howlett M, et al. Towards non-invasive screening of skin lesions by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;116:175-81 pubmed
    ..Linear discriminant analysis classified spectra from benign lesions compared with premalignant or malignant lesions with high accuracy. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a promising noninvasive technique for the screening of skin lesions. ..
  24. Flaxman B. The importance of clinical judgment in the evaluation of abnormal pigmented lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59:721; author reply 721-2 pubmed publisher
  25. Martin J, Monteagudo C, Calduch L, Villalon G, Jorda E. Dermatoscopic changes in acquired melanocytic nevi and seborrheic keratoses after the application of a self-tanning airbrush. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143:1453-5 pubmed
  26. Hida Y, Kubo Y, Arase S. Activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and oncogene-induced senescence in skin tumours. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:1258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, OIS due to some oncogenic signals rather than activation of FGFR3 might be involved in the early skin carcinogenesis related to chronic ultraviolet radiation exposure. ..
  27. Thyssen J, Zachariae C. Successful treatment of multiple seborrheic keratoses using acitretin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:269-70 pubmed
  28. de Giorgi V, Massi D, Stante M, Carli P. False "melanocytic" parameters shown by pigmented seborrheic keratoses: a finding which is not uncommon in dermoscopy. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:776-9 pubmed
    ..the incidence of misleading dermoscopic features characteristic of melanocytic lesions in pigmented seborrheic keratosis (PSK)...
  29. Annessi G, Bono R, Abeni D. Correlation between digital epiluminescence microscopy parameters and histopathological changes in lentigo maligna and solar lentigo: A dermoscopic index for the diagnosis of lentigo maligna. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76:234-243 pubmed publisher
    The clinical and dermoscopic differentiation between lentigo maligna (LM) and solar lentigo (SL)/initial seborrheic keratosis (SK) may be difficult...
  30. Sugarman J, McCalmont T, Frieden I, Dover J, Arndt K. Gigantic metameric seborrheic keratosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:1775-6 pubmed
  31. Martínez Morán C, Sanz Muñoz C, Miranda Romero A. [Leser-Trélat sign associated with Sézary syndrome and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2007;98:214-5 pubmed
  32. Mehrabi D, Brodell R. Use of the alexandrite laser for treatment of seborrheic keratoses. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:437-9 pubmed
    ..The alexandrite laser was used in one patient to quickly and efficiently destroy hundreds of seborrheic keratoses. The treatment was tolerable and excellent cosmetic results were achieved. ..
  33. Bursztejn A, Doumat Batch F, Granel Brocard F, Perrin A, Cuny J, Barbaud A, et al. [Sézary syndrome and Leser-Trélat sign: a chance association?]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2008;135:287-90 pubmed publisher
    Leser-Trélat sign involves the combined sudden onset of seborrheic keratosis and cancer. However, some doubt surrounds the existence of this syndrome. We report a case of Leser-Trélat sign that led to the discovery of Sézary syndrome...
  34. Vide J, César A, Rodrigues Pereira P, Azevdo F. Pigmented lesion of the nipple - a clinicopathological challenge. Dermatol Online J. 2016;22: pubmed
    ..Differential diagnoses of pigmented lesions of the nipple include melanocytic nevus, melanosis of the nipple, seborrheic keratosis, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, melanoma and Paget disease...
  35. Fernandez Flores A, Manjón J. Sebaceoma associated with seborrheic keratosis. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2017;58:599-601 pubmed
    Sebaceoma associated with seborrheic keratosis has only been described once in the literature. Herein, we present an additional case in a 69-year-old woman who complained of a multicolored plaque on the left breast...
  36. Kim J, Bae H, Lee K, Kim T, Kim E. Seborrheic keratosis of the conjunctiva: a case report. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2009;23:306-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Seborrheic keratosis is a benign epithelial neoplasia that occurs mainly in the skin of the eyelids and face. We describe a case of seborrheic keratosis of the conjunctiva confirmed by histopathology...
  37. Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B. Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:1057-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B. Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. ..
  38. Alegre Sánchez A, Jiménez Gómez N, Moreno Arrones O, Fonda Pascual P, Pérez García B, Jaén Olasolo P, et al. Treatment of flat and elevated pigmented disorders with a 755-nm alexandrite picosecond laser: clinical and histological evaluation. Lasers Med Sci. 2018;33:1827-1831 pubmed publisher
    ..patients (32%) were treated for epidermal elevated lesions such as warts (5), epidermal nevi (2), and seborrheic keratosis (3), among other elevated lesions. Mean number of laser treatment was 3...
  39. Hirata S, Almeida F, Tomimori Yamashita J, Enokihara M, Michalany N, Yamada S. "Globulelike" dermoscopic structures in pigmented seborrheic keratosis. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:128-9 pubmed
  40. Lazaris A, Paraskevakou H, Davaris P. A solitary cutaneous tumor with distinct areas of verruca and seborrheic keratosis-like lesion. Pathol Oncol Res. 1999;5:320-3 pubmed
    ..It demonstrated distinct areas of verruca and of seborrheic keratosis-like morphology simultaneously...
  41. Furue M, Kato M, Nakamura K, Nashiro K, Kikuchi K, Okochi H, et al. Dysregulated expression of transforming growth factor beta and its type-I and type-II receptors in basal-cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 1997;71:505-9 pubmed
    ..TGF-beta2, TbetaR-I and TbetaR-II in normal human skin, basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease, seborrheic keratosis, eccrine poroma and eccrine spiradenoma using frozen tissue specimens...
  42. Sawada Y, Yoshiki R, Kawakami C, Nakamura M, Tokura Y. [Seborrheic keratosis on the umbilicus: case report and review of Japanese literature]. J UOEH. 2009;31:51-5 pubmed
    ..The excised tumor showed the acanthotic type of seborrheic keratosis. Six cases of seborrheic keratosis arising on the umbilicus have been reported...
  43. Hernández N, Chiodi D, Keuchkerian M. [Cutaneous lesion and digestive disease]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 2008;38:5, 92 pubmed
  44. LeAnder R, Chindam P, Das M, Umbaugh S. Differentiation of melanoma from benign mimics using the relative-color method. Skin Res Technol. 2010;16:297-304 pubmed publisher
  45. Nakamura S, Nishioka K. Enhanced expression of p16 in seborrhoeic keratosis; a lesion of accumulated senescent epidermal cells in G1 arrest. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:560-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that SK is a benign neoplasm where keratinocytes in a senescent condition and G1 arrest are accumulated. ..
  46. Ginarte M, Sánchez Aguilar D, Toribio J. Sign of Leser-Trélat associated with adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Eur J Dermatol. 2001;11:251-3 pubmed
    ..This case-report illustrates a true sign of Leser-Trélat, and proves that these patients must be appropriately investigated for underlying malignancy. ..
  47. Halleck P, Loddenkemper C, Hummel M, Scherer H, Haisch A. [Hyperkeratotic inverted seborrheic keratosis of the outer auditory canal : a first description]. HNO. 2009;57:480-3 pubmed
    b>Seborrheic keratosis is one of the most common benign neoplasms seen at the trunk, extremities, head and neck of older individuals which rarely occurs in the auditory canal...
  48. Hsu C, Abraham S, Campanelli A, Saurat J, Piguet V. Sign of Leser-Trélat in a heart transplant recipient. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153:861-2 pubmed
  49. Al Daraji W, al Dawoud A. Primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma arising within a seborrheic keratosis: a rare association. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005;30:137-40 pubmed
    ..Microscopic examination showed an irritated seborrheic keratosis. However, further inspection revealed a well-defined dome-shaped area in the dermis showing a number of ..
  50. de Giorgi V, Massi D, Salvini C, Mannone F, Carli P. Pigmented seborrheic keratoses of the vulva clinically mimicking a malignant melanoma: a clinical, dermoscopic-pathologic case study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005;30:17-9 pubmed
    The diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis is, in general, a clinical one, but in some cases, the differential diagnosis between pigmented seborrheic keratosis and malignant melanoma is difficult...
  51. Li Y, Chen G, Dong X, Chen H. Detection of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA in nongenital seborrhoeic keratosis. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151:1060-5 pubmed
    ..Several distinct HPV genotypes were found to coexist in four of 13 (31%) positive specimens. This study provides some evidence that EV-associated HPVs might play a part in the pathogenesis of nongenital SK. ..
  52. Braun R, Rabinovitz H, Oliviero M, Kopf A, Saurat J. Dermoscopic diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis. Clin Dermatol. 2002;20:270-2 pubmed
  53. Cross S, McDonagh A, Stephenson T, Cotton D, Underwood J. Fractal and integer-dimensional geometric analysis of pigmented skin lesions. Am J Dermatopathol. 1995;17:374-8 pubmed