virilism

Summary

Summary: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.

Top Publications

  1. Yildiz B. Diagnosis of hyperandrogenism: clinical criteria. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;20:167-76 pubmed
    ..A thorough history and a focused clinical examination are extremely helpful in diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected hyperandrogenism...
  2. Elhadd T, Connolly V, Cruickshank D, Kelly W. An ovarian lipid cell tumour causing virilization and Cushing's syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1996;44:723-5 pubmed
    ..However, the neoplastic nature of the ovarian tumour was demonstrated 12 months later when peritoneal metastases were detected and there was then clinical and biochemical relapse...
  3. Blaauwgeers J, de Blok S. Virilisation. Neth J Med. 2002;60:428, 448 pubmed
  4. Wollina U, Pabst F, Schönlebe J, Abdel Naser M, Konrad H, Gruner M, et al. Side-effects of topical androgenic and anabolic substances and steroids. A short review. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2007;16:117-22 pubmed
  5. DeFreitas E, Dudzinski M, LaRocque J, Coddington C. Ovarian vein sampling in rapidly progressing virilization. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1991;36:546-8 pubmed
    ..Ovarian vein sampling for androgen was essential in locating this patient's microscopic tumor...
  6. Siekierska Hellmann M, Sworczak K, Babinska A, Wojtylak S. Ovarian thecoma with androgenic manifestations in a postmenopausal woman. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22:405-8 pubmed
    ..Postoperatively the testosterone level returned to normal and the patient had regression of virilism. Our case illustrates that a virilizing ovarian tumor can be small and elude imaging studies, but may be detected ..
  7. Krone N, Dhir V, Ivison H, Arlt W. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;66:162-72 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the biochemical and clinical presentation and the genetic and functional basis of the currently known CAH variants, with a specific focus on ORD...
  8. Loh K, Lo J, Zaloudek C, Fitzgerald P. Occult virilizing ovarian tumours in postmenopausal women: problems in evaluation with reference to a case. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1998;27:712-6 pubmed
    ..This approach avoids unnecessary investigations and delays in definitive management...
  9. Bonfig W, Bittmann I, Bechtold S, Kammer B, Noelle V, Arleth S, et al. Virilising adrenocortical tumours in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2003;162:623-8 pubmed
    ..Histology scores adapted from adrenal tumours in adults and molecular markers are under investigation, but there is still not enough clinical experience since ACT are so rare...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Shackleton C, Marcos J, Arlt W, Hauffa B. Prenatal diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (ORD): a disorder causing low pregnancy estriol, maternal and fetal virilization, and the Antley-Bixler syndrome phenotype. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;129A:105-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that excessive excretion of epiallopregnanediol together with low estriol may be prenatally diagnostic for OR deficiency (ORD)...
  2. Abbott D, Barnett D, Levine J, Padmanabhan V, Dumesic D, Jacoris S, et al. Endocrine antecedents of polycystic ovary syndrome in fetal and infant prenatally androgenized female rhesus monkeys. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in this nonhuman primate model, differential programming of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary unit with concomitant hyperandrogenism provides evidence to suggest developmental origins of LH and androgen excess in adulthood...
  3. Idkowiak J, Malunowicz E, Dhir V, Reisch N, Szarras Czapnik M, Holmes D, et al. Concomitant mutations in the P450 oxidoreductase and androgen receptor genes presenting with 46,XY disordered sex development and androgenization at adrenarche. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:3418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..g. due to mutations in 17alpha-hydroxylase (CYP17A1). Like all other microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP17A1 requires electron transfer from P450 oxidoreductase (POR)...
  4. Mahesh V. Hirsutism, virilism, polycystic ovarian disease, and the steroid-gonadotropin-feedback system: a career retrospective. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E4-E18 pubmed publisher
    ..describes how the initial work on the mechanism of hormone action provided the tools for the study of hirsutism, virilism, and polycystic ovarian disease...
  5. Santomé Collazo J, Cirujano Segura A, Ferreiro Fernández B, Casado Fúnez C, Muñoz Pacheco R, Ezquieta Zubicaray B. [Simple virilizing forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia: adaptation and prospective validation of the molecular screening]. Med Clin (Barc). 2010;135:195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim is to explore underlying prevalent mutations among our partially characterised SV forms and to evaluate their potential impact in the mutation screening...
  6. Dahl S, Thomas M, Williams D, Robins J. Maternal virilization due to luteoma associated with delayed lactation. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2006.e17-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To report on a patient with virilization during pregnancy who experienced delayed lactation secondary to elevated maternal androgens...
  7. Jiang L, Song L, Wang H, Wang J, Wang P, Zhou H, et al. Identification and functional characterization of a novel mutation P459H and a rare mutation R483W in the CYP21A2 gene in two Chinese patients with simple virilizing form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Endocrinol Invest. 2012;35:485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinically, 21-OHD is categorized into saltwasting, simple-virilizing (SV), and non-classical (NC) forms. It is well recognized that a good correlation exists between genotype and clinical phenotype of CAH...
  8. Hotchkiss A, Furr J, Makynen E, Ankley G, Gray L. In utero exposure to the environmental androgen trenbolone masculinizes female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol Lett. 2007;174:31-41 pubmed
    ..5mg/day, 1.0mg/day, or 2.0mg/day groups. These changes were associated with amniotic fluid concentrations of TB that compare favorably with concentrations known to be active in both in vitro systems and in fish...
  9. Boussaïd K, Meduri G, Maiza J, Gennero I, Escourrou G, Bros A, et al. Virilizing sclerosing-stromal tumor of the ovary in a young woman with McCune Albright syndrome: clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E314-20 pubmed publisher
  10. Buckley J, Willingham E, Agras K, Baskin L. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice. Environ Health. 2006;5:4 pubmed
    ..In the current work, we selected a relatively low dose of vinclozolin to examine its in utero effects on the development of the genital tubercle, both at the morphological and molecular levels...
  11. Homoki J, Solyom J, Wachter U, Teller W. Urinary excretion of 17-hydroxypregnanolones in patients with different forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Eur J Pediatr. 1992;151:24-8 pubmed
    ..The ratio of 17OH-PO(5 alpha) to tetrahydrocortisone (THE) discriminated between CAH-SV and CAH-LO from the 1st to the 18th year of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  12. Moretti C, Toscano V. Dynamic evaluation of ovarian reserve and abnormal androgen excess in women. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003;26:114-23 pubmed
    ..Dynamic tests may be useful for determining the amount of androgens rising from each of these sites helping the therapeutic strategies...
  13. Nerré A, Bétrémieux P, Nivot Adamiak S. Case Report of Clitoral Hypertrophy in 2 Extremely Premature Girls With an Ovarian Cyst. Pediatrics. 2017;140: pubmed publisher
    ..Drug therapy abstention and clinical and ultrasound monitoring are recommended because spontaneous regression of clitoral hypertrophy seems to be the most common outcome in the literature, as it was in our 2 observations. ..
  14. Fukushima A, Okada Y, Tanikawa T, Kawahara C, Misawa H, Kanda K, et al. Virilizing adrenocortical adenoma with Cushing's syndrome, thyroid papillary carcinoma and hypergastrinemia in a middle-aged woman. Endocr J. 2003;50:179-87 pubmed
    ..The patient was also found to have a papillary thyroid carcinoma and hypergastrinemia. Our patient is a rare case of virilizing adrenocortical adenoma associated with Cushing's syndrome, thyroid papillary carcinoma, and hypergastrinemia...
  15. Barnes R, Rosenfield R, Ehrmann D, Cara J, Cuttler L, Levitsky L, et al. Ovarian hyperandrogynism as a result of congenital adrenal virilizing disorders: evidence for perinatal masculinization of neuroendocrine function in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994;79:1328-33 pubmed
    ..This is postulated to frequently cause ovarian hyperandrogenism even when adrenal androgen excess is subsequently controlled by glucocorticoid therapy...
  16. Allison K, Mann G, Norwood T, Rubin B. An unusual case of multiple giant myelolipomas: clinical and pathogenetic implications. Endocr Pathol. 2003;14:93-100 pubmed
    ..We report a case of three giant adrenal myelolipomas arising in a persistently virilized female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, supporting a role for hormonal stimuli in myelolipoma formation...
  17. Rode I, Boehm T. Regenerative capacity of adult cortical thymic epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide the basis for the development of targeted interventions unlocking the latent regenerative potential of cTECs to counter thymic involution...
  18. Kathiresan A, Carr B, Attia G. Virilization from partner's use of topical androgen in a reproductive-aged woman. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:e3-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Eventually, the patient revealed she was exposed to transdermal testosterone used by her partner. This case highlights the importance of considering exogenous androgens in the differential diagnosis of virilization...
  19. Thomas R, Carr B, Ziadie M, Wilson E. Bilateral mucinous cystadenomas and massive edema of the ovaries in a virilized adolescent girl. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120:473-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovarian pathology, including nonfunctional tumors and massive edema of the ovary, has been associated with stromal luteinization and clinical endocrinopathies...
  20. McCullough L, Chervenak F, Brent R, Hippen B. A case study in unethical transgressive bioethics: "Letter of concern from bioethicists" about the prenatal administration of dexamethasone. Am J Bioeth. 2010;10:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The Letter of Concern is a case study in unethical transgressive bioethics. We call on fetaldex.org to withdraw the letter and for co-signatories to withdraw their approval of it...
  21. Lara Torre E, Kives S. Isolated clitoral hypertrophy. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2003;16:143-5 pubmed
  22. Van Staa T, Sprafka J. Study of adverse outcomes in women using testosterone therapy. Maturitas. 2009;62:76-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Objective of this study was to explore the safety of testosterone therapy in actual clinical practice...
  23. Rossbach H, Baschinsky D, Wynn T, Obzut D, Sutcliffe M, Tebbi C. Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50:681-3 pubmed
    ..A unique correlation between a single TP53 mutation (R337H) and ACT has been reported in southern Brazilian children. It remains unclear at this time whether a similar association of NB and R248W in patients with LFS exists...
  24. Sone K, Hinago M, Itamoto M, Katsu Y, Watanabe H, Urushitani H, et al. Effects of an androgenic growth promoter 17beta-trenbolone on masculinization of Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis affinis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005;143:151-60 pubmed
    ..TB also induced differentiation of the anal fin into a gonopodium in fry of both sexes, stimulated precocious spermatogenesis in the testes of males and the formation of ovotestes in females...
  25. Varness T, Allen D, Hoffman G. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia has reduced sensitivity in girls. J Pediatr. 2005;147:493-8 pubmed
  26. Woelfle J, Hoepffner W, Sippell W, Bramswig J, Heidemann P, Deiss D, et al. Complete virilization in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: clinical course, medical management and disease-related complications. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002;56:231-8 pubmed
  27. Oz M, Ozgu E, Türker M, Erkaya S, Gungor T. Steroid cell tumor of the ovary in a pregnant woman whose androgenic symptoms were masked by pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014;290:131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovarian steroid cell tumors are very rare sex cord-stromal tumors, and most of them are unilateral and almost one-third of the cases are malignant...
  28. Ahmed A. Adrenocortical neoplasms in young children: age as a prognostic factor. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2009;39:277-82 pubmed
    ..Because of the discrepancy between pathology and clinical outcome, adrenocortical tumors in this age group should be classified as neoplasms of unknown malignant potential...
  29. Auchus R, Chang A. 46,XX DSD: the masculinised female. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;24:219-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses these diseases, their pathogenesis and approaches to therapy. We emphasise areas where improved treatments are sorely needed...
  30. Bejerot S, Eriksson J, Bonde S, Carlstrom K, Humble M, Eriksson E. The extreme male brain revisited: gender coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;201:116-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that ASD, rather than being characterised by masculinisation in both genders, may constitute a gender defiant disorder. ..
  31. Riedl S, Nguyen H, Clausmeyer S, Schulze E, Waldhauser F, Bernhardt R. A homozygous L299P mutation in the CYP11B1 gene leads to complete virilization in 46,XX individuals with 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency. Horm Res. 2008;70:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a novel L299P mutation has been described in a compound heterozygous male individual. We observed two 46,XX siblings with a homozygous L299P mutation and investigated the functional properties of this CYP11B1 variant...
  32. Kucinskas L, Just W. Human male sex determination and sexual differentiation: pathways, molecular interactions and genetic disorders. Medicina (Kaunas). 2005;41:633-40 pubmed
    ..This review describes the mechanisms, which lead to differentiation of male sex and ways by which the determination and differentiation may be interrupted by naturally occurring mutations, causing different syndromes and diseases...
  33. Homoki J, Solyom J, Teller W. Detection of late onset steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency by capillary gas chromatographic profiling of urinary steroids in children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 1988;147:257-62 pubmed
    ..The calculation of ratios, rather than absolute amounts seems to allow the detection of LO-CAH in a single spontaneously voided urine specimen. The clinical and measurable hormonal manifestations of LO-CAH occur at the same time...
  34. Holloway C, Clayton D. Estrogen synthesis in the male brain triggers development of the avian song control pathway in vitro. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:170-5 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a new mode of sex-specific neural development, induced not by differential exposure to gonadal steroids, but rather by differential synthesis of steroids in the brain...
  35. Borruel S, Fernández Durán E, Alpañés M, Marti D, Alvarez Blasco F, Luque Ramírez M, et al. Global adiposity and thickness of intraperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue depots are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Sexual dimorphism suggests a role for androgens in body fat distribution. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a mainly androgen excess disorder, often present with abdominal obesity and visceral adiposity...
  36. Huang G, Liu Y, Chen X, Liang Y, Liu S, Yang Y, et al. Feminization and masculinization of western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) observed in rivers impacted by municipal wastewaters. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20884 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from this study indicate that the estrogens and androgens present in the two rivers could cause the observed estrogenic and androgenic effects in mosquitofish. ..
  37. Marcondes J, Martins T, Amaral A, Nery M. [Falsely elevated testosterone in a type 1 diabetes patients with acne and chronic renal failure on dialysis]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2012;56:319-23 pubmed
  38. McGee J, Fleming N, Senterman M, Black A. Virilizing luteinized thecoma of the ovary in a 15-year-old female: a case report. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22:e107-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the youngest nonmalignant luteinized thecoma reported to date...
  39. Zhang H, Yang J, Zhang M, Zhang W, Liu J, Wang W, et al. Variations in the promoter of CYP21A2 gene identified in a Chinese patient with simple virilizing form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70:201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aims to verify that the variations in the promoter of CYP21A2 relate to the classical form of 21OHD...
  40. Garduño López A, Mondragón Sánchez R, Herrera Goepfert R, Bernal Maldonado R. Resection of liver metastases from a virilizing steroid (lipoid) cell ovarian tumor. Hepatogastroenterology. 2002;49:657-9 pubmed
    ..5 ng/mL. A right trisegmentectomy was performed. Her recovery was uneventful, hormone levels returned to normal, and she has been asymptomatic after a follow-up of 6 months...
  41. Ramirez M, Zubeldia Brenner L, Wargon V, Ornstein A, Becu Villalobos D. Expression and methylation status of female-predominant GH-dependent liver genes are modified by neonatal androgenization in female mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;382:825-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, early steroid treatment or eventually endocrine disruptor exposure may alter methylation status and sexual dimorphic expression of liver genes, and consequently modify liver physiology in females. ..
  42. Martínez García M, Montes Nieto R, Fernández Durán E, Insenser M, Luque Ramírez M, Escobar Morreale H. Evidence for masculinization of adipokine gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E388-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Sex hormones, particularly androgens, may influence not only adipose tissue distribution but also its functions...
  43. Poduval A, Antal Z, Lee T, Bar A, Dalmau J, Muzumdar R. Immune-mediated encephalitis and virilization in association with a mature cystic ovarian teratoma in an adolescent girl. Horm Res. 2009;72:252-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These tumors are mostly benign and non-secreting. Virilization from an ovarian teratoma is exceptionally rare in pediatrics. Equally rare is the association of ovarian teratomas with auto-immune encephalitis...
  44. Sayegh R, DeLellis R, Alroy J, Lechan R, Ball H. Masculinizing granulosa cell tumor of the ovary in a postmenopausal woman. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1999;44:821-5 pubmed
    ..A total of 32 cases of virilizing granulosa cell tumors of the ovary have been reported. The current case has some unique features not previously reported...
  45. de Lima G, de Cerqueira J, da Silveira R, de Moura Reis P, Rocha M, Regadas R, et al. Laparoscopic surgery in 46,XX disorder of sex development: hysterosalpingectomy with gonadectomy. J Endourol. 2010;24:27-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the outcomes of one of the largest series specifically of laparoscopic hysterosalpingectomy with bilateral gonadectomy in 46,XX patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia raised as a male...
  46. Ko J, Lee H, Hong J, Hwang J. Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma in a child with Turner syndrome and somatic TP53 gene mutation. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:501-4 pubmed publisher
    ..She underwent complete resection of the mass, and pathology was consistent with adrenocortical carcinoma. She was tested for TP53 gene mutation, and we found a de novo TP53 gene mutation (Val143Ala) as well as a 45,X karyotype...
  47. Goodarzi M, Dawson D, Li X, Lei Z, Shintaku P, Rao C, et al. Virilization in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia controlled by luteinizing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:73-7 pubmed
    ..In our patient, the control of androgen secretion by LH may explain the postmenopausal onset of virilization and the transient postoperative normalization of the serum testosterone level...
  48. Mahamed R, Maganhin C, Simoes R, de Jesus Simões M, Baracat E, Soares J. Effects of metformin on the reproductive system of androgenized female rats. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1507-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Metformin improved the glucose rate and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and caused partial reversion of ovaries and uterine morphology in female rats androgenized with testosterone...
  49. Pal D, Kundu A, Chakrabortty S, Das S. Virilising adrenocortical carcinoma. J Indian Med Assoc. 2002;100:251-2 pubmed
    ..Histopathology of the resected mass showed sheets of large round to polyhedral cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with numerous giant cells. The case was diagnosed as virilising adrenocortical carcinoma...
  50. Mohanty A, Trujillo Y. Virilization and left adnexal mass in a 35-year-old woman. Steroid cell tumor of ovary. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:113-4 pubmed
  51. Love D, Bloomfield J, Kenwrick S, Yates J, Davies K. Physical mapping distal to the DMD locus. Genomics. 1990;8:106-12 pubmed
    ..This region of the human genome contains few genes whose deletion results in a clinical phenotype. JC-1 is a useful probe from which to initiate strategies directed at cloning the AHC and GK loci...
  52. Mangold R, Heilmann V, Rossmanith W. [Iatrogenic androgenization]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1998;120:515-7 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates that besides adrenal or ovarian sources of hyperandrogenism, iatrogenic androgenization has to be considered...
  53. Cserepes E, Szucs N, Patkos P, Csapo Z, Molnar F, Toth M, et al. Ovarian steroid cell tumor and a contralateral ovarian thecoma in a postmenopausal woman with severe hyperandrogenism. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2002;16:213-6 pubmed