Summary: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.

Top Publications

  1. Roewert Huber J, Stockfleth E, Kerl H. Pathology and pathobiology of actinic (solar) keratosis - an update. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157 Suppl 2:18-20 pubmed
    Actinic keratosis is a UV light-induced lesion and develops mostly in fair-skinned patients being susceptible to solar damage...
  2. Kanellou P, Zaravinos A, Zioga M, Stratigos A, Baritaki S, Soufla G, et al. Genomic instability, mutations and expression analysis of the tumour suppressor genes p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a) and p53 in actinic keratosis. Cancer Lett. 2008;264:145-61 pubmed publisher
    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established pre-cancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
  3. Schwarz S, Bier J, Driemel O, Reichert T, Hauke S, Hartmann A, et al. Losses of 3p14 and 9p21 as shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization are early events in tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma and already occur in simple keratosis. Cytometry A. 2008;73:305-11 pubmed publisher
    ..leukoplakia, a known precursor of OSCC, and are at present considered to indicate the transition from simple keratosis (hyperplasia) to dysplasia...
  4. Woo S, Lin D. Morsicatio mucosae oris--a chronic oral frictional keratosis, not a leukoplakia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study is to document the clinical features and histopathology of MMO and to reevaluate the prevalence of dysplasia and/or cancer when this frictional keratosis is removed from the category of leukoplakia.
  5. Larumbe A, Iglesias M, Illarramendi J, Cordoba A, Gallego M. [Acral keratoses and inverted follicular keratosis presenting Cowden disease]. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2007;98:425-9 pubmed
    ..Inverted follicular keratosis as the presenting feature of Cowden disease is rare as the disease is usually suspected by the appearance of ..
  6. Koseoglu R, Sezer E, Yuksek J. Keratosis lichenoides chronica treated with acitretin plus narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy. J Dermatol. 2008;35:172-4 pubmed publisher
  7. Alcántara González J, Boixeda P, Truchuelo Díez M, Fleta Asín B. Keratosis pilaris rubra and keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei treated with pulsed dye laser: report of 10 cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25:710-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Keratosis pilaris rubra (KPR) and keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei (KPAF) are both keratinization disorders characterized by erythema and keratotic follicular papules usually located on cheeks, forehead, chin and eyebrows...
  8. Carvalho C, Carvalho A, Kiss A, Paskulin G, Götze F. Keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes in a woman with monosomy of the short arm of chromosome 18. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:S42-5 pubmed
    ..We describe a patient with the 18p- syndrome and widespread severe keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes. This is the fourth case in which such an association has been reported...
  9. Nindl I, Gottschling M, Krawtchenko N, Lehmann M, Röwert Huber J, Eberle J, et al. Low prevalence of p53, p16(INK4a) and Ha-ras tumour-specific mutations in low-graded actinic keratosis. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156 Suppl 3:34-9 pubmed
    ..rates of p53, p16(INK4a) and Ha-ras in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the earlier stage actinic keratosis (AK) have been reported...

More Information


  1. Nazarenko S, Ostroverkhova N, Vasiljeva E, Nazarenko L, Puzyrev V, Malet P, et al. Keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes associated with an 18p deletion caused by a Y/18 translocation. Am J Med Genet. 1999;85:179-82 pubmed
    ..monosomy of the short arm of chromosome 18 caused by de novo translocation t(Y;18) and a generalized form of keratosis pilaris (keratosis pilaris affecting the skin follicles of the trunk, limbs and face-ulerythema ophryogenes)...
  2. Demirci E, Boyvat A, Arica I, Kocyigit P, Ozdemir E, Heper A. Keratosis lichenoides chronica: marked response to PUVA in combination with acitretin. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85:552-3 pubmed
  3. Colden D, Zeitels S, Hillman R, Jarboe J, Bunting G, Spanou K. Stroboscopic assessment of vocal fold keratosis and glottic cancer. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:293-8 pubmed
    ..the findings herein, reduced amplitude of vocal fold vibration and/or mucosal wave propagation associated with keratosis did not reliably predict the presence of cancer or the depth of cancer invasion into the laminae propriae...
  4. Lee C, Chen J, Sun Y, Liao W, Zheng Y, Chai C, et al. Defective beta1-integrins expression in arsenical keratosis and arsenic-treated cultured human keratinocytes. J Cutan Pathol. 2006;33:129-38 pubmed
    ..Many cutaneous diseases with perturbed differentiation, including arsenical keratosis, show altered patterns of integrin distribution and expression...
  5. Ruiz Maldonado R, Duran McKinster C, Orozco Covarrubias L, Saez de Ocariz M, Palacios Lopez C. Keratosis lichenoides chronica in pediatric patients: a different disease?. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:S1-5 pubmed
    b>Keratosis lichenoides chronica (KLC) is a rare acquired disease of adulthood, of unknown etiology, characterized by keratotic parallel linear lesions, retiform plaques, and keratotic, often follicular papules, chronicity and lichenoid ..
  6. Bataille V, Sasieni P, Grulich A, Swerdlow A, McCarthy W, Hersey P, et al. Solar keratoses: a risk factor for melanoma but negative association with melanocytic naevi. Int J Cancer. 1998;78:8-12 pubmed
    ..The fact that these 2 phenotypes were found to be negatively associated suggests that susceptibility to melanoma may be expressed via 2 distinct cutaneous phenotypes which may be genetically determined. ..
  7. Bayer Garner I, Ivan D, Schwartz M, Tschen J. The immunopathology of regression in benign lichenoid keratosis, keratoacanthoma and halo nevus. Clin Med Res. 2004;2:89-97 pubmed
    ..Twenty-seven specimens, nine each of halo nevus, keratoacanthoma, and benign lichenoid keratosis, including three examples each of predominantly early, mid, and late regression were examined with antibodies to ..
  8. Haque R, Mazumder D, Samanta S, Ghosh N, Kalman D, Smith M, et al. Arsenic in drinking water and skin lesions: dose-response data from West Bengal, India. Epidemiology. 2003;14:174-82 pubmed
    ..Confirmation of case diagnosis and intensive longitudinal exposure assessment provide the basis for a detailed dose-response evaluation of arsenic-caused skin lesions. ..
  9. Chien A, Valentine M, Sybert V. Hereditary woolly hair and keratosis pilaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:S35-9 pubmed
    ..Woolly hair elicits a broad differential diagnosis, including woolly hair nevus and several genodermatoses. Our report reviews the evaluation of woolly hair and discusses the conditions associated with this physical finding. ..
  10. Khandpur S, Sharma V. Successful treatment of multiple premalignant and malignant lesions in arsenical keratosis with a combination of acitretin and intralesional 5-fluorouracil. J Dermatol. 2003;30:730-4 pubmed
    A case of arsenical keratosis with multiple lesions of Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma is described. The patient was successfully treated with a combination of acitretin and intralesional 5-fluorouracil...
  11. Kennedy C, Bajdik C, Willemze R, de Gruijl F, Bouwes Bavinck J. The influence of painful sunburns and lifetime sun exposure on the risk of actinic keratoses, seborrheic warts, melanocytic nevi, atypical nevi, and skin cancer. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:1087-93 pubmed
    ..Neither painful sunburns nor lifetime sun exposure were associated with an increased risk of seborrheic warts. ..
  12. Bachmann F, Buechner S, Wernli M, Strebel S, Erb P. Ultraviolet light downregulates CD95 ligand and TRAIL receptor expression facilitating actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma formation. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117:59-66 pubmed
    ..This concept is supported by the fact that the expression of these molecules is also low or absent in actinic keratosis, a precancerous state that has developed as the consequence of long-term ultraviolet exposure...
  13. De Chaudhuri S, Mahata J, Das J, Mukherjee A, Ghosh P, Sau T, et al. Association of specific p53 polymorphisms with keratosis in individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India. Mutat Res. 2006;601:102-12 pubmed
    ..Arsenic induced keratosis is considered as a possible precancerous state of in situ carcinoma...
  14. Persaud R, Hajioff D, Thevasagayam M, Wareing M, Wright A. Keratosis obturans and external ear canal cholesteatoma: how and why we should distinguish between these conditions. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 2004;29:577-81 pubmed
    b>Keratosis obturans and external ear canal cholesteatomas have been considered as separate entities for the last 20 years, after being regarded as variations of the same disease for at least 87 years...
  15. Carless M, Lea R, Curran J, Appleyard B, Gaffney P, Green A, et al. The GSTM1 null genotype confers an increased risk for solar keratosis development in an Australian Caucasian population. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:1373-8 pubmed
  16. Yerebakan O, Ermis O, Yilmaz E, Basaran E. Treatment of arsenical keratosis and Bowen's disease with acitretin. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:84-7 pubmed
    Long-term exposure to arsenic is associated with the development of arsenical keratosis, Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma...
  17. Risaliti L, Piazzini V, Di Marzo M, Brunetti L, Cecchi R, Lencioni P, et al. Topical formulations of delta-aminolevulinic acid for the treatment of actinic keratosis: Characterization and efficacy evaluation. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2018;115:345-351 pubmed publisher
    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-cancerous disease, with worldwide increasing incidence, which consists in squamous cutaneous lesion caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation...
  18. Luo D, Callari R, Hamberger B, Wubshet S, Nielsen M, Andersen Ranberg J, et al. Oxidation and cyclization of casbene in the biosynthesis of Euphorbia factors from mature seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E5082-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They are the current industrial source of ingenol mebutate, which is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin condition...
  19. Kim D, Ko H, Jun Y. Nonsyndromic Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas. Arch Craniofac Surg. 2017;18:191-196 pubmed publisher
    ..nonsyndromic BCCs, and one of these cases is a unique case of parotid invasion associated purely with actinic keratosis. In Case 1, a 79-year-old female presented with multiple skin lesions on the face and left hand...
  20. Raptoulis G, Spencer R, Einstein B, Oliviero M, Braun R, Rabinovitz H. Lichen planus-like keratosis of the face: a simulator of melanoma in situ. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:854-6 pubmed
  21. Koehler M, Kellner K, Kaatz M, Hipler U. Epidermal changes during UVB phototherapy assessed by multiphoton laser tomography. Skin Res Technol. 2016;22:437-442 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, an adaptive skin reaction with significant changes of keratosis and pigmentation was observed...
  22. Steglich R, Tonoli R, Pinto G, Müller F, Guarenti I, Duvelius E. Graham-Little Piccardi Lassueur syndrome: case report. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:775-7 pubmed
    ..Management is a challenge and many medications tried have controversial results. We report a case of this rare syndrome which improved with corticoids. ..
  23. Hermanns J, Pierard G, Quatresooz P. Erlotinib-responsive actinic keratoses. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:581-4 pubmed
    ..Inflammation appeared to spontaneously decrease while on erlotinib treatment. This reaction in the skin neoplasm is perhaps a visible and accessible model for predicting the effect in the deep-seated neoplasm targeted by the drug. ..
  24. Wang W, Wang C, Xu S, Chen C, Tong X, Liang Y, et al. Detection of HPV-2 and identification of novel mutations by whole genome sequencing from biopsies of two patients with multiple cutaneous horns. J Clin Virol. 2007;39:34-42 pubmed
  25. Serarslan G, Balci D, Homan S. Acitretin treatment in acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf. J Dermatolog Treat. 2007;18:123-5 pubmed
    ..The disease is an autosomal disorder, but sporadic cases also occur. We present a 38-year-old woman diagnosed with acrokeratosis verruciformis without family history and treated successfully with acitretin. ..
  26. Chen Y, Rill J, Seiverling E. Analysis of dermoscopy teaching modalities in United States dermatology residency programs. Dermatol Pract Concept. 2017;7:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..nevi from melanoma using dermoscopy, the detection of basal cell carcinoma, and the identification of seborrheic keratosis. However, few residents receive dedicated training on the use of dermoscopy in the evaluation of inflammatory ..
  27. Moreno Ramirez D, Raya Maldonado J, Morales Conde M, Ojeda Vila T, Martín Gutiérrez F, Ruiz de Casas A, et al. Increasing Frequency of Seborrheic Keratosis Diagnoses as a Favorable Consequence of Teledermatology-Based Skin Cancer Screening: A Cross-sectional Study of 34,553 Patients. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017;18:681-685 pubmed publisher
    ..4). TD-based screening of skin cancer is associated with an increasing rate of consultations involving seborrheic keratoses, which can be considered a consequence of improved access to dermatologists resulting from TD implementation. ..
  28. Downs N, Parisi A. Measurements of the anatomical distribution of erythemal ultraviolet: a study comparing exposure distribution to the site incidence of solar keratoses, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2009;8:1195-201 pubmed publisher
  29. Kurzydlo A, Hannaford R. Dystrophic calcification following neonatal heel-prick testing. Australas J Dermatol. 2010;51:206-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple heel-prick tests carried out during the neonatal period to monitor blood glucose levels are the likely causative mechanism. ..
  30. Bilenchi R, Poggiali S, De Paola M, Batsikosta N, Fimiani M. Keratotic horn on left fifth fingertip: congenital ectopic nail misdiagnosed as a common wart. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30:267-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Present since the age of 1?month, it was misdiagnosed as a common wart and treated using liquid nitrogen cryotherapy without benefit. ..
  31. Luo X, Ruhland M, Pazolli E, Lind A, Stewart S. Osteopontin stimulates preneoplastic cellular proliferation through activation of the MAPK pathway. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:1018-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of fibroblasts within premalignant and malignant skin lesions ranging from solar/actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma revealed they express osteopontin...
  32. Silverberg N. A pilot trial of dermoscopy as a rapid assessment tool in pediatric dermatoses. Cutis. 2011;87:148-54 pubmed
    ..patients (age range, 1-14 years) with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis (AD), ichthyosis vulgaris (IV), and/or keratosis pilaris (KP) participated in a 4-week clinical trial...
  33. Almeida E, Caraça R, Adam R, Souza E, Metze K, Cintra M. Photodamage in feline skin: clinical and histomorphometric analysis. Vet Pathol. 2008;45:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated a high level of skin hypersensitivity to sun rays in cats. The findings may be useful for clinical testing and in general veterinary pathology and dermatology. ..
  34. Lombardo P. Keratoderma blennorrhagicum-like rash. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:974; author reply 974 pubmed publisher
  35. Rossi R, Mori M, Lotti T. Actinic keratosis. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:895-904 pubmed
  36. Elnaggar A, Santoso J, Xie H. Keratosis reduces sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;124:292-5 pubmed publisher
    ..4%; 0.039-0.199). This cohort was noted to have extensive keratosis covering the entire dysplastic anal lesion. 18 patients yielded abnormal anal cytology...
  37. Figueras Nart I, Cerio R, Dirschka T, Dreno B, Lear J, Pellacani G, et al. Defining the actinic keratosis field: a literature review and discussion. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Despite the chronic and increasingly prevalent nature of actinic keratosis (AK) and existing evidence supporting assessment of the entire cancerization field during clinical management, a standardized definition of the AK field to aid in ..
  38. Donaldson M, Camp T, Wells M. JAAD Grand Rounds quiz. Linear and whorled hyperkeratosis in a newborn. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61:542-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Because it is often necessary to provide information occurring later in a series that gives away answers to earlier questions, please answer the questions in each series in sequence...
  39. Yanik M, Erfan G, Albayrak H, Tasolar K, Albayrak S, Gelincik I, et al. Acitretin-induced spiny follicular hyperkeratosis. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2016;35:165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously suspected drugs are BRAF inhibitors and cyclosporine. We described a 51-year-old psoriasis patient with SFH who had been using acitretin. ..
  40. Sterneberg Vos H, van Marion A, Frank J, Poblete Gutierrez P. Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel's disease) - successful treatment with topical corticosteroids. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47 Suppl 1:38-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment is difficult and rarely fully effective. We report on a woman with Flegel's disease who responded to a topical corticosteroid therapy with betamethasone dipropionate. ..
  41. de Almeida C, de Jesus S, Poswar F, Gomes E, Fraga C, Farias L, et al. Increasing demonstration of angiogenic markers in skin neoplastic lesions. Pathol Res Pract. 2016;212:101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry of CD31, HIF1A, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 was performed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC), actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCCS)...
  42. Sisti A, Fallaha A, Tassinari J, Nisi G, Grimaldi L, Eisendle K. Melanoma in situ mimicking a Lichen planus-like keratosis. Acta Biomed. 2018;88:496-498 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of amelonatic MIS raised on non-sun-exposed skin, inducing a lichen planus-like keratosis as inflammatory reaction, which clinically masked the melanoma.
  43. ELWELL R. The management and treatment of hyperkeratosis. Br J Nurs. 2017;26:468-470 pubmed publisher
    ..Rebecca Elwell, Macmillan Lymphoedema Advanced Nurse Practitioner, Royal Stoke University Hospital, discusses recommendations on management of this skin problem, which may co-occur with chronic oedema. ..
  44. Zabielinski M, Leithauser L, Godsey T, Gloster H. Laboratory errors leading to nonmelanoma skin cancer recurrence after Mohs micrographic surgery. Dermatol Surg. 2015;41:913-6 pubmed publisher prior slides (27%), visible remaining tumor (23%), missing epidermal or dermal tissue (23%), and actinic keratosis (4%). One recurrence was possibly explained by incorrect mapping...
  45. Sutphin D, Sargent L. Cornu cutaneum in a patient of African descent: implications and management of an uncommon lesion. Ann Plast Surg. 2012;68:481-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a female patient of African descent with a GCH of the scalp, which represents the first such case to our knowledge outside Africa. The etiology and management of GCH in all races are reviewed. ..
  46. Karadağ Köse O, Güleç A. Clinical evaluation of alopecias using a handheld dermatoscope. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation of all primary cicatricial alopecias in the same cluster. We suggest that a polarized-light handheld dermatoscope attached to a digital camera provides a practical and useful aid for the clinical diagnosis of alopecias. ..
  47. Cribier B, Fabre F, Merlio C, Antoni Bach N. [Acral circumscribed hypokeratosis of plantar and dorsum of the finger localization: two cases]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2009;136:32-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5cm erythematous lesion localised on the border of his left foot. The biopsy, then misinterepreted as keratosis sulcata, was reviewed...
  48. Fernandez Flores A, Manjon J. Histopathology of keratotic papules of the limbs in frontal fibrosing alopecia. J Cutan Pathol. 2016;43:468-71 pubmed publisher
  49. Javor S, Cozzani E, Parodi A. Topical treatment of actinic keratosis with 3.0% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel: review of the literature about the cumulative evidence of its efficacy and safety. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2016;151:275-80 pubmed
    ..5% hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). It has been shown to be a safe and effective for treatment of AK on both skin and mucosal lip...
  50. Kaufmann R, Spelman L, Weightman W, Reifenberger J, Szeimies R, Verhaeghe E, et al. Multicentre intraindividual randomized trial of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy vs. cryotherapy for multiple actinic keratoses on the extremities. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:994-9 pubmed publisher
    Methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is an effective treatment in facial/scalp actinic keratosis (AK). The aims of this study were to compare efficacy, safety, cosmetic outcome and patient preference of MAL-PDT vs...
  51. Wiegell S, Skiveren J, Philipsen P, Wulf H. Pain during photodynamic therapy is associated with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and fluence rate. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:727-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Pain during PDT was correlated with the PpIX fluorescence in the treatment area prior to illumination. Pain was reduced using a lower fluence rate during PDT of acne. ..
  52. Langan E, Jamieson L, Judge M. Lifelong scaling and blistering in a family. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:653-4 pubmed
    ..The heterogeneous clinical presentation may lead to misdiagnosis, even in the presence of a strong family history. Genetic testing and counselling may help in diagnosis and treatment. ..
  53. Scheinfeld N. Actinic keratoses. Skinmed. 2007;6:188-90 pubmed